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BY:  MICHAEL  C.  CLARK 


Coexisting  on  Earth  Homo  sapiens  Quagmire 

by:  Michael  C.  Clark 


©2018  Michael  C.  Clark 


All  rights  reserved.  No  part  of  this  publication  may  be  reproduced,  distributed,  stored  in  a  retrieval  system,  or 
transmitted  in  any  form  or  by  any  means  whatsoever,  including  photocopying,  recording,  or  other  electronic  or 
mechanical  methods  without  the  prior  written  permission  of  the  author,  except  in  the  case  of  brief  quotations 
embodied  in  critical  reviews,  references  in  other  literary  works,  and  certain  other  noncommercial  educational 
uses  permitted  by  copyright  law  through  fair  use. 

Published  in  the  United  States  of  America 

First  Edition 

98765432 1 

ALoganapithecus  Production 
www.  coexistingonearth.  com 


This  Book  is  Dedicated  to: 

Maya  Rain  and  all  the  children  of  the  world,  for  it  is  the  children  that  are  the 
future,  and  this  is  what  will  truly  change  the  world  in  a  positive  way. 

and  to 


Loganapithecus,  who  was  not  my  dog,  but  a  companero  that  found  me  through  fate. 


Contents, 

INTRODUCTION 
CHAPTER  I. 

Homo  sapiens  Lost  Connection  with  Nature  and  the  Aftermath 

CHAPTER  II. 

Homo  sapiens  Excessive  Footprint 
CHAPTER  III. 

Homo  sapiens  Depredation  of  Earth 
CHAPTER  IV. 

Denial  of  Global  Warming  and  other  Environmental  Issues 
CHAPTER  V. 

Frankenstein  Science  and  Attempting  to  Play  God 

CHAPTER  VI. 

The  Conservation  of  Earth 

CHAPTER  VII. 

The  Future 

CHAPTER  VIII. 

Going  Back  to  Nature  and  Coexisting  on  Earth 


BIBLIOGRAPHY 


INTRODUCTION 


Having  explored  and  been  fascinated  with  nature  since  childhood  in  the  bayous  of  Louisiana  and  the  deserts  of 
Arizona,  1  have  always  asked  questions  like,  why  don’t  more  Homo  sapiens  see  the  beauty  and  perfection  in  the 
natural  world?  Why  are  Homo  sapiens  so  immersed  in  civilization  searching  for  something  that  is  right  in  front 
of  them  in  nature?  Why  are  Homo  sapiens  so  ruthlessly  destroying  the  Earth?  In  2010, 1  escaped  the  thralldoms 
of  society  and  set  off  with  my  companero  to  explore  the  ecosystems  of  the  western  United  States.  1  bought  a 
video  camera  and  began  filming  the  nature  1  was  encountering,  but  not  in  the  traditional  nature  documentary 
sense  of  focusing  on  sensationalism  and  death  while  only  filming  one  species.  Instead,  1  filmed  in  cinema-verite 
style  and  shot  everything,  florae,  faunae,  weather,  landscapes,  geology,  and  even  Homo  sapiens  depredations,  in 
short  everything  1  encountered.  1  did  not  bait,  wait,  or  specifically  seek  out  species,  1  simply  explored  and  filmed 
what  1  discovered  while  hiking  on  foot. 

Between  July  2010  and  November  2012,  we  explored  33  ecosystems  in  11  western  states  filming  more  than 
20,000  shots  to  ultimately  produce  70  hours  of  documentary  film.  During  those  2  years  in  the  wilds  of  nature  I 
contemplated  much  about  not  only  nature,  but  about  the  civilized  world  1  had  left  behind,  and  when  we  came  out 
of  the  wilds  of  nature  to  resupply  every  few  weeks  1  felt  even  more  disconnected  with  society  and  that  1  had  no 
real  place  in  it.  1  could  not  understand  how  or  why  all  this  nature  was  just  ignored  by  most  and  why  so  many 
were  destroying  the  planet  while  so  few  were  trying  to  preserve  and  study  it.  Eventually,  I  purchased  a  very 
remote  property  in  the  Chihuahuan  desert  of  southwest  Texas,  where  1  set  up  an  18’  x  12’  cotton  canvas  tent  with 
poles  made  from  sotol  and  lived  in  a  canyon  for  2  years  having  very  little  contact  with  the  outside  world.  It  was 
about  as  close  as  one  could  get  in  today’s  United  States  to  that  of  the  world  which  Henry  David  Thoreau,  John 
Muir,  and  other  eccentric  outcasts  of  that  era  experienced,  and  the  one  which  1  had  longed  for  all  my  life.  It  is 
remote  in  every  sense  of  the  word,  1 0  miles  north  of  the  Mexico  border,  the  nearest  neighbor  was  several  miles 
away,  the  nearest  town  was  a  45 -minute  drive  away,  the  nearest  hospital  100  miles  away,  and  the  nearest 
Walmart  250  miles  away.  There  is  no  light  pollution,  and  on  a  clear  night  one  can  see  the  Milky  Way  Galaxy 
with  the  naked  eye,  one  of  the  last  places  in  the  continental  United  States  where  this  is  still  possible. 


It  was  here  after  1 5  years  that  my  companero  lived  out  his  last  days,  and  it  was  here  that  we  finally  made  our 
home,  coexisting  in  the  wilds  of  nature  making  a  very  small  footprint  living  naturally  as  we  had  done  all  along 
while  on  expedition.  I  finally  edited  all  the  nature  footage  shot  on  expedition  combined  with  the  footage  which 
was  shot  while  exploring  the  Chihuahuan  desert  ecosystem  over  2  years  and  distributed  it  freely  online. 
www.thenatureexplorers.com  All  the  while  still  contemplating  about  civilization  and  the  continuous  depredation 
of  Earth,  and  so,  I  began  writing  what  eventually  became  the  contents  of  this  book.  It  was  not  originally  intended 
to  be  a  book,  but  more  answers  to  my  questions.  Did  I  find  any  answers?  I  like  to  think  so,  and  although  there  are 
many  answers,  my  overall  conclusion  is  that  most  Homo  Sapiens  have  lost  their  connection  with  nature. 

Reading  this  book,  one  may  think  it  negative  or  pessimistic  and  that  it  is  too  critical  of  Homo  sapiens.  Some  may 
have  not  yet  evolved  enough  intellectually,  spiritually,  or  morally  and  will  most  likely  not  agree  with  many  of  the 
points  made  in  this  book.  Others  will  undoubtedly  find  some  things  in  this  book  offensive  to  their  way  of  life  and 
will  disagree  with  some  of  the  points  made,  but  as  the  adage  goes,  you  can  have  your  own  opinion  but  not  your 
own  facts.  Scientific  facts  are  not  lies  but  the  truth.  Hippocrates  remarked, 

“There  are,  in  effect,  two  things:  to  know  and  to  believe  one  knows.  To  know  is  science.  To  believe  one  knows  is  ignorance.” 

Opinions  do  not  change  the  facts  which  are  within  this  book,  nor  do  they  alter  the  reality  which  surrounds  you 
and  the  rest  of  the  world  right  now,  the  reality  which  so  many  are  oblivious  to.  The  truth  can  sometimes  hurt, 
especially  to  the  ignorant  and  closeminded  which  do  not  see  the  reality  of  the  world,  and  thus  they  are  even  more 
so  reluctant  to  change.  I  can  only  say  this  to  those  individuals,  examine  the  information  presented  in  this  book, 
thoroughly  examine  the  references  quoted,  and  perhaps  you  too  will  come  to  similar  conclusions  and  ask  some 
of  the  same  questions  which  are  in  this  book.  You  can  show  Homo  sapiens  reality  through  education  and  access 
to  the  scientific  truth,  but  unfortunately  you  can't  make  them  believe  it,  this  they  must  do  on  their  own  with 
reason.  Thomas  Paine  wrote, 

"The  most  formidable  weapon  against  errors  of  every  kind  is  reason." 

Many  are  bom  into  a  world  of  lies  and  misconceptions,  and  if  one  wants  to  find  out  the  truth  they  must  seek  it 
out  on  their  own,  too  few  fortunate  individuals  are  exposed  to  the  truth  early  on  in  life,  if  at  all.  Everyone  surely 
knows  of  some  type  of  social  and  environmental  issues  on  Earth,  and  they  may  even  be  affected  directly,  but  I 
would  postulate  that  very  few  know  the  entire  scope  of  what  is  covered  in  this  book.  My  hope  is  that  the  reader 
will  come  away  with  a  different  perspective  on  the  issues  covered  in  this  book,  as  I  don’t  think  most  realize  the 
vastness  and  more  importantly  the  severity  of  the  issues,  much  less  the  true  history  of  civilization.  Many  of  the 
issues  which  are  discussed  in  this  book  are  unknown  to  most,  they  receive  little  to  no  news  coverage  by  most  of 
the  mainstream  news  media,  most  politicians  are  not  focused  on  solving  these  issues,  and  they  are  rarely  if  ever 
spoken  about  during  the  daily  conversations  of  most  average  citizens.  If  the  issues  remain  unknown  to  most,  and 
there  is  no  political  and  public  discourse  about  these  issues  they  will  most  likely  take  far  longer  to  solve. 

Many  of  the  issues  in  the  world  today  are  caused  from  the  majority  of  Homo  sapiens  lacking  even  a  basic  respect 
for  Earth  because  they  have  no  true  connection  with  nature,  being  imprudent  and  having  no  forethought  about 
what  their  negative  actions  will  do,  lack  of  basic  environmental  education,  too  much  focus  on  materialism  and 
greed,  corrupt  governments  which  are  heavily  influenced  by  polluting  corporations,  and  environmental  laws  not 
being  stringent  enough  or  not  being  enforced  at  all.  When  Homo  sapiens  are  not  affected  directly  by  an  issue, 
they  often  do  not  know,  and  thus  they  do  not  care  as  it  is  out  of  sight  and  out  of  mind.  Many  individuals  are  not 
scientifically  minded  and  do  very  little  scientific  reading,  which  results  in  much  of  society  being  extremely 
ignorant  about  critical  scientific  issues  affecting  the  environment  and  society  itself. 

The  CIA  World  Factbook  states, 

“The  Intelligence  Cycle  is  the  process  by  which  infonnation  is  acquired,  converted  into  intelligence,  and  made  available  to 

policymakers.  Information  is  raw  data  from  any  source,  data  that  may  be  fragmentary,  contradictory,  unreliable,  ambiguous, 

deceptive,  or  wrong.  Intelligence  is  infomiation  that  has  been  collected,  integrated,  evaluated,  analyzed,  and  interpreted. 

Finished  intelligence  is  the  final  product  of  the  Intelligence  Cycle  ready  to  be  delivered  to  the  policymaker. 


The  three  types  of  finished  intelligence  are:  basic,  current,  and  estimative.  Basic  intelligence  provides  the  fundamental  and 
factual  reference  material  on  a  country  or  issue.  Current  intelligence  reports  on  new  developments.  Estimative  intelligence 
judges  probable  outcomes.  The  three  are  mutually  supportive:  basic  intelligence  is  the  foundation  on  which  the  other  two  are 
constructed;  current  intelligence  continually  updates  the  inventory  of  knowledge;  and  estimative  intelligence  revises  overall 
interpretations  of  country  and  issue  prospects  for  guidance  of  basic  and  current  intelligence.  The  World  Factbook,  The 
President's  Daily  Brief,  and  the  National  Intelligence  Estimates  are  examples  of  the  three  types  of  finished  intelligence.” 

I  have  attempted  to  follow  this  intelligence  standard  in  writing  this  book  and  have  gathered  the  latest  data  from 
the  most  reliable  and  reputable  sources,  and  when  applicable  ensuring  the  data  is  from  scientific  sources  that 
have  directly  observed  and  analyzed  the  subject,  rather  than  an  extremist  or  alarmist  writer  which  has 
manipulated  and  exaggerated  the  data.  There  appears  to  be  widespread  exaggeration  of  statistical  data  regarding 
environmental  and  social  issues  by  some  non-profit  organizations  in  what  1  can  only  imagine  is  their  attempt  to 
gain  support  by  exasperating  the  issues,  these  sources  have  been  eliminated  entirely.  It  is  very  important  to  check 
all  the  facts  on  a  subject  before  making  any  decisions,  judgments,  or  speculations  as  there  are  many  sources 
which  glamorize  facts  in  an  attempt  to  make  them  sound  even  more  spectacular  than  they  really  are.  For 
instance,  if  someone  were  to  say  that  some  200  flora  and  fauna  species  go  extinct  every  year,  it  initially  sounds 
like  a  very  large  number,  but  if  one  were  to  compare  this  number  with  the  total  number  of  identified  and 
catalogued  flora  and  fauna  species,  which  is  1,200,000  the  200  number  seems  rather  small.  At  this  rate  in  100 
years  20,000  species  would  go  extinct  or  1.6%,  which  is  a  relatively  small  percentage  of  species.  That  is  not  to 
say  that  this  number  is  not  concerning,  nor  does  it  mean  that  nothing  should  be  done  to  correct  it,  but  it  should 
not  the  focal  point  and  it  should  be  put  into  context  with  other  data  like  the  total  number  of  species,  is  the  species 
rare  and  there  have  never  been  more  than  1 00  living  on  Earth  at  any  given  time,  and  ultimately  what  is  causing 
the  extinction. 

When  noted,  some  information  in  this  book  was  sourced  from  Wikipedia  and  has  not  yet  been  verified,  thus  the 
information  is  ambiguous  raw  data  and  there  may  be  some  inaccuracies  in  this  data,  it  is  not  finished 
intelligence.  Many  of  the  statistics  in  this  book  are  only  for  the  United  States  and  not  the  world  as  none  are 
available  in  many  instances,  and  therefore  the  actual  totals  are  most  likely  far  greater  when  contemplating  the 
issues  on  a  global  scale.  Some  of  the  issues  are  even  greater  in  3rd  world  countries,  as  they  are  so  far  behind  the 
western  world  in  conservation,  recycling,  education,  etc.  Some  facts  and  even  estimates  are  unavailable,  or  the 
data  is  extremely  old.  It  makes  one  also  wonder  why  so  much  important  data  is  limited  or  hard  to  find  in  the  age 
of  information,  why  doesn’t  the  government  publish  data,  even  if  it’s  estimative  intelligence,  on  every 
environmental  and  social  issue  for  each  year  from  the  last  100  years?  1  have  refrained  from  using  number  words 
like  trillion,  billion,  or  million  when  giving  a  statistic,  as  1  feel  number  words  such  as  these  do  not  emphasize  the 
reality  and  actual  scale  of  things.  Large  number  words  seem  to  have  become  common  place  and  are  interpreted 
as  just  meaning  allot  and  the  reality  of  the  actual  number  is  not  seen,  1 ,000,000,000,000  or  trillion,  1 3  characters 
turns  to  8,  the  word  literally  shrinks  the  size  of  the  actual  number  and  it  has  less  impact,  especially  when 
attempting  to  visualize  facts  regarding  subjects  like  population,  pollution,  death,  etc. 

1  was  told  when  1  was  a  kid,  like  so  many  others,  that  1  asked  too  many  questions  and  that  1  should  accept  some 
things  simply  for  what  they  are.  1  would  not  accept  this,  and  so  1  asked  even  more  questions  as  1  still  do  to  this 
day.  Some  questions  are  simply  unanswerable  but  are  asked  more  to  put  the  subject  matter  or  amount  of 
something  into  perspective,  (e.g.  How  much  oil  has  been  used  since  it  was  discovered  thousands  of  years  ago? 
How  much  environmental  damage  has  been  done  to  Earth  from  all  the  oil  ever  extracted?)  These  types  of 
questions  are  impossible  to  answer  accurately  or  even  estimate,  but  one  could  surmise  that  it  is  an  enormous 
amount  and  that  it  has  done  allot  of  environmental  damage.  Other  questions  are  self-explanatory  and  are  simply 
asked  to  convey  or  emphasize  a  point.  And  some  questions  are  unknowable  at  this  stage  but  should  be  asked  as 
they  will  be  relevant  in  the  future.  This  book  by  far  does  not  cover  every  issue  or  all  of  Homo  sapiens 
depredations,  there  are  simply  too  many,  not  to  mention  some  of  which  are  not  even  known  to  anyone  but  those 
committing  the  destructive  act.  I  have  attempted  to  keep  the  composition  of  facts  in  this  book  intact  by  quoting 
the  sources  in  exact  detail  in  order  to  be  as  meticulous  as  possible.  Anyone  can  reference  any  of  the  resources 
listed  in  the  bibliography  for  additional  information,  and  some  sources  can  also  be  contacted  with  further 
questions. 


About  the  cover  photo:  This  image  was  taken  on  our  last  expedition  of  Series  4,  the  ‘El  Rio  De  Las  Animas 
Perdidas  En  Purgatorio  Expedition  ’  in  Colorado  during  November  2012.  It  was  the  last  day  of  the  expedition, 
winter  was  setting  in,  and  the  mornings  were  cold.  We  had  just  arisen  from  our  chilly  slumber  when  a  vehicle 
arrived  near  our  camp,  and  two  males  exited  the  vehicle  with  rifles  entering  the  brush.  About  30  minutes  later  we 
heard  a  gunshot,  and  then  the  loud  yelping  of  a  canine  agonizing.  About  1 0  minutes  later  the  two  men  came  back 
to  their  vehicle  at  which  time  1  approached  them,  the  canine  endlessly  yelping  in  the  background.  The  first  thing 
they  did  was  anxiously  boast  about  their  recent  murder  in  asking,  “Did  you  hear  us  shoot  we  got  one!”  1 
responded,  “1  hear  a  coyote  yelping  that  sounds  as  though  you  shot  it  and  left  it  to  suffer  and  die.”  Their  excuse 
was  that  it  deserved  to  suffer,  that  it  was  a  filthy  disgusting  animal  that  should  be  extinct.  They  proceeded  to 
explain  how  it  was  legal  to  kill  coyotes,  and  although  no  one  had  asked  them,  they  had  taken  up  the  task  of 
killing  coyotes  on  the  weekends  to  help  keep  population  numbers  in  check,  and  as  an  added  bonus  they  got  to 
kill  coyotes  for  sport.  They  drove  off  with  the  coyote  was  still  yelping  in  agony. 

Over  the  next  hour  1  heard  several  other  coyotes  in  the  distance  calling,  but  to  no  avail,  their  companion  would 
never  answer  their  calls  as  it  had  been  ruthlessly  and  senselessly  murdered.  About  20  minutes  later,  once  the 
other  coyotes  had  found  their  fallen  pack  member,  they  let  out  horrendous,  violent,  angry  yelping  noises  that 
lasted  some  10  minutes.  As  anthropomorphic  as  it  may  sound,  it  was  as  if  they  knew  that  their  fellow  species 
member  had  been  murdered  like  so  many  others  before  it.  1  tracked  where  the  two  men  had  been  ultimately 
leading  me  to  the  body  of  the  dead  coyote.  During  my  two  and  a  half  years  of  filming  the  Western  North 
American  Ecosystems  1  always  wanted  to  get  footage  of  a  coyote,  which  is  quite  difficult  in  the  wild  as  they  are 
very  elusive  and  nocturnal.  This  was  the  only  picture  that  1  ever  took  of  a  coyote,  and  to  me  personally,  it  is  a 
perfect  representation  of  the  quagmire  Homo  sapiens  have  with  coexisting  on  Earth. 

About  the  first  edition:  1  have  contacted  numerous  publishers  and  am  told  the  traditional  publishing  process  is  a 
slow  one  and  that  it  could  take  up  to  a  year  or  more  to  release  the  book,  if  at  all.  This  book  has  not  been 
proofread  by  an  editor  or  anyone  else,  my  forte  is  not  writing,  and  I  can  be  extremely  long-winded  at  times.  So, 
if  the  reader  would  be  so  kind  as  to  forgive  the  author  in  advance  for  the  grammatical  errors  and  the  unordered 
bibliography.  Although  the  book  is  not  complete  in  this  sense,  1  am  releasing  the  book,  as  is,  with  the  errors 
intact,  as  1  feel,  due  to  the  subject  matter  being  discussed  it  is  imperative  to  release  now.  This  book  is  a  work  in 
progress,  and  there  will  no  doubt  be  revised  editions  in  the  future  which  will  contain  grammatical  corrections  as 
well  as  additional  statistical  information.  But  the  data  and  message  of  the  book,  as  is,  will  be  clear  to  most  if  they 
can  simply  look  past  the  grammatical  errors  and  focus  more  on  the  message  being  discussed.  Not  to  justify  these 
errors  in  any  way,  but  other  authors  are  notorious  for  having  used  bad  grammar,  (e.g.  Charles  Dickens  for  using 
run-on  sentences,  E.E.  Cummings  for  not  capitalizing  words,  H.  L.  Mencken  for  incomplete  sentences,  William 
Faulkner  for  starting  a  sentence  with  a  conjunction,  Jane  Austen  for  using  double  negatives,  William 
Shakespeare  for  ending  a  sentence  with  a  preposition,  and  more  recently  E.  L.  James's  ‘Fifty  Shades  of  Grey  ’ 
also  contained  numerous  grammatical  errors) 


CHAPTER  I. 

Homo  sapiens  Lost  Connection  with  Nature  and  the  Aftermath 


Agriculture  and  the  Origins  of  Modern  Civilization 

‘It's  not  a  perfect  world’  is  an  axiom  that  most  Homo  sapiens  would  not  argue  with,  but  the  Earth  was  nearly 
perfect,  from  a  perspective  of  nature  and  the  ecosystems  which  other  biota  inhabit,  and  this  time  was  not  in  the 
too  distant  past.  A  relatively  perfect,  balanced,  and  flawless  system  with  few  depredations  done  by  Homo 
sapiens,  mainly  the  extinction  of  some  large  fauna  species  during  the  Pleistocene  era  caused  by  overhunting  and 
destruction  of  habitat,  which  coincided  with  Homo  sapiens  colonization  of  Australia,  New  Zealand,  North 
America,  and  Madagascar.  (635)  Homo  and  their  closely  related  extinct  relatives  coexisted  on  Earth  in  very  small 
numbers  perfectly  for  some  8,000,000  or  more  years,  but  over  the  last  10,000  years,  Homo  sapiens  have 
gradually  lost  a  vital  natural  connection  and  respect  for  Earth,  but  more  especially  towards  the  florae  and  faunae 
which  also  inhabit  the  planet.  This  sudden  and  devastating  change  began  around  the  time  when  mass  agriculture 
was  started  resulting  in  the  development  of  civilizations,  and  eventually  led  to,  among  other  things,  religions, 
governments,  money,  corporations,  and  a  plethora  of  social  issues. 

When  mass  agriculture  was  started  around  10,000  years  ago,  it  resulted  in  an  abundant  surplus  of  food,  this 
quickly  led  to  the  establishment  of  villages,  towns,  city-states,  and  ultimately  countries.  This  power  over  the 
masses  with  food  and  eventually  other  necessities  in  life,  led  to  social  hierarchies  based  on  wealth  which  have 
persisted  and  had  a  negative  impact  not  only  on  society,  but  also  on  the  Earth  as  well.  With  agriculture,  the  world 
began  to  organize  and  thrive  in  many  aspects,  yet  it  was  also  the  start  of  many  negative  social  traits  like  the  self¬ 
seclusion  mentality,  xenophobia,  and  nationalism.  Eventually  over  time,  social  immoralities  evolved  not  only 
within  some  societies  themselves,  but  also  towards  other  outside  different  societies  as  well,  many  of  which  still 
plague  some  present-day  societies,  (e.g.  war,  discrimination,  racism,  murder,  rape,  social  classes,  greed,  slavery, 
assimilation  of  indigenous  Homo  sapiens,  etc.) 

Around  300  years  ago,  when  commercial  agriculture  overtook  subsistence  fanning  with  monoculture,  this  was 
quite  possibly  one  of  the  most  defining  moments  which  helped  in  creating  a  very  dilapidated  future  for  the  life 
sustaining  food  sources  Homo  sapiens  consume.  That  is  to  say,  it  propelled  Homo  sapiens  greed  and  tyranny  to 
an  entirely  new  realm,  in  the  fact  that  food  is  a  necessity  and  once  a  species  is  dependent  on  a  source  of  readily 
available  food  it  becomes  far  less  independent.  One  can  plainly  see  an  example  of  this  in  domesticated  animals 
and  more  especially  in  the  dog.  This  commercialization  of  agriculture  also  changed  the  type  and  quality  of  the 
food  being  consumed  which  resulted  in  a  range  of  health  issues  and  chronic  diseases  of  affluence  which  most 
western  societies  are  currently  experiencing,  some  at  epidemic  proportions,  (e.g.  obesity,  diabetes,  high  blood 
pressure,  cardiovascular  disease,  chronic  kidney  disease,  strokes,  various  cancers,  etc.) 

Over  the  last  300  years  more  and  more  Homo  sapiens  have  moved  to  civilization  where  all  the  necessities  of  life 
are  readily  available,  in  2017  an  estimated  50%  of  the  7,300,000,000  Homo  sapiens  living  on  Earth  dwell  in  an 
urban  area.  (106)  As  a  result,  there  has  been  less  individual  dependency  on  nature  for  sustenance,  which  has  also 
led  to  less  interaction  with  nature,  (e.g.  gathering  food,  firewood,  water,  etc.)  Not  having  to  rely  on  nature  for 
daily  sustenance  and  thus  not  interacting  with  nature  on  a  daily  basis  also  helped  to  make  many  Homo  sapiens 
less  respectful  towards  Earth,  as  it  seems  meaningless  to  be  a  good  steward  of  Earth  or  to  even  care  about  how 
civilization  has  depredated  the  Earth  and  continues  to  ever  more  increasingly.  What  took  Earth  4,500,000,000 
years  to  evolve  into,  Homo  sapiens  depredations  over  a  very  short  period  have  either  altered  or  completely 
destroyed  forever. 

Most  modern-day  agriculture  is  unsustainable  because  of  the  negative  and  unnatural  methods  being  used.  (e.g. 
genetic  modification,  monoculture,  synthetic  fertilizers,  pesticides,  etc.)  Some  companies  even  go  so  far  as  to 
transport  bees  thousands  of  miles  to  pollinate  their  agricultural  crops.  Others  attempt  to  change  the  landscape  or 
practice  agriculture  under  near  impossible  environmental  conditions  wasting  precious  resources.  Ward 
Chesworth  wrote, 


“In  addition,  it  must  be  recognized  that  agriculture  as  practiced  from  the  start,  has  never  been  sustainable.  It  has  always 
resulted  in  a  drawdown  of  the  natural  capital  of  the  Earth  to  the  degree  that  human  beings  have  become  a  dominating 
geological  force  on  the  planetary  surface,  and  the  long-tenn  persistence  of  human  civilization  has  become  problematical.  In 
the  words  of  Angus  Martin  (1975):  'How  many  millennia  of  deforestation,  dust  stonns  and  soil  erosion  has  it  taken  for  us  to 
realize  that  our  agricultural  methodology  has  had  serious  flaws  in  it  from  the  start.'”  (12) 

If  society  would  not  have  gone  down  the  path  of  greed  and  tyranny  started  by  the  surplus  of  food  could  a  more 
utopian  world  have  developed?  Even  today  there  seems  to  be  social,  moral,  or  other  issues  affecting  an  even 
more  abundant  food  surplus.  The  Green  Revolution  helped  to  produce  higher  yielding  crops  in  less  time  and 
ultimately  a  food  surplus,  and  yet  there  is  a  food  distribution  problem  and  some  Homo  sapiens  are  starving  to 
death  as  a  result.  Whether  it  be  self-inflicted  from  war,  greed,  environmental  depredations,  or  civilization's 
expansionist  tendencies,  the  entire  history  of  Homo  sapiens  has  been  one  in  which  millions  continue  to  die  from 
easily  preventable  causes,  and  in  essence  these  deaths  are  a  result  of  nothing  more  than  a  dysfunctional  society. 
One  might  think  that  in  modem  society,  with  all  the  social,  scientific,  and  technological  advancements  which 
have  been  made  up  until  this  point,  that  the  basic  necessities  to  live,  (e.g.  water,  food,  medicine,  shelter, 
education,  restroom  access,  etc.)  would  be  available  to  every  citizen  of  Earth  at  no  monetary  cost,  and  that  they 
would  also  be  of  the  highest  quality.  When  a  society  begins  to  seek  extreme  financial  profits  from  the  necessities 
of  life,  and  some  Homo  sapiens  are  living  in  poverty  with  limited  or  no  access  to  these  necessities,  there  has 
been  a  serious  moral  deterioration  within  that  society. 

Homo  sapiens  Current  Food  Consumption 

Current  food  quality  and  availability  is  now  mainly  controlled  by  a  few  commercial  food  and  agricultural  related 
companies,  and  the  mergers  and  takeovers  have  only  continued.  Dow  Chemical  and  DuPont  merged  in  20 1 7,  and 
Bayer’s  proposed  takeover  of  Monsanto  in  2016  which  is  expected  to  be  finalized  in  2018,  are  the  most  recent 
monopolies  to  emerge.  Chinese  investors  have  also  spent  $91,000,000,000  over  the  last  10  years  purchasing 
nearly  300  foreign  companies  involved  in  food,  agriculture,  or  chemicals.  (429)  These  commercial  food  and 
agricultural  related  companies  heavily  influence  agricultural,  food,  health,  and  other  related  government  policies. 
And  now  with  food  libel  laws  having  recently  been  passed  in  13  U.S.  states  any  person  or  group  that  makes 
disparaging  comments  about  food  products  could  potentially  be  sued  by  the  food  manufacturer  or  processor 
simple  for  being  a  critic. 

The  March  2016  National  Geographic  Magazine,  noted  that  out  of  the  30,000  known  edible  plants  on  Earth,  only 
7,000  are  cultivated  or  collected  for  food,  and  only  30  of  these  are  staple  crops  which  feed  most  Homo  sapiens. 

In  the  United  States,  the  U.S.  farm  bill  and  other  government  legislation  has  allowed  for  the  subsidization  of 
com,  soy,  wheat,  and  rice  making  these  four  main  sources  of  processed  unhealthy  foods  cheap,  while  healthy 
fruits  and  vegetables  have  little  to  no  subsidization  at  all.  These  government  subsidies  are  used  to  create 
environmentally  destructive,  inexpensive,  unhealthy  foods  loaded  in  fat,  salt,  and  sugar.  Can't  the  commercial 
food  and  agricultural  industries  in  an  eco-friendly  manner  produce  inexpensive,  plentiful,  healthy,  all-natural 
organic  fruits  and  vegetables  using  these  same  subsidies,  and  if  so,  why  aren't  they?  History  has  proven  that  food 
can  be  healthy  and  that  it,  along  with  all  other  living  necessities  can  be  created  from  natural  biodegradable 
sources,  which  can  be  grown  in  abundance  very  inexpensively  and  in  an  eco-friendly  manner.  So  why  isn't  it  still 
being  done  today  as  was  done  for  thousands  of  years  before? 

Most  of  the  food  available  today  is  highly -refined,  has  additives,  is  genetically  modified,  and  from  an  extremely 
unhealthy  food  source  containing  little  natural  nutritional  value.  Many  of  the  foods  available  to  consumers  have 
traveled  hundreds  even  thousands  of  miles  across  the  globe  from  the  source  requiring  chemical  additives  or  other 
unnatural  processes  to  maintain  it  edibility.  The  food  today  that  has  been  highly-refined  is  loaded  with  additional 
artificial  ingredients,  flavor  enhancers,  preservatives,  and  is  fortified  or  enriched  with  added  nutrients.  Sodium  is 
added  excessively  to  most  all  foods  in  the  form  of  iodized  salt,  sea  salt,  or  other  artificially  created  sodium-based 
ingredients  like  sodium  bicarbonate,  sodium  aluminum  phosphate,  sodium  stearoyl  lactylate,  etc.  Homo  sapiens 
ingest  vast  quantities  of  iodized  salt  which  has  been  enriched  with  inorganic  compounds  like  potassium  iodate, 
potassium  iodide,  sodium  iodate,  or  sodium  iodide.  Can  consumers  not  get  enough  from  consuming  beans, 
strawberries,  cranberries,  potatoes,  or  other  fruits  and  vegetables  which  are  naturally  rich  in  iodine?  As  the  food 


is  processed  a  host  of  other  mostly  artificial  ingredients  are  added  to  enhance  flavor,  aesthetic  appeal,  and  help 
with  preservation.  As  a  result  of  all  the  processing,  nutritional  value  is  lost  and  the  foods  are  then  fortified  or 
enriched  with  things  like  whey,  gluten,  niacin,  iron,  thiamin,  vitamin  C,  etc.  to  add  back  the  lost  nutrition.  Sugar 
substitutes  like  aspartame  and  other  artificial  sweeteners  are  also  added  to  many  food  items  in  an  attempt  to 
market  them  as  healthier.  High  fructose  com  syrup  is  added  to  many  foods  as  a  sugar  substitute  and  vast 
quantities  are  consumed  in  the  form  of  soda  and  other  so  called  'junk foods'.  The  U.S.  Food  and  Drug 
Administration  monitors  the  levels  of  about  800  contaminants  and  nutrients  contained  in  consumer  foods.  Foods 
have  nutrition  fact  labels  and  the  ingredients  listed,  so  why  then  isn't  every  contaminant  also  listed  with  another 
label  entitled  'accumulated  hidden  toxins  ’?  If  every  contaminant  and  the  possible  side-effects  were  also  listed 
would  most  consumers  just  ignore  the  warning  as  so  many  do  with  alcohol  and  tobacco?  Would  Homo  sapiens 
have  less  contaminated  food  and  be  healthier  if  they  became  involved  directly  in  their  food  production  by  having 
a  small  garden,  versus  depending  entirely  on  the  food  system  which  corporations  have  set  up  based  mainly 
around  profits  and  not  nutrition? 

Often,  food  is  erroneously  marketed  with  misleading  words  like  nutritional,  healthy,  fat -free,  sugar-free, 
ecological,  eco-friendly,  or  natural,  when  in  fact  it  is  some  of  the  most  disgusting,  unhealthy,  and  unnatural  food 
available.  Some  companies  even  display  misleading  images  showing  something  that  looks  healthy,  yet  the  final 
product  is  nothing  like  the  image  used  to  advertise  the  product.  Why  is  it  legal  for  food  companies  and 
restaurants  to  advertise  picture -perfect  food  on  a  food  product  label,  product  packaging,  menu,  or  in  commercial 
advertisements,  when  in  fact  the  final  product  being  consumed  is  nowhere  near  the  one  being  advertised,  and  is 
far  different  in  reality,  is  this  not  false  advertising?  Why  do  consumers  continue  to  buy  into  this  picture -perfect 
food  lie? 

In  most  grocery  stores,  foods  that  are  preservative  free,  additive  free,  low-sodium,  non-GMO,  vegan  friendly, 
and  organic  are  becoming  more  mainstream,  but  a  wide  selection  is  very  difficult  to  find,  and  one  must  often 
resort  to  a  specialty  store  like  Whole  Foods,  Trader  Joe's,  another  local  vegan  grocery  store,  cultural  or  regional 
markets  or  stores,  or  a  farmers’  market.  Many  times,  it  also  costs  far  more  than  unhealthy  food  which  is  created 
to  sell  more  and  marketed  to  sell  to  all,  thus  making  it  impossible  for  some  consumers  to  afford  healthy  vegan 
food.  Vegan  and  eco-friendly  products  cost  far  less  to  manufacture,  but  as  demand  for  vegan  and  eco-friendly 
products  has  increased  often  with  little  competition,  some  vegan  food  companies  are  engaged  in  price  gouging. 

If  companies  did  less  price  gouging  on  vegan  and  eco-friendly  products  would  there  be  far  more  consumers 
using  them?  If  the  pricing  issue  is  partially  due  to  manufacturing  costs  being  so  high,  would  this  decrease  if 
vegan  and  other  eco-friendly  products  became  mainstream?  Why  would  a  consumer,  especially  if  they  are  on  a 
very  fixed  income  with  such  a  limited  budget,  choose  a  vegan  or  other  eco-friendly  product  if  it  costs  twice  as 
much? 

One  could  hypothesize  that  food  sources  of  the  not  too  distant  past  tasted  purer  and  natural  and  were  perhaps 
even  more  nutritional  than  today's  food.  Could  this  be  in  part  to  the  food  sources  having  been  more  organic, 
unmodified,  unrefined,  Earth  not  having  been  as  polluted  terrestrially  or  atmospherically,  and  the  soils  having 
not  been  so  overtaxed?  Or  could  the  flavor  have  been  literally  bred  out  of  food  from  modifying  it  too  much?  A 
2017  study  on  improved  tomato  flavor  found  that  modem  commercial  tomato  varieties  contained  significantly 
lower  amounts  of  many  important  flavor  chemicals  than  older  tomato  varieties.  (503)  The  following  is  a  general 
list  of  food  additives,  most  of  them  are  not  naturally  present  in  any  food  source  and  are  synthesized  in  a 
laboratory  setting.  How  can  consumers  accept  and  consume  foods  that  have  been  modified  with  so  many 
unnatural  and  unhealthy  additives?  Why  are  all  of  these  additives  put  in  foods  when  so  many  natural  and 
unmodified  food  sources  already  exist? 


Some  of  the  Additives  Used  in  Food 

1,4-heptono lactone  -  food  acid 

Lecithins  -  antioxidant.  Emulsifier 

2-hydroxybiphenyl  -  preservative 

Lecithin  citrate  -  preservative 

Acesulfame  potassium  -  artificial  sweetener 

Leucine  -  flavor  enhancer 

Acetic  acid  -  acidity  regulator 

Lipases  -  flavor  enhancer 

Acetic  acid  esters  of  mono-  and  diglycerides  of  fatty  acids  -  emulsifier 

Lithol  Rubine  BK  -  color 

Acetylated  distarch  adipate  -  thickener 

Litholrubine  -  color 

Acetylated  distarch  phosphate  -  thickener 

L(+)-Tartaric  acid  -  food  acid 

Acetylated  oxidised  starch  -  thickener 

Lutein  -  color 

Acetylated  starch  -  thickener 

Lycopene  -  color 

Acid  treated  starch  -  thickener 

Lysozyme  -  preservative 

Agar  -  thickener,  stabilizer,  gelling  agent 

Magnesium  carbonate  -  anti-caking  agent,  mineral  salt 

Alginic  acid  -  thickener,  stabilizer,  gelling  agent,  emulsifier 

Magnesium  chloride  -  mineral  salt 

Alitame  -  artificial  sweetener 

Magnesium  citrate  -  acidity  regulator 

Alkaline  treated  starch  -  thickener 

Magnesium  diglutamate  -  flavor  enhancer 

Allura  red  AC  -  color  (FDA:  FD&C  Red  #40) 

Magnesium  hydroxide  -  mineral  salt 

Aluminium  -  color  (silver) 

Magnesium  lactate  -  food  acid 

Aluminium  ammonium  sulfate  -  mineral  salt 

Magnesium  oxide  -  anti-caking  agent 

Aluminium  potassium  sulfate  -  mineral  salt 

Magnesium  phosphates  -  mineral  salt,  anti -caking  agent 

Aluminium  silicate  -  anti-caking  agent 

Magnesium  salts  of  fatty  acids  -  emulsifier,  stabiliser, 

Aluminium  sodium  sulfate  -  mineral  salt 

anti-caking  agent 

Aluminium  sulfate  -  mineral  salt 

Magnesium  silicate  -  anti-caking  agent 

Amaranth  -  color  (red)  (FDA:  [DELISTED]  Red  #2)  Note  that  amaranth 

Magnesium  stearate  -  emulsifier,  stabiliser 

dye  is  unrelated  to  the  amaranth  plant 

Magnesium  sulfate  -  mineral  salt,  acidity  regulator, 

Ammonium  acetate  -  preservative,  acidity  regulator 

firming  agent 

Ammonium  adipates  -  acidity  regulator 

Malic  acid  -  acidity  regulator 

Ammonium  alginate  -  thicken,  stabilizer,  gelling  agent,  emulsifier 

Maltitol  -  humectant,  stabiliser 

Ammonium  bicarbonate  -  mineral  salt 

Maltodextrin  -  carbohydrate  sweetener 

Ammonium  carbonate  -  mineral  salt 

Maltol  -  flavor  enhancer 

Ammonium  chloride  -  mineral  salt 

Mannitol  -  humectant,  anti-caking  agent,  sweetener 

Ammonium  ferric  citrate  -  food  acid 

Metatartaric  acid  -  food  acid,  emulsifier 

Ammonium  fumarate  -  food  acid 

Methyl  butyrate  -  used  as  food  flavoring 

Ammonium  hydroxide  -  mineral  salt 

Methyl  ethyl  cellulose  -  thickener,  emulsifier 

Ammonium  lactate  -  food  acid 

Methylcellulose  -  thickener,  emulsifier 

Ammonium  malate  -  food  acid 

Methylparaben  (methyl  para-hydroxybenzoate)  - 

Ammonium  phosphates  -  mineral  salt 

preservative 

Ammonium  phosphatides  -  emulsifier 

Microcrystalline  cellulose  -  anti-caking  agent 

Ammonium  polyphosphates  -  anti -caking  agent 

Mixed  acetic  and  tartaric  acid  esters  of  mono-  and 

Ammonium  sulfate  -  mineral  salt,  improving  agent 

diglycerides  of  fatty  acids  -  emulsifier 

Anthocyanins  -  color 

Modified  starch  -  also  called  starch  derivatives,  are 

Argon  -  propellant 

prepared  by  physically,  enzymatically,  or  chemically 

Ascorbyl  palmitate  -  antioxidant  (fat  soluble) 

treating  native  starch  to  change  its  properties 

Ascorbyl  stearate  -  antioxidant  (fat  soluble) 

Mono-  and  diglycerides  of  Fatty  acids  -  emulsifier 

Aspartame  -  artificial  sweetener 

Monoammonium  glutamate  -  flavor  enhancer 

Azodicarbonamide  -  flour  bleaching  agent.  Also  used  in  the  production  of 

Monopotassium  glutamate  -  flavor  enhancer 

foamed  plastics  and  the  manufacture  of  gaskets.  Banned  as  a  food  additive 

Monosodium  glutamate  (MSG)  -  flavor  enhancer 

in  Australia  and  Europe. 

Monostarch  phosphate  -  thickener 

Azorubine  -  color  (red)  (FDA:  Ext  D&C  Red  #10) 

Montanic  acid  esters  -  humectant 

Baking  powder  -  leavening  agent;  includes  acid  and  base 

Natamycin  -  preservative 

Baking  soda  -  food  base 

Neohesperidin  dihydrochalcone  -  artificial  sweetener 

Bentonite  -  anti-caking  agent 

Nisin  -  preservative 

Benzoic  acid  -  preservative 

Nitrates  -  The  use  of  nitrates  in  food  preservation  is 

Benzoyl  peroxide  -  flour  treatment  agent 

controversial.  This  is  due  to  the  potential  for  the 

Bergamot  -  in  Earl  Grey  tea 

formation  of  nitrosamines  when  nitrates  are  present  in 

Beta-apo-8'-carotenal  (C  30)  -  color 

high  concentrations  and  the  product  is  cooked  at  high 

Beta-apo-8'-carotenic  acid  ethyl  ester  -  color 

temperatures.  The  effect  is  seen  for  red  or  processed 

Betanin  -  color  (red) 

meat,  but  not  for  white  meat  or  fish.  The  production  of 

Biphenyl  -  preservative 

carcinogenic  nitrosamines  can  be  potently  inhibited  by 

Bixin  -  color 

the  use  of  the  antioxidants  Vitamin  C  and  the  alpha- 

Black  7984  -  color  (brown  and  black) 

tocopherol  form  of  Vitamin  E  during  curing. 

Black  PN  -  color  (brown  and  black) 

Nitrogen  -  propellant 

Bleached  starch  -  thickener 

Nitrous  oxide  -  propellant 

Bone  phosphate  -  anti-caking  agent 

Norbixin  -  color 

Borax  -  preservative 

Octyl  gallate  -  antioxidant 

Boric  acid  -  preservative 

Orange  GGN  -  color  (orange) 

Brilliant  Black  BN-  color  (brown  and  black) 

Orcein  -  color  (red) 

Brilliant  blue  FCF  -  color  (FDA:  FD&C  Blue  #1) 

Orchil  -  color  (red) 

Brilliant  Scarlet  4R  -  color  (FDA:  Ext  D&C  Red  #8) 

Orthophenyl  phenol  -  preservative 

Brown  FK  -  color  (brown  and  black) 

Patent  blue  V  -  color  (blue) 

Butane  -  propellant 

Phosphated  distarch  phosphate  -  thickener 

Butylated  hydroxyanisole  (BHA)  -  antioxidant  (fat  soluble) 

Phosphoric  acid  -  food  acid 

Butylated  hydroxytoluene  (BHT)  -  antioxidant  (fat  soluble) 

Phytic  acid  -  preservative 

Calcium  5'-ribonucleotides  -  flavor  enhancer 

Pigment  Rubine  -  color 

Calcium  acetate  -  preservative,  acidity  regulator 

Poly  vinyl  pyrrolidone  -  used  as  a  stabilizer 

Calcium  alginate  -  thickener,  stabilizer,  gelling  agent,  emulsifier 

Polydextrose  -  humectant 

Calcium  ascorbate  -  antioxidant  (water-soluble) 

Polyethylene  glycol  8000  -  antifoaming  agent 

Calcium  aluminosilicate  (calcium  aluminium  silicate)  -  anti-caking  agent 

Polyglycerol  esters  of  fatty  acids  -  emulsifier 

Calcium  ascorbate  (Vitamin  C) 

Polyglycerol  polyricinoleate  -  emulsifier 

Calcium  benzoate  -  preservative 

Polymethylsiloxane  -  antifoaming  agent 

Calcium  bisulfite  -  preservative,  antioxidant 

Polyoxyethylene  (40)  stearate  -  emulsifier 

Calcium  carbonates  -  color  (white),  anticaking  agent,  stabiliser 

Polyoxyethylene  (8)  stearate  -  emulsifier,  stabilizer 

Calcium  chloride  -  mineral  salt 

Polyphosphates  -  mineral  salt,  emulsifier 

Calcium  citrates  -  food  acid,  finning  agent 

Polysorbate  20  -  emulsifier 

Calcium  diglutamate  -  flavor  enhancer 

Polysorbate  40  -  emulsifier 

Calcium  disodium  EDTA  -  preservative 

Polysorbate  60  -  emulsifier 

Calcium  ferrocyanide  -  anti-caking  agent 

Polysorbate  65  -  emulsifier 

Calcium  formate  -  preservative 

Polysorbate  80  -  emulsifier 

Calcium  fumarate  -  food  acid 

Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone  -  color  stabiliser 

Calcium  gluconate  -  acidity  regulator 

Ponceau  4R  -  color  (FDA:  Ext  D&C  Red  #8) 

Calcium  guanylate  -  flavor  enhancer 

Ponceau  6R  -  color 

Calcium  hydrogen  sulfite  -  preservative,  antioxidant 

Ponceau  SX  -  color 

Calcium  hydroxide  -  mineral  salt 

Potassium  acetates  -  preservative,  acidity  regulator 

Calcium  inosinate  -  flavor  enhancer 

Potassium  adipate  -  food  acid 

Calcium  lactate  -  food  acid 

Potassium  alginate  -  thickener,  stabilizer,  gelling  agent, 

Calcium  lactobionate  -  stabilizer 

emulsifier 

Calcium  malates  -  food  acid 

Potassium  aluminium  silicate  -  anti -caking  agent 

Calcium  oxide  -  mineral  salt 

Potassium  ascorbate  -  antioxidant  (water-soluble) 

Calcium  peroxide  -  is  used  as  flour  bleaching  agent  and  improving  agent 

Potassium  benzoate  -  preservative 

Calcium  phosphates  -  mineral  salt,  anti-caking  agent,  firming  agent 

Potassium  bicarbonate  -  mineral  salt 

Calcium  polyphosphates  -  anti -caking  agent 

Potassium  bisulfite  -  preservative,  antioxidant 

Calcium  propionate  -  preservative 

Potassium  bromate  -  flour  treatment  agent 

Calcium  salts  of  fatty  acids  -  emulsifier,  stabiliser,  anti-caking  agent 

Potassium  carbonate  -  mineral  salt 

Calcium  silicate  -  anti-caking  agent 

Potassium  chloride  -  mineral  salt 

Calcium  sorbate  -  preservative 

Potassium  citrates  -  food  acid 

Calcium  stearoyl  lactylate  -  emulsifier 

Potassium  ferrocyanide  -  anti-caking  agent 

Calcium  sulfate  -  flour  treatment  agent,  mineral  salt,  sequestrant. 

Potassium  fumarate  -  food  acid 

improving  agent,  firming  agent 

Potassium  gluconate  -  stabiliser 

Calcium  sulfite  -  preservative,  antioxidant 

Potassium  hydrogen  sulfite  -  preservative,  antioxidant 

Calcium  tartrate  -  food  acid,  emulsifier 

Potassium  hydroxide  -  mineral  salt 

Canthaxanthin  -  color 

Potassium  lactate  -  food  acid 

Capsanthin  -  color 

Potassium  malate  -  food  acid 

Capsorubin  -  color 

Potassium  metabisulfite  -  preservative,  antioxidant 

Caramel  I  (plain)  -  color  (brown  and  black) 

Potassium  nitrate  -  preservative,  color  fixative 

Caramel  II  (Caustic  Sulfite  process)  -  color  (brown  and  black) 

Potassium  nitrite  -  preservative,  color  fixative 

Caramel  III  (Ammonia  process)  -  color  (brown  and  black) 

Potassium  phosphates  -  mineral  salt 

Caramel  IV  (Ammonia  sulfite  process)  -  color  (brown  and  black) 

Potassium  propionate  -  preservative 

Carbamide  -  flour  treatment  agent 

Potassium  salts  of  fatty  acids  -  emulsifier,  stabiliser,  anti- 

Carbon  black  -  color  (brown  and  black) 

caking  agent 

Carbon  dioxide  -  acidity  regulator,  propellant 

Potassium  sodium  tartrate  -  food  acid 

carmines  -  color  (red) 

Potassium  sorbate  -  preservative 

Carmoisine  -  color  (red)  (FDA:  Ext  D&C  Red  #10) 

Potassium  sulfate  -  mineral  salt,  seasoning 

Carotenes  -  color 

Potassium  sulfite  -  preservative,  antioxidant 

Alpha-carotene  -  color 

Potassium  tartrates  -  food  acid 

Beta-carotene  -  color 

Powdered  Cellulose  -  anti-caking  agent 

Gamma-carotene  -  color 

Propane- 1,2-diol  alginate  -  thickener,  stabilizer, 

Chlorine  dioxide  -  flour  treatment  agent 

emulsifier 

Chlorine  -  flour  treatment  agent 

Propionic  acid  -  preservative 

Chlorophylls  and  Chlorophyllins  -  color  (green) 

Propyl  gallate  -  antioxidant 

Chocolate  Brown  HT  -  color 

Propylene  glycol  -  humectant 

Choline  salts  and  esters  -  emulsifier 

Propylene  glycol  alginate  -  thickener,  stabilizer. 

Chrysoine  resorcinol  -  color  (red) 

emulsifier 

Citranaxanthin  -  color 

Propylene  glycol  esters  of  fatty  acids  -  emulsifier 

Citric  acid  -  food  acid 

Propylparaben  (propyl  para-hydroxybenzoate)  - 

Citric  acid  esters  of  mono-  and  diglycerides  of  fatty  acids  -  emulsifier 

preservative 

Citrus  red  2  -  color  (red) 

Pyridoxine  hydrochloride  -  used  as  a  vitamin  B6  dietary 

Cochineal  -  color  (red) 

supplement 

Copper  complexes  of  chlorophylls  -  color  (green) 

Quinoline  Yellow  WS  -  color  (yellow  and  orange)  (FDA: 

Com  syrup  -  thickener,  a  sweetener  and  as  a  humectant 

D&C  Yellow  #10) 

Crocetin  -  color 

Red  2G  -  color 

Crocin  -  color 

Saccharin  -  artificial  sweetener 

Crosslinked  Sodium  carboxymethylcellulose  -  emulsifier 

Scarlet  GN  -  color 

Cryptoxanthin  -  color 

Shellac  -  glazing  agent 

Cupric  sulfate  -  mineral  salt 

Silicon  dioxide  -  anti-caking  agent 

Curcumin  -  color  (yellow  and  orange) 

Silver  -  metallic  element  used  in  food  coloring 

Cyclamates  -  artificial  sweetener 

Sodium  acetate  -  preservative,  acidity  regulator 

Cyclamic  acid  -  artificial  sweetener 

Sodium  adipate  -  food  acid 

beta-cyclodextrin  -  emulsifier 

Sodium  alginate  -  thickener,  stabilizer,  gelling  agent, 

Decanoic  acid  -  used  as  artificial  fruit  flavoring 

emulsifier 

Dchydroacetic  acid  -  preservative 

Sodium  aluminium  phosphate  -  acidity  regulator, 

Dclta-tocopherol(synthetic)  -  antioxidant 

emulsifier 

Dextrin  roasted  starch  -  thickener 

Sodium  aluminosilicate  (sodium  aluminium  silicate)  - 

Diacetyltartaric  acid  esters  of  mono-  and  diglycerides  of  fatty  acids  - 

anti-caking  agent 

emulsifier 

Sodium  ascorbate  -  antioxidant  (water-soluble) 

Dicalcium  diphosphate  -  anti-caking  agent 

Sodium  benzoate  -  preservative 

Dilauryl  thiodipropionate  -  antioxidant 

Sodium  bicarbonate  -  mineral  salt 

Dimethyl  dicarbonate  -  preservative 

Sodium  bisulfite  (sodium  hydrogen  sulfite)  - 

Dimethylpolysiloxane  -  emulsifier,  anti-caking  agent 

preservative,  antioxidant 

Dioctyl  sodium  sulfosuccinate  -  emulsifier 

Sodium  carbonate  -  mineral  salt 

Diphenyl  -  preservative 

Sodium  carboxymethylcellulose  -  emulsifier 

Diphosphates  -  mineral  salt,  emulsifier 

Sodium  citrates  -  food  acid 

Dipotassium  guanylate  -  flavor  enhancer 

Sodium  dehydroacetate  -  preservative 

Dipotassium  inosinate  -  flavor  enhancer 

Sodium  erythorbate  -  antioxidant 

Disodium  5'-ribonucleotides  -  flavor  enhancer 

Sodium  erythorbin  -  antioxidant 

Disodium  ethylenediaminetetraacetate  -  antioxidant,  preservative 

Sodium  ethyl  para-hydroxybenzoate  -  preservative 

Disodium  guanylate  -  flavor  enhancer 

Sodium  ferrocyanide  -  anti -caking  agent 

Disodium  inosinate  -  flavor  enhancer 

Sodium  formate  -  preservative 

Distarch  phosphate  -  thickener. 

Sodium  fumarate  -  food  acid 

Distearyl  thiodipropionate  -  antioxidant 

Sodium  gluconate  -  stabiliser 

Dl-alpha-tocopherol  (synthetic)  -  antioxidant 

Sodium  hydrogen  acetate  -  preservative,  acidity 

Dodecyl  gallate  -  antioxidant 

regulator 

EDTA  -  Antioxidant,  Chelating  Agent 

Sodium  hydroxide  -  mineral  salt 

Enzymatically  hydrolyzed  Carboxymethyl  cellulose  -  emulsifier 

Sodium  lactate  -  food  acid 

Enzyme  treated  starch  -  thickener 

Sodium  malates  -  food  acid 

Epazote  (Chenopodium  ambrosioides) 

Sodium  metabisulfite  -  preservative,  antioxidant. 

Epsom  salts  -  mineral  salt,  acidity  regulator,  firming  agent 

bleaching  agent 

Erythorbin  acid  -  antioxidant 

Sodium  methyl  para-hydroxybenzoate  -  preservative 

Erythrosine  -  color  (red)  (FDA:  FD&C  Red  #3) 

Sodium  nitrate  -  preservative,  color  fixative 

Erythritol  -  sweetener 

Sodium  nitrite  -  preservative,  color  fixative 

Ethyl  maltol  -  flavor  enhancer 

Sodium  orthophenyl  phenol  -  preservative 

Ethyl  methyl  cellulose  -  thickener,  emulsifier 

Sodium  propionate  -  preservative 

Ethylparaben  (ethyl  para-hydroxybenzoate)  -  preservative 

Sodium  propyl  para-hydroxybenzoate  -  preservative 

Ethylenediamine  tetraacetic  acid  -  preservative  and  stabilizer 

Sodium  sorbate  -  preservative 

Fast  green  FCF  -  color  (FDA:  FD&C  Green  #3) 

Sodium  stearoyl  lactylate  -  emulsifier 

Flavoxanthin  -  color 

Sodium  succinates  -  acidity  regulator,  flavor  enhancer 

Ferric  ammonium  citrate  -  food  acid 

Sodium  salts  of  fatty  acids  -  emulsifier,  stabiliser,  anti- 

Ferrous  gluconate  -  color  retention  agent 

caking  agent 

Formaldehyde  -  preservative 

Sodium  sulfite  -  mineral  salt,  preservative,  antioxidant 

Formic  acid  -  preservative 

Sodium  sulfite  -  preservative,  antioxidant 

Fumaric  acid  -  acidity  regulator 

Sodium  tartrates  -  food  acid 

Gamma-tocopherol(synthetic)  -  antioxidant 

Sodium  tetraborate  -  preservative 

Gelatin/gelatine  -  Gelling  agent,  emulsifier 

Sorbic  acid  -  preservative 

Gellan  gum  -  thickener,  stabilizer,  emulsifier 

Sorbitan  monolaurate  -  emulsifier 

Glacial  Acetic  acid  -  preservative,  acidity  regulator 

Sorbitan  monooleate  -  emulsifier 

Glucitol  -  AKA  sorbitol  sugar  substitute  most  is  made  from  corn  syrup 

Sorbitan  monopalmitate  -  emulsifier 

Gluconate  -  flavor  enhancer 

Sorbitan  monostearate  -  emulsifier 

Glucono  delta-lactone  -  acidity  regulator 

Sorbitan  tristearate  -  emulsifier 

Glucose  oxidase  -  antioxidant 

Sorbitol  -  humectant,  emulsifier,  sugar  substitute  most  is 

Glucose  syrup  -  sweetener 

made  from  com  syrup 

Glutamate  -  acidity  regulator 

Starch  sodium  octenylsuccinate  -  thickener 

Glutamic  acid  -  flavor  enhancer 

Stearic  acid  -  anti -caking  agent 

Glycerin  -  humectant,  sweetener 

Stearyl  tartarate  -  emulsifier 

Glycerol  -  a  humectant,  solvent,  and  sweetener 

Succinic  acid  -  food  acid 

Glyceryl  distearate  -  emulsifier 

Sucralose  -  artificial  sweetener 

Glyceryl  monostearate  -  emulsifier 

Sucroglycerides  -  emulsifier 

Glycine  -  flavor  enhancer 

Sucrose  acetate  isobutyrate  -  emulsifier,  stabiliser 

Gold  -  metallic  element  used  as  a  food  color 

Sucrose  esters  of  fatty  acids  -  emulsifier 

Green  S  -  color  (green) 

Sulfur  dioxide  -  preservative,  antioxidant 

Guanylic  acid  -  flavor  enhancer 

Sulfuric  acid  -  acidity  regulator 

Gum  arabic  /  Gum  acacia  /  E414  -  thickener,  stabilizer,  emulsifier 

Sunset  Yellow  FCF  -  color  (yellow  and  orange)  (FDA: 

Gum  guaicum  -  preservative 

FD&C  Yellow  #6) 

Helium  -  propellant 

Talc  -  anti-caking  agent,  once  widely  used  in  baby  power 

Hcptyl  p-hydroxybenzoate  -  preservative 

until  it  was  implicated  with  ovarian  cancers 

Hcxamine  (hexamethylene  tetramine)  -  preservative 

Tannins  -  color,  emulsifier,  stabiliser,  thickener 

Hexyl  acetate  -  used  as  a  flavoring  agent 

Tartaric  acid  esters  of  mono-  and  diglycerides  of  fatty 

High  fructose  corn  syrup  -  used  in  most  processed  and  unhealthy  foods 

acids  -  emulsifier 

and  especially  in  candy,  sodas,  and  other  junk  foods,  it  is  one  of  several 

Tartrazine  -  color  (yellow  and  orange)  (FDA:  FD&C 

artificial  sweetners  that  has  replaced 

Yellow  #5) 

the  natural  once  widely  consumed  sucrose  or  table  sugar. 

Tert-butylhydroquinone  -  antioxidant 

Hydrochloric  acid  -  acidity  regulator 

Tetrahydrocannabinol-  flavor  enhancer,  potent  anti¬ 

Hydroxypropyl  cellulose  -  thickener,  emulsifier 

carcinogen 

Hydroxypropyl  distarch  phosphate  -  thickener 

Thaumatin  -  flavor  enhancer,  artificial  sweetener 

Hydroxypropyl  methylcellulose  -  thickener,  emulsifier 

Thiabendazole  -  preservative 

Hydroxypropyl  starch  -  thickener 

Thiodipropionic  acid  -  antioxidant 

Indanthrene  blue  RS  -  color  (blue) 

Stannous  chloride  -  color  retention  agent,  antioxidant 

Indigo  carmine  -  color  (blue)  (FDA:  FD&C  Blue  #2) 

Titanium  dioxide  -  color  (white) 

Indigotine  -  color  (blue)  (FDA:  FD&C  Blue  #2 

Triacetin  -  humectant 

Inosinic  acid  -  flavor  enhancer 

Triammonium  citrate  -  food  acid 

Invert  sugar  -  modified  sugar  additive  similar  to  high  fructose  corn  syrup. 

Triethyl  citrate  -  thickener,  Triethyl  citrate  is  also  used  as 

Iron  ammonium  citrate  -  acidity  regulator 

a  plasticizer  for  polyvinyl  chloride  (PVC)  and  similar 

Iron  oxides  and  hydroxides  -  color 

plastics. 

Isobutane  -  propellant 

Triphosphates  -  mineral  salt,  emulsifier 

Isomalt  -  humectant 

sodium  phosphates  -  Mineral  Salt 

Isopropyl  citrates  -  antioxidant,  preservative 

Violaxanthin  -  color 

L-cysteine  -  flour  treatment  agent 

Xylitol  -  humectant,  stabiliser 

Lactic  acid  -  acidity  regulator,  preservative,  antioxidant 

Yellow  2G  -  color  (yellow  and  orange) 

Lactic  acid  esters  of  mono-  and  diglycerides  of  fatty  acids  -  emulsifier 

Zeaxanthin  -  color 

Lactitol  -  humectant 

Zinc  acetate  -  flavor  enhancer 

Lactylated  fatty  acid  esters  of  glycerol  and  propylene  glycol  -  emulsifier 

SOURCE:  Wikipedia  (with  some  corrections,  additions,  and  other  edits) 

To  see  the  reality  of  the  current  food  sources  and  the  results  of  the  mass  scale  consumption  of  meat  and  dairy 
products  which  Homo  sapiens  are  engaged  in,  while  a  government  encourages  this  gluttonous  behavior,  one  need 
only  watch  the  documentary  films  and  news  programs:  ‘Earthlings  ’  by:  Shaun  Monson  2005,  ‘Our  Daily  Bread’ 
by:  Nikolaus  Geyrhalter  2005,  ‘Fat  Sick  and  Nearly  Dead’  by:  Joe  Cross  2010,  ‘Food Inc.  ’  by:  Robert  Kenner 
2008,  Food  Matters  ’  by:  James  Colquhoun  and  Carlo  Ledesma  2008,  Forks  Over  Knives  ’  by:  Lee  Fulkerson 
2011,  ‘Hungry  for  Change  ’  by:  Laurentine  Ten  Bosch  and  James  Colquhoun  2012,  ‘Supersize  Me  ’  by:  Morgan 
Spurlock  2004,  ‘Veducated  ’  by:  Marisa  Miller  Wolfson  2011,  'The  Future  of  Food'  by:  Deborah  Koons  Garcia 
2004,  ‘Cowspiracy:  The  Sustainability  Secret  ’  by:  Kip  Andersen  and  Keegan  Kuhn  20 1 4,  and  the  PBS  Frontline 
reports:  ‘The  Trouble  with  Chicken  ’  May  12,  2015  and  ‘The  Trouble  with  Antibiotics  ’  October  14,  2014,  and 
VICE  season  4  episode  5  ‘Meathooked  &  End  of  Water  ’.  Or  for  a  more  in-depth  analysis  from  an  inside  medical 
perspective  one  can  read  ‘The  China  Study  ’  2006  by:  Dr.  T.  Colin  Campbell,  Ph.D.  and  Thomas  M.  Campbell. 


TABLE  2  2.  Top  25  Sources  of  Calories  Among  Americans  Ages  2  Years  and  Older, 
NHANES  2005-2006* 

Rank  Overall,  Ages  2+  yr* 

(Mean  keal/d;  Total  daily  calories  =  2,157) 

Children  and  Adolescents,  Ages  2*18  yrs 
(Mean  kcal/d;  Total  daily  calories  =  2,027) 

Adults  and  Older  Adults,  Ages  19+  yrs 
(Mean  kcal/d;  Total  daily  calories  *  2,199) 

1 

Grain-based  desserts'1  (138  kcal) 

Grain-based  desserts  (138  kcal) 

Grain-based  desserts  (138  kcal) 

2 

Yeast  breads'  (129  kcal) 

Pizza  (136  kcal) 

Yeast  breads  (134  kcal) 

3 

Chicken  and  chicken  mixed  dishes* 

(121  kcal) 

Soda/energyAports  drinks  (118  kcal) 

Chicken  and  chicken  mixed  dishes 
(123  kcal) 

4 

Soda/energy/sports  drinks*  (114  kcal) 

Yeast  breads  (114  kcal) 

Soda/energyAports  drinks  (112  kcal) 

s 

Pizza  (98  kcal) 

Chicken  and  chicken  mixed  dishes 
(113  kcal) 

Alcoholic  beverages  (106  kcal) 

6 

Alcoholic  beverages  (82  kcal) 

Pasta  and  pasta  dishes  (91  kcal) 

Pizza  (86  kcal) 

7 

Pasta  and  pasta  dishes'  (81  kcal) 

Reduced  fat  milk  (86  kcal) 

Tortillas,  burritos.  tacos  (85  kcal) 

8 

Tortillas,  burritos.  tacos*  (80  kcal) 

Dairy  desserts  (76  kcal) 

Pasta  and  pasta  dishes  (78  kcal) 

9 

Beef  and  beef  mixed  dishes'1  (64  kcal) 

Potato/corn/other  chips  (70  kcal) 

Beef  and  beef  mixed  dishes  (71  kcal) 

10 

Dairy  desserts'  (62  kcal) 

Ready-to-eat  cereals  (65  kcal) 

Dairy  desserts  (58  kcal) 

11 

Potato/com/tot  her  chips  (56  kcal) 

Tortillas,  burritos.  tacos  (63  kcal) 

Burgers  (53  kcal) 

12 

Burgers  (53  kcal) 

Whole  milk  (60  kcal) 

Regular  cheese  (51  kcal) 

13 

Reduced  fat  milk  (51  kcal) 

Candy  (56  kcal) 

Potato/com/other  chips  (51  kcal) 

14 

Regular  cheese  (49  kcal) 

Fruit  drinks  (55  kcal) 

Sausage,  franks,  bacon,  and  ribs 
(49  kcal) 

15 

Ready-to-eat  cereals  (49  kcal) 

Burgers  (55  kcal) 

Nuts/seeds  and  nut/seed  mixed  dishes 
(47  kcal) 

16 

Sausage,  franks,  bacon,  and  ribs 
(49  kcal) 

Fried  white  potatoes  (52  kcal) 

Fried  white  potatoes  (46  kcal) 

17 

Fried  white  potatoes  (48  kcal) 

Sausage,  franks,  bacon,  and  ribs 
(47  kcal) 

Ready-to-eat  cereals  (44  kcal) 

18 

Candy  (47  kcal) 

Regular  cheese  (43  kcal) 

Candy  (44  kcal) 

19 

Nuts/seeds  and  nut/seed  mixed 
dishes'  (42  kcal) 

Beef  and  beef  mixed  dishes  (43  kcal) 

Eggs  and  egg  mixed  dishes  (42  kcal) 

20 

Eggs  and  egg  mixed  dishes1  (39  kcal) 

100%  fruit  juice,  not  orange/grapefruit 
(35  kcal) 

Rice  and  rice  mixed  dishes  (41  kcal) 

21 

Rice  and  rice  mixed  dishes'  (36  kcal) 

Eggs  and  egg  mixed  dishes  (30  kcal) 

Reduced  fat  milk  (39  kcal) 

22 

Fruit  drinks'"  (36  kcal) 

Pancakes,  waffles,  and  French  toast 
(29  kcal) 

Quickbreads  (36  kcal) 

23 

Whole  milk  (33  kcal) 

Crackers  (28  kcal) 

Other  fish  and  fish  mixed  dishes* 

(30  kcal) 

24 

Quickbreads"  (32  kcal) 

Nuts/seeds  and  nutAeed  mixed  dishes 
(27  kcal) 

Fruit  drinks  (29  kcal) 

25 

Cold  cuts  (27  kcal) 

Cold  cuts  (24  kcal) 

Salad  dressing  (29  kcal) 

- - - 1 - - \ 

SOURCE:  USD  A  -  Dietary  Guidelines  for  Americans  2010  -  https://licalth.gov/dictarvgiiidclincs/dga2010/DictarvGuidclines2010.pdf 

What  does  it  mean  when  the  number  1  and  1 0  calorie  sources  for  American  adults  are  deserts,  and  the  number  6 
source  is  alcohol,  not  a  food  but  a  poison,  while  the  vast  majority  of  the  other  sources  are  unhealthy  processed 
foods,  and  not  one  natural  healthy  fruit-  or  vegetable-based  item?  Is  there  any  wonder  that  Americans  are  going 
through  an  obesity  epidemic  and  have  other  chronic  health  issues?  Why  is  the  number  6  calorie  source  alcohol, 
are  they  stressed,  angry,  or  depressed  and  attempting  to  silence  a  pain  with  something  that  gives  them  temporary 
relief?  Are  they  addicted  to  indulgence?  Are  they  following  the  patterns  of  behavior  set  for  them  by  portions  of 
the  entertainment  industry,  friends,  parents,  or  other  mentors?  Why  are  all  these  unhealthy  food  products  being 
consumed  in  such  vast  quantities?  Could  it  have  to  do  with  them  being  more  prevalent  at  most  restaurants  and 
grocery  stores?  Could  it  be  that  these  products  are  what  is  marketed  to  consumers  by  the  food  companies  and 
even  recommended  by  pseudo  experts  of  nutrition  that  create  the  recommended  daily  allowances  (RDAs)  which 
so  many  consumers  follow?  Dr.  T.  Colin  Campbell,  Ph.D.,  a  former  panel  member,  explains  in  detail  how  the 
Food  and  Nutrition  Board  (FNB)  has  turned  the  RDAs  into  a  corrupt  and  unreliable  system  with  devastating 
consequences, 


“The  Food  and  Nutrition  Board  (FNB),  as  part  of  the  Institute  of  Medicine  (IOM)  of  the  National  Academy  of  Sciences,  has 
the  responsibility  every  five  years  or  so  to  review  and  update  the  recommended  consumption  of  individual  nutrients.  The 
FNB  has  been  making  nutrient  recommendations  since  1943  when  it  established  a  plan  for  the  U.S.  Armed  Forces  wherein  it 
recommended  daily  allowances  (RDAs)  for  each  individual  nutrient” 

“The  second  panel  member,  a  long-time  friend  and  colleague,  was  a  subcommittee  chair  during  the  latter  part  of  the  panel's 
existence.  He  is  not  a  nutritional  scientist  and  also  was  surprised  to  hear  my  concerns  about  the  upper  limit  for  protein.  He  did 
not  recall  much  discussion  on  the  topic  either.  When  I  reminded  him  of  some  of  the  evidence  linking  high-animal  protein 
diets  to  chronic  disease,  he  initially  was  a  little  defensive.  But  with  a  little  more  persistence  on  my  part  about  the  evidence,  he 
finally  said,  “Colin,  you  know  that  I  really  don't  know  anything  about  nutrition.”  How  then  was  he  a  member-let  alone  the 
chair-of  this  important  subcommittee?  And  it  gets  worse.  The  chair  of  the  standing  committee  on  the  evaluation  of  these 
recommendations  left  the  panel  shortly  before  its  completion  for  a  senior  executive  position  in  a  very  large  food  company-a 
company  that  will  salivate  over  these  new  recommendations.” 

“Almost  all  of  the  wide-ranging  effects  of  this  2002  FNB  report  will  be  profoundly  harmful.  In  school,  our  children  can  be  fed  more 
fat,  more  meat,  more  milk,  more  animal  protein  and  more  sugar.  They  will  also  learn  that  this  food  is  consistent  with  good  health. 
The  ramifications  of  this  are  serious,  as  a  whole  generation  will  walk  the  path  of  obesity,  diabetes  and  other  chronic  illnesses,  all  the 
while  believing  that  they  are  doing  the  right  thing.”  (109) 

For  many  westerners,  their  food  source  is  that  of  fast  food  which  is  often  marketed  as  delicious,  healthy,  and 
inexpensive,  but  it  is  in  fact  highly  processed,  mass  produced,  very  unhealthy,  and  expensive.  Although  there  is 
‘Smoothie  King  ’  founded  in  1 973  and  ‘Veggie  Grill  ’  established  in  2006,  there  are  no  mainstream  fast  food 
chains  which  base  their  menu  solely  around  healthy  fresh  plant -based  ingredients,  instead  menu  items  use  mainly 
fauna-based  ingredients.  And  although  there  are  a  few  vegan  options  when  eating  at  some  of  the  smaller 
restaurants  and  fast  food  chains  which  specialize  in  cultural  and  regional  cuisines,  perhaps  one  day  there  will  be 
more  ’Veganurants  ’  or  even  more  vegan  options  on  mainstream  fast  food  menus.  In  the  United  States,  there  are 
131 ,624  mainstream  fast  food  chain  locations  in  addition  to  the  thousands  of  smaller  chains  or  independent 
knock-offs,  and  globally  locations  are  increasing  rapidly.  For  instance,  McDonald’s  had  2,500  China  locations  in 
2017  and  recently  announced  that  by  the  end  of  2022  they  expect  to  increase  the  number  to  4,500  restaurants. 
(481)  It  should  also  be  noted,  that  in  addition,  there  are  4,130  fast  food  trucks  (127)  and  154,195  convenient  stores 
(125)  which  also  operate  in  the  United  States,  most  of  which  offer  some  type  of  fast  food  either  precooked  or 
microwavable,  and  is  usually  even  more  unhealthy  than  their  fast  food  restaurant  counterparts.  There  are  also 
thousands  of  vending  machines  which  mainly  offer  unhealthy  food  and  drink  items  for  an  exorbitant  price. 


U.S.  Fast  Food  Franchises 

Franchise 

Worldwide  Locations  in  2017 

Subway 

44,818 

McDonald’s 

36,525 

Starbucks 

23,768 

RFC  Corp. 

19,420 

Burger  King 

15,000 

Pizza  Hut  Inc. 

13,728 

Dunkin'  Donuts 

11,000 

Dominos  Pizza 

8,200 

Wendy’s 

6,490 

Taco  Bell 

6,407 

Hardee's 

5,812 

Dairy  Queen 

4,800 

Papa  John’s 

4,700 

Sonic 

3,526 

Arby’s 

3,342 

Jack  in  the  Box 

2,200 

Popeyes 

2,000 

Jimmy  Johns  Gourmet  Sandwiches 

1,954 

A&W 

1,200 

Krispy  Kreme 

1,003 

Bojangles’ 

600 

SOURCE:  Wikipedia  (with  some  corrections,  additions,  and  other  edits) 

Biotechnological  Food 

Some  of  the  methods  being  practiced  to  modify  agricultural  crops  resulting  in  increased  yields,  resistance  to 
pestilence,  and  to  adjust  for  climate  conditions  are:  genetic  modification,  inter-species  crossing,  marker-assisted 
selection,  mutation  breeding,  or  traditional  breeding.  Some  are  under  the  impression  that  modifying  the  food 
sources  themselves  with  technology  will  solve  the  health  issues  which  are  being  created  from  an  unhealthy  diet. 
Instead  of  working  with  nature  these  methods  in  fact  work  against  it,  and  the  solution  to  many  of  the  problems 
that  are  trying  to  be  corrected  are  easily  found  in  simple  dietary  changes,  and  not  changing  the  foods  themselves. 

In  2014,  sales  of  products  labeled  as  non-genetically  modified  organisms  (non-GMO)  grew  30%  to  more  than 
$1,100,000,000,  (42)  an  increase  which  may  be  a  result  of  the  public's  non-acceptance  of  GMO  products.  There 
seems  to  be  a  general  negative  consensus  and  fear  towards  genetically  modified  foods  from  most  of  the  public, 
but  ironically  most  Homo  sapiens  have  been  unknowingly  consuming  some  type  of  modified  food  for  the  last  50 
years,  either  modified  through  genetics  or  through  the  use  of  fertilizers  and  pesticides.  In  2017,  the  USDA 
estimated  that  94%  of  soybeans  are  genetically  modified  to  be  herbicide-tolerant  (HT),  and  89%  of  domestic 
com  are  also  produced  with  HT  seeds.  As  of  2015,  more  than  81%  of  domestic  com  has  also  been  genetically 
modified  to  contain  genes  from  the  soil  bacterium  Bacillus  thuringiensis.  (575)  After  an  outbreak  of  papaya 
ringspot  vims  in  the  early  1990s,  a  genetically  modified  papaya  was  created  to  resist  the  virus,  today  more  than 
80%  of  Hawaiian  papaya  is  genetically  modified.  (691)  So  why  is  the  public  so  unwilling  to  accept  GM  Foods? 
The  Institute  of  Medicine  and  National  Research  Council  in  2004  stated, 

"Adverse  health  effects  from  genetic  engineering  have  not  been  documented  in  the  human  population,  but  the  technique  is 
new  and  concerns  about  its  safety  remain.”  (41 ) 

Could  a  negative  side-effect  from  genetic  modification  directly  affect  Homo  sapiens  health  in  the  future?  How 
will  the  susceptibility  to  genetic  erosion  or  genetic  homogeneity  affect  GM  food  crops  over  time?  Is  there  a  real 
need  to  modify  food  crops  in  the  first  place?  Could  all  the  food  needed  for  consumption  be  grown  with  the  tools 
of  nature  and  in  a  more  organic  natural  manner  without  all  the  synthetic  unnatural  pesticides,  fertilizers, 
additives,  homiones,  antibiotics,  or  genetic  modifications?  Could  these  added  homiones  be  causing  precocious 
puberty  in  some  Homo  sapiens ?  In  the  October  2014  National  Geographic  Magazine  Tim  Folger  reported  that, 

"First  released  in  the  1990s,  they’ve  been  adopted  by  28  countries  and  planted  on  1 1  percent  of  the  world’s  arable  land, 
including  half  the  cropland  in  the  U.S.  About  90  percent  of  the  com,  cotton,  and  soybeans  grown  in  the  U.S.  are  genetically 
modified.  Americans  have  been  eating  GM  products  for  nearly  two  decades.  But  in  Europe  and  much  of  Africa,  debates  over 
the  safety  and  environmental  effects  of  GM  crops  have  largely  blocked  their  use." 

Proponents  like  Fraley  say  such  crops  have  prevented  billions  of  dollars  in  losses  in  the  U.S.  alone  and  have  actually  benefited 
the  environment.  A  recent  study  by  the  U.S.  Department  of  Agriculture  found  that  pesticide  use  on  corn  crops  has  dropped  90 
percent  since  the  introduction  of  Bt  corn,  which  contains  genes  from  the  bacterium  Bacillus  thuringiensis  that  help  it  ward  off 
corn  borers  and  other  pests.  Reports  from  China  indicate  that  harmful  aphids  have  decreased — and  ladybugs  and  other 
beneficial  insects  have  increased — in  provinces  where  GM  cotton  has  been  planted." 

"The  particular  GM  crops  Fraley  pioneered  at  Monsanto  have  been  profitable  for  the  company  and  many  farmers,  but  have 
not  helped  sell  the  cause  of  high-tech  agriculture  to  the  public.  Monsanto’s  Roundup  Ready  crops  are  genetically  modified  to 
be  immune  to  the  herbicide  Roundup,  which  Monsanto  also  manufactures.  That  means  farmers  can  spray  the  herbicide  freely 
to  eliminate  weeds  without  damaging  their  GM  com,  cotton,  or  soybeans.  Their  contract  with  Monsanto  does  not  allow  them 


to  save  seeds  for  planting;  they  must  purchase  its  patented  seeds  each  year. 


Modem  agriculture,  they  say,  already  relies  too  heavily  on  synthetic  fertilizers  and  pesticides.  Not  only  are  they  unaffordable 
for  a  small  farmer  like  Juma;  they  pollute  land,  water,  and  air.  Synthetic  fertilizers  are  manufactured  using  fossil  fuels,  and 
they  themselves  emit  potent  greenhouse  gases  when  they’re  applied  to  fields." 

“The  choice  is  clear,”  says  Hans  Herren,  another  World  Food  Prize  laureate  and  the  director  of  Biovision,  a  Swiss  nonprofit. 

“We  need  a  farming  system  that  is  much  more  mindful  of  the  landscape  and  ecological  resources.  We  need  to  change  the 
paradigm  of  the  green  revolution.  Heavy-input  agriculture  has  no  future — we  need  something  different.”  There  are  ways  to 
deter  pests  and  increase  yields,  he  thinks,  that  are  more  suitable  for  the  Jumas  of  this  world." 

A  GM  crop  is  by  no  means  the  fix  all  answer  to  food  pestilence,  a  growing  population,  or  climate  conditions,  the 
technology  is  still  susceptible  to  evolution  and  the  other  processes,  forces,  and  laws  of  nature.  Already  com 
rootworms  have  evolved  resistance  to  the  bacterial  toxins  in  GM  Bt  com.  In  the  May  2015  National  Geographic 
Magazine  Rachel  Hartigan  Shea  reported  that, 

“Using  a  technique  called  RNA  interference  (RNAi),  scientists  have  silenced  genes  that  lead  potatoes  to  biuise  and  to  brown 
when  exposed  to  air — the  two  characteristics  that  land  roughly  30  percent  of  harvested  potatoes  in  the  trash.  These  new  spuds 
also  contain  up  to  70  percent  less  of  an  amino  acid  that  transforms  into  a  cancer-  causing  compound  at  high  temperatures.  A 
second  version  will  be  resistant  to  late  blight,  the  disease  that  caused  the  Irish  potato  famine.” 

AquAdvantage  salmon,  the  first  genetically  modified  salmon  was  deemed  safe  for  consumption  in  20 1 0  and  will 
be  available  as  soon  as  labeling  guidelines  from  the  FDA  have  been  mandated.  And  in  2006,  Hematech,  Inc. 
announced  it  had  used  genetic  engineering  and  cloning  technology  to  produce  cattle  that  lacked  a  necessary  gene 
for  prion  production,  theoretically  making  them  immune  to  Mad  Cow  Disease  which  has  resulted  in  the  deaths  of 
millions  of  cattle  worldwide.  Is  it  acceptable  to  use  science  techniques  to  modify  food  in  such  ways?  One  can  see 
many  benefits,  but  will  consumers  accept  a  food  that  has  been  altered  in  such  a  way?  Could  GMOs  have  adverse 
side  effects  on  natural  unmodified  florae  and  faunae?  Wouldn’t  a  simpler  solution  be  to  not  fry  potatoes  and  not 
worry  so  much  about  aesthetics?  Does  the  onion  really  need  to  be  genetically  modify  so  that  Homo  sapiens  eyes 
don't  water  when  they  are  cut?  Must  companies  resort  to  genetically  engineering  wheat  and  rice  to  resemble 
seaweed  in  order  to  grow  on  soil  that  has  been  overtaxed  and  become  saline?  Can  we  not  maintain  the  soils  with 
natural  husbandry  techniques,  and  instead  grow  a  natural  unmodified  food  crop?  Would  it  not  be  wiser  for  Homo 
sapiens  to  alter  their  lifestyles  and  mentalities,  rather  than  modifying  the  food  sources  to  suit  a  negative  lifestyle 
and  mentality? 

Is  all  this  modification  of  nature  necessary,  or  could  the  solution  to  the  agricultural  dilemma  be  to  simply  better 
understand  and  work  with  nature  allowing  the  natural  processes,  forces,  and  laws  of  nature  to  help,  instead  of 
working  hopelessly  against  it?  Many  Homo  sapiens  tend  to  forget  that  nature  does  things  far  better  than  Homo 
sapiens  do,  and  in  fact  some  things  that  Homo  sapiens  have  perfected  technologically  have  been  based  on  some 
natural  design.  Continuing  to  work  against  nature  in  the  future  could  result  in  a  cycle  of  similar  problems  the 
agricultural  industry  is  encountering  today.  Nature  has  far  more  experience  than  Homo  sapiens  and  has  been 
using  evolution  along  with  other  processes,  forces,  and  laws  to  create  perfect  food  for  every  living  creature  on 
Earth  for  billions  of  years,  and  this  system  works  in  perfect  harmony  if  left  alone.  Would  Homo  sapiens  not  be 
wiser  to  use  this  experience  to  their  advantage  and  follow  the  example  set  by  nature  instead  of  trying  to  reinvent 
and  attempt  to  control  nature? 

Meat,  Dairy,  and  Egg  Consumption 

Some  paleobiologist  and  paleoanthropologist  have  postulated  that  eating  meat  led  to  the  development  of  the 
human  brain,  and  that  without  eating  meat  humans  would  not  be  as  intelligent  as  they  are  today.  This  view  is 
used  by  some  proponents  who  advocate  eating  meat  based  on  the  erroneous  belief  that  Homo  sapiens  must 
consume  a  diet  of  50%  or  more  of  meat,  and  that  if  Homo  sapiens  stop  eating  meat  they  will  become  less 
intelligent.  In  the  September  2014  issue  of  National  Geographic  Magazine  paleobiologist  Amanda  Henry  said, 

“There’s  been  a  consistent  story  about  hunting  defining  us  and  that  meat  made  us  human,  frankly,  I  think  that  misses  half  of 
the  story.  They  want  meat,  sure.  But  what  they  actually  live  on  is  plant  foods.” 


Furthermore,  in  the  same  National  Geographic  Magazine  when  describing  modem  day  indigenous  Homo  sapiens 
Ann  Gibbons  said. 


"The  Hadza  get  almost  70  percent  of  their  calories  from  plants.  The  Kung  traditionally  rely  on  tubers  and  mongongo  nuts,  the 
Aka  and  Baka  Pygmies  of  the  Congo  River  Basin  on  yams,  the  Tsimane  and  Yanomami  Indians  of  the  Amazon  on  plantains 
and  manioc,  the  Australian  Aboriginals  on  nut  grass  and  water  chestnuts.” 

And  although  salmon,  deer,  seafood,  and  other  wild  game  were  eaten  by  the  indigenous  which  inhabited 
California,  their  diet  consisted  of  many  flora  species  and  even  some  insects,  grubs,  and  womis.  Theodora 
Kroeber  in  describing  the  California  indigenous  diet  writes, 

“The  great  staple  food  of  the  California  Indian  was  acorn  flour  made  into  mush  or  bread.  The  acorn,  of  which  some  half  dozen 
or  more  edible  varieties  were  recognized,  meant  to  Indians  what  rice  means  to  Cantonese  Chinese,  or  maize  to 
Mexicans. ..Pine  nuts,  hazel  nuts,  buckeye,  manzanita  berries,  wild  raspberry,  huckleberry,  plum,  grape,  elderberry,  barberry, 
and  thimbleberry  were  enjoyed  in  season,  and  some  of  them  were  dried  and  stored.  There  were  sage  and  tarweed  and  clarkia 
seeds,  and  a  host  of  other  seeds  small  and  large  and,  in  season,  the  earth -oven  roasted  roots  of  the  camas,  annis,  tiger  lily,  and 
brodiaea  were  a  welcome  addition.  Certain  grubs  and  wonns  were  roasted  as  delicacies;  also  grasshoppers  as  in  modem 
Mexico.”  (96) 

Even  more  prolific  is  the  erroneous  mainstream  belief  that  consuming  meat  and  dairy  products  are  healthy,  and 
that  one  will  be  bigger  and  stronger  by  consuming  them.  Some  use  the  excuse  that  Homo  erectus  began  hunting 
around  1,800,000  years  ago,  and  even  Homo  sapiens  themselves  have  been  consuming  meat  for  more  than 
200,000  years,  but  again  modern-day  Homo  sapiens  have  far  more  knowledge  and  alternatives  their  primitive 
ancestors  didn’t  have.  Others  justify  consuming  faunae  in  that  there  are  other  predator  species  in  the  wild  which 
hunt,  kill,  and  consume  other  fauna  species.  Yes,  there  are  predators  in  nature  which  hunt  and  eat  other  species, 
and  yes  this  keeps  a  balance,  but  there  is  far  more  coexistence  in  nature  which  is  not  focused  on.  To  use  this  to 
justify  eating  faunae  is  irrational,  as  Homo  sapiens  have  far  more  intelligence  than  a  lion  and  have  a  choice  at 
this  point  in  their  evolution,  whereas  a  lion  has  evolved  this  way  and  has  no  choice.  If  one  compares  the  physical 
features  of  Homo  sapiens  with  carnivores,  they  can  easily  see  that  Homo  sapiens  do  not  have  fangs  or  claws  for 
killing  and  ripping  apart  flesh,  but  in  fact  have  the  exact  opposite  with  teeth  and  hands  made  for  harvesting  and 
consuming  florae.  Homo  sapiens  can’t  digest  raw  meat  like  carnivores  do,  as  it  contains  disease-carrying 
pathogens  which  will  make  Homo  sapiens  extremely  ill  and  can  even  cause  death.  Homo  sapiens  do  not  have  the 
same  digestive  system  as  carnivores  do,  and  in  fact  have  a  longer  intestine  which  is  a  trait  found  in  herbivores.  If 
one  also  looks  at  other  predators  and  most  all  other  faunae,  they  do  not  suffer  from  medical  issues  as  a  result  of 
consuming  meat,  medical  issues  which  are  prevalent  only  in  Homo  sapiens,  (e.g.  obesity,  diabetes,  high  blood 
pressure,  cardiovascular  disease,  chronic  kidney  disease,  strokes,  various  cancers,  etc.)  Homo  sapiens  are  not 
predators,  and  without  tools  to  hunt  with  and  fire  to  cook,  meat  is  not  naturally  feasible  to  acquire  and  consume. 
Florae  are  the  exact  opposite  in  that  it  is  easily  obtainable,  and  almost  always  edible  in  its  raw  form.  The  vast 
majority  of  Earth's  fauna  species  are  vegan  and  most  of  the  carnivorous  species  are  not  predators,  they  are  in  fact 
scavengers  and  do  not  kill  anything,  but  rather  wait  until  it  dies  naturally  and  then  consume  the  carrion.  They  are 
really  doing  nothing  more  than  cleaning  the  Earth  of  its  inevitable  victims  of  death. 

As  most  anyone  will  attest  to,  fresh  food  is  always  not  only  more  tasting,  but  also  more  nutritional.  Most  meat  is 
several  months  old  by  the  time  it  even  reaches  the  consumer,  and  dairy  and  eggs  are  also  not  fresh.  Meat,  dairy, 
and  eggs  all  require  refrigeration  because  they  spoil  very  rapidly,  and  in  addition,  eggs  and  meat  must  also  be 
cooked  at  very  high  temperatures  in  order  to  kill  disease-carrying  pathogens  and  consume  it  safely.  What  does 
this  say  about  the  natural  edibility  of  these  products  for  Homo  sapiens ?  The  majority  of  Homo  sapiens  around 
the  world  today  do  not  eat  vast  quantities  of  meat  from  cows,  chickens,  or  pigs  as  it  is  not  readily  available,  or 
they  are  too  poor  to  afford  it,  when  and  if  they  do  consume  meat  it  is  on  rare  occasions  and  in  very  small 
quantities.  In  most  parts  of  India,  the  cow  is  in  fact  sacred  and  not  eaten.  A  2003  report  by  the  Food  and 
Agriculture  Organization  of  the  United  Nations  report  stated, 

“The  second  major  factor  limiting  the  growth  of  world  meat  consumption  is  the  fact  that  such  consumption  is  heavily  and 
disproportionately  concentrated  in  the  industrial  countries.  They  account  for  15  percent  of  world  population  but  for  37  percent 
of  world  meat  consumption  and  40  percent  of  that  of  milk.”  ( 1 3 1 ) 


Vegetarianism  is  nothing  more  than  the  erroneous  notion  that  by  not  killing  and  eating  faunae  it  somehow 
justifies  the  continual  exploitation  of  faunae  through  the  consumption  of  eggs  and  dairy.  How  can  vegetarians 
proclaim  their  love  of  faunae  and  advocate  for  fauna  rights  while  still  exploiting  the  fauna  for  either  their  milk, 
eggs,  feathers,  skins,  or  labor?  From  the  easily  visible  negative  impact  on  consumer  health  and  the  environment, 
in  conjunction  with  a  basic  set  of  morals  toward  other  sentient  faunae,  one  would  think  that  vegan  logic  would 
prevail  in  the  carnivore  argument.  Homo  sapiens  can  sustain  life  without  faunae  as  a  source  of  food,  so  why 
don't  they?  Have  most  Homo  sapiens  simply  not  developed  enough  intellectually  and  morally  to  see  how 
illogical  it  is  to  dominate,  exploit,  and  consume  faunae? 


SOURCE:  USDA  -  photos  K3839-3  and  K3627-16  by:  Keith  Weller  and  photo  K7623-1  by:  Scott  Bauer.  Which  picture  looks  not  only 
more  appetizing  but  takes  less  effort  to  prepare  and  consume?  Which  pictures  feels  pain,  stress,  and  other  emotions? 

The  meat,  egg,  and  dairy  industry  along  with  omnivorous  consumers  have  proliferated  on  a  global  scale  the 
spread  of  disease,  environmental  destruction,  and  the  abuse  and  slaughter  of  billions  of  cows,  chickens,  goats, 
bison,  snakes,  sharks,  whales,  birds,  and  other  faunae  all  in  the  name  of  tradition  and  profits.  Perhaps  if  Homo 
sapiens  would  inquire  more  about  their  meat  sources  they  could  see  the  brutality  and  inhumane  treatment  their 
commercial  meat  sources  endure  daily  on  a  mass  scale.  Some  of  the  things  Homo  sapiens  consume  are  beyond 
comprehension  when  one  looks  at  the  natural  intentions  of  the  product,  (e.g.  milk,  eggs,  flesh,  feet,  snouts, 
spleens,  tongues,  lips,  and  a  wide  range  of  animal  organs  such  as  hearts,  livers,  brains,  etc.)  Isaac  Singer  wrote, 

"As  often  as  Herman  had  witnessed  the  slaughter  of  animals  and  fish,  he  always  had  the  same  thought:  in  their  behavior 
toward  creatures,  all  men  were  Nazis.  The  smugness  with  which  man  could  do  with  other  species  as  he  pleased  exemplified 
the  most  extreme  racist  theories,  the  principle  that  might  is  right."  (612) 

Although  there  is  insufficient  scientific  evidence  to  prove  a  cause-and-effect  relationship  between  probiotics  and 
any  health  benefits,  companies  still  market  them  as  such  which  ultimately  results  in  many  consumers  being 
misled  into  consuming  them  unnecessarily.  In  addition,  because  of  vast  marketing  campaigns  by  the  dairy 


industry,  many  Homo  sapiens  have  the  false  notion  that  you  must  eat  probiotic  rich  dairy  foods  to  maintain 
health  and  must  also  drink  milk  to  get  vitamin  D  to  maintain  healthy  bones.  Probiotics  are  added  to  products  like 
yogurt  in  attempt  to  promote  more  of  a  healthy  product,  and  most  buy  into  this  marketing  scheme  not  realize  that 
yeast  obtained  by  when  eating  naturally  baked  goods  is  sufficient.  “ Milk  does  the  body  good”  and  “Got  Milk?  ” 
are  some  of  the  most  famous  tag-lines,  and  the  dairy  industry  has  even  used  celebrities  to  market  milk  and  other 
dairy  products  as  healthy  and  as  the  best  source  for  vitamin  D  and  calcium.  But  it  does  not  do  the  body  good  and 
in  fact  it  is  very  harmful,  while  there  are  other  far  more  healthier  sources  to  obtain  vitamin  D  and  calcium.  Few 
know  or  even  realize  that  vitamin  D  is  not  a  vitamin  that  needs  to  be  consumed  and  in  fact  around  1  hour  of 
sunlight  exposure  per  week  will  allow  Homo  sapiens  bodies  to  make  all  that  it  needs  internally,  no  milk  or  dairy 
is  needed,  just  natural  sunshine. 

In  addition,  the  majority  of  adults  in  the  world  produce  low  levels  of  lactase  and  are  not  naturally  capable  of 
digesting  dairy  products.  The  lactase  enzyme  is  present  in  all  children,  but  as  they  stop  breast  feeding  there  is  no 
reason  for  the  enzyme  and  it  weakens  unless  the  child  is  forced  to  consume  dairy  products.  The  majority  of 
adults  with  high  levels  of  lactase  are  from  regions  in  the  world  like  Europe  and  American  with  a  history  of 
raising  dairy  animals.  75%  of  all  African-Americans  and  Native -Americans  as  well  as  90%  of  all  Asian- 
Americans  are  lactose  intolerant.  (219)  So  logically  speaking  from  an  evolutionary  standpoint  Homo  sapiens  are 
not  designed  to  digest  milk  for  their  entire  lifespan,  only  for  the  early  initial  development  stage,  and  with 
breastmilk,  not  cow’s  milk.  While  Americans  now  drink  37%  less  milk  than  in  1970,  (347)  China,  a  previously 
non-dairy  consuming  nation,  has  quickly  become  a  new  consumer  market  for  milk  in  recent  years  increasing  the 
global  milk  demand. 

There  are  far  healthier  alternative  flora-based  milk  sources  available  derived  from  almonds,  soy,  rice,  oat, 
quinoa,  hemp,  coconuts,  and  other  florae  which  are  cholesterol  free  and  contain  even  more  vitamins  and 
minerals  than  fauna  based  dairy  products.  They  are  all  natural  and  produce  a  much  smaller  carbon  footprint 
during  the  manufacturing  process  than  milk  which  comes  from  cows  or  other  faunae.  In  addition,  almonds,  soy, 
rice,  oat,  quinoa,  hemp,  coconuts,  and  other  florae  contain  less  fat  and  are  more  nutritional  and  healthier. 

Almond,  soy,  rice,  oat,  quinoa,  hemp,  coconut,  and  other  flora-based  milks  also  do  not  spoil  as  quickly  and  thus 
can  be  consumed  over  a  longer  period.  Ironically,  high  dairy  consumption  has  been  linked  to  higher  rates  of 
osteoporosis  and  not  lower,  and  yet  the  dairy  industry  has  marketed  the  idea  that  mass  milk  consumption  leads  to 
stronger  bones.  This  erroneous  claim  can  be  seen  in  the  scientific  evidence  that  the  consumption  of  fauna  protein 
creates  metabolic  acidosis,  as  a  defense  mechanism  the  body  uses  calcium  in  the  bones  to  neutralize  the 
metabolic  acidosis,  resulting  in  osteoporosis.  Changing  the  consumption  of  regular  whole  dairy  products  to  low 
fat  or  even  non-fat  dairy  products  does  not  have  any  results  on  this  condition. 

Unfortunately  for  faunae,  the  health  of  the  Homo  sapiens  who  consume  them,  and  the  Earth  that  bears  the  scars 
from  the  livestock  industry,  meat  and  dairy  consumption  is  on  the  rise,  especially  the  meat  of  chickens.  American 
meat  consumers  are  consuming  less  red  meat,  appearing  to  have  learned  a  valuable  nutritional  lesson  in  recent 
decades  about  the  fatal  side  effects  of  beef  consumption  in  gluttonous  amounts.  Unfortunately  for  consumers, 
and  like  so  many  other  industries  in  recent  times,  corporations  have  consolidated  smaller  operations  and  created 
a  monopoly  over  the  meat  supply.  In  the  November  2014,  National  Geographic  Magazine  Robert  Kunzig 
reported  that, 

"In  1976  per  capita  beef  consumption  peaked  in  the  United  States  at  91.5  pounds  a  year.  It  has  since  fallen  more  than  40 

percent.  Last  year  Americans  ate  on  average  54  pounds  of  beef  each,  about  the  same  amount  as  a  century  ago.  Instead  we  eat 

twice  as  much  chicken  as  we  did  in  1976  and  nearly  six  times  as  much  as  a  century  ago. 

...today  82  percent  of  U.S.  beef  passes  through  plants  that  process  thousands  of  cattle  a  day  and  are  owned  by  just  four 

corporations." 

Worldwide,  billions  of  cows,  chickens,  and  pigs  are  consumed  each  year,  and  although  there  are  no  complete 
worldwide  statistics  available  as  to  exactly  how  many  have  been  consumed  in  just  the  last  100  years,  one  can  get 
a  general  idea  of  how  enormous  the  scale  is  in  which  these  faunae  are  being  consumed  globally.  During  2015  in 
the  United  States  alone,  28,800,000  cows,  452,600  calves,  115,400,000  pigs,  2,220,000  sheep  and  lambs, 


8,822,695,000  chickens,  232,398,000  turkeys,  and  27,749,000  ducks  (132)  (133)  (134)  were  federally  inspected  and 
slaughtered  for  consumption.  Globally  more  than  1,200,000,000,000  eggs  were  produced  for  consumption  in 
2014.  (475)  In  2013,  the  worldwide  production  of  milk  was  275,302,000,000  gallons.  (188)  It  should  also  be 
factored  in  that  millions  of  individuals  worldwide  also  maintain  livestock  for  personal  consumption  and 
exploitation,  and  these  faunae  are  not  federally  inspected  nor  included  in  any  statistical  data. 

Figure  8 

120,000 

100,000 
80,000 
60,000 
40,000 
20,000 

2008  2009  2010  2011  2012  2013 

■  China  ■  EU-27  ■  United  States  ■  Brazil  ■  Other 

Source,  USDA,  FAS,  Production,  Supply,  and  Distribution  database  (accessed  October  28,  2013). 


Global  pork  production,  2008-13  (thousand  metric  tons,  carcass-weight  equivalent) 


FIGURE  8  Global  production  of  poultry  meat  was  highly  concentrated  in  2006-12 


2006  2007  2008  2009  2010  2011  2012 


«  EU-27  ■  China  a  Brazil  h  United  States  *  Rest  of  World 


Source  USDA,  FAS,  PSD  Online  database,  (accessed  August  20,  2013). 


Beef  and  Veal  Selected  Countries  Summary 
1,000  Metric  Tons  (Carcass  Weight  Equivalent) 


2012 

2013 

2014 

2015 

2016 

2016 

Oct 

ADr 

Production 


Brazil 

9,307 

9,675 

9,723 

9,425 

9,600 

9,620 

European  Union 

7,708 

7,388 

7,443 

7,670 

7,560 

7,680 

China 

6,623 

6,730 

6,890 

6,700 

6,785 

6,785 

India 

3,491 

3,800 

4,100 

4,100 

4,500 

4,300 

Argentina 

2,620 

2,850 

2,700 

2,740 

2,680 

2,680 

Australia 

2,152 

2,359 

2,595 

2,547 

2,300 

2,180 

Mexico 

1,821 

1,807 

1,827 

1,850 

1,865 

1,865 

Pakistan 

1,587 

1,630 

1,675 

1,725 

1,775 

1,775 

Russia 

1,380 

1,380 

1,370 

1,355 

1,300 

1,310 

Canada 

1,060 

1,049 

1,099 

1,050 

975 

1,065 

Others 

8,940 

9,063 

9,232 

8,412 

8,467 

8,413 

Total  Foreign 

46,689 

47,731 

48,654 

47,574 

47,807 

47,673 

United  States 

11,848 

11,751 

11,076 

10,815 

11,389 

11,328 

Total 

58,537 

59,482 

59,730 

58,389 

59,196 

59,001 

SOURCE:  United  States  International  Trade  Commission  and  United  States  Department  of  Agriculture 


In  the  May  2014  issue  of  National  Geographic  Magazine,  Jonathan  Foley  stated, 

“Agriculture  is  among  the  greatest  contributors  to  global  warming,  emitting  more  greenhouse  gases  than  all  our  cars,  trucks, 
trains,  and  airplanes  combined — largely  from  methane  released  by  cattle  and  rice  farms,  nitrous  oxide  from  fertilized  fields, 
and  carbon  dioxide  from  the  cutting  of  rain  forests  to  grow  crops  or  raise  livestock. 

The  spread  of  prosperity  across  the  world,  especially  in  China  and  India,  is  driving  an  increased  demand  for  meat,  eggs,  and 
dairy,  boosting  pressure  to  grow  more  com  and  soybeans  to  feed  more  cattle,  pigs,  and  chickens.  If  these  trends  continue,  the 
double  whammy  of  population  growth  and  richer  diets  will  require  us  to  roughly  double  the  amount  of  crops  we  grow  by 
2050.” 

If  eating  meat  causes  more  environmental  damage  than  driving  an  oil  powered  automobile,  would  not  the  most 
logical  action  be  to  encourage  more  individuals  to  consume  less  meat  and  not  more?  Will  this  proliferation  of 
meat  eating  offset  the  positive  reductions  in  greenhouse  gas  emissions  from  other  sources?  How  long  will  it  take 
developing  countries  to  realize  the  devastating  health  and  environmental  consequences  of  this  new  deadly  diet? 
What  if  western  civilizations  had  taken  a  more  vegan  path,  would  the  developing  countries  be  following  this 
example  instead?  Does  eating  faunae  really  symbolize  that  a  civilization  is  modem,  powerful,  wealthy,  and 
prosperous?  Why  do  so  many  oppose  harming  faunae,  and  yet  eat  them?  Will  morbid  carnivorous  symbols  ever 
end,  like  the  National  Thanksgiving  Turkey  Presentation  which  pardons  one  turkey  while  millions  of  other 
turkeys  are  consumed? 

Faunae  produce  an  enormous  amount  of  feces  during  the  entire  livestock  process  and  consume  vast  amounts  of 
water.  Around  90%  of  fresh  water  consumed  on  the  planet  by  Homo  sapiens  is  for  agricultural  and  livestock 
purposes,  with  livestock  consuming  larger  volumes  of  water  than  flora  crops.  The  amount  of  water  consumption 
when  producing  meat  and  dairy  products  is  enormous  when  compared  with  the  water  footprint  to  produce  fruits 
and  vegetables.  Livestock  consume  vast  quantities  of  water  during  the  growth  phase  in  addition  to  the  water  used 
during  the  processing  and  even  consumption  phases. 


Average  Water  Consumption  for  Meat  and  Dairy  Production 

Meat  /  Dairy  Product 

Gallons  of  Water  Required 

2.2  lbs  of  Pork 

1,582 

2.2  lbs  of  Beef 

4,068 

2.2  lbs  of  Cheese 

1,336 

2.2  lbs  of  Chicken 

1,143 

12  Chicken  Eggs 

636 

2.2  Gallons  of  Cow’s  Milk 

269 

2.2  lbs  of  Leather  from  a  Cow 

4,490 

Average  Water  Consumption  for  Fruit  and  Vegetable  Production 

Fruit  /  Vegetable  Product 

Gallons  of  Water  Required 

2.2  lbs  of  Tomatoes 

57 

2.2  lbs  of  Apples 

217 

2.2  lbs  of  Bananas 

208 

2.2  lbs  of  Cucumbers 

93 

2.2  lbs  of  Lettuce 

62 

2.2  lbs  of  Corn 

322 

2.2  lbs  of  Mangos 

475 

2.2  lbs  of  Oranges 

147 

2.2  lbs  of  Peaches 

240 

2.2  lbs  of  Potatoes 

76 

SOURCE:  Water  Footprint  Network  -  Product  Water  Footprint  -  http://www.waterfootprint.org/ 

Furthermore,  a  large  portion  of  the  food  grown  is  used  to  feed  meat-based  food  sources  which  produce  far  less 
calories  than  the  actual  food  being  consumed  to  create  the  meat.  It  is  an  endless  negative  cycle  of  using  valuable 
resources  to  produce  very  unhealthy  food  products.  In  the  May  2014  issue  of  National  Geographic  Magazine 
Jonathan  Foley  stated, 

“It  would  be  far  easier  to  feed  nine  billion  people  by  2050  if  more  of  the  crops  we  grew  ended  up  in  human  stomachs.  Today 
only  55  percent  of  the  world’s  crop  calories  feed  people  directly;  the  rest  are  fed  to  livestock  (about  36  percent)  or  turned  into 
biofuels  and  industrial  products  (roughly  9  percent).  Though  many  of  us  consume  meat,  dairy,  and  eggs  from  animals  raised 
on  feedlots,  only  a  fraction  of  the  calories  in  feed  given  to  livestock  make  their  way  into  the  meat  and  milk  that  we  consume. 

For  every  100  calories  of  grain  we  feed  animals,  we  get  only  about  40  new  calories  of  milk,  22  calories  of  eggs,  12  of 
chicken,  10  of  pork,  or  3  of  beef.” 

Among  all  the  faunae  that  are  raised  under  cruel  conditions  and  get  brutally  slaughtered  and  gutted  to  be  shipped 
around  the  world  for  consumption,  the  chicken  is  being  consumed  in  the  greatest  numbers.  According  to  the 
October  2014  National  Geographic  Magazine,  the  United  States  exported  2,700,000  tons  of  unconsumed  chicken 
parts,  (e.g.  the  wings,  feathers,  leg  quarters,  viscera,  and  feet)  to  the  countries  of  China,  Indonesia,  South  Africa, 
and  Russia.  The  wretched  conditions  of  confinement  that  most  livestock  faunae  are  exposed  to  is  one  of  the  most 
inhumane  practices  that  Homo  sapiens  continuously  do  with  government  regulators  and  an  omnivorous  eating 
public  cynically  ignoring  the  issue.  Most  consumers  are  not  even  aware  of  the  barbaric  practices  with  which  the 
livestock  industry  handles  their  food  sources.  Flow  could  one  eat  meat  once  they  witness  the  livestock  industrial 
machine?  Is  not  the  logical  solution  to  stop  using  nutritional  flora  food  sources  to  create  other  less  healthy  meat- 
based  food  and  an  unneeded  biofuel  energy  source,  and  instead  simply  consume  these  or  other  flora-based 
sources  which  are  naturally  nutritional  foods  and  utilize  the  clean  energy  of  the  Sun  and  wind? 

Do  most  consumers  even  know  where  the  meat  they’re  consuming  originated  from  and  how  old  it  truly  is?  In 
June  2015,  Chinese  authorities  seized  more  than  100,000  tonnes  of  smuggled  meat,  some  of  which  was  more 
than  40  years  old.  (340)  And  in  March  2017,  more  than  1,000  Federal  Police  of  Brazil,  the  world’s  largest  red 
meat  exporter,  launched  ‘Operation  Came  Fraca  ’  raiding  194  meat  production  facilities  of  30  meat  companies. 
The  Brazilian  meat  companies  were  accused  of  bribing  meat  inspectors,  exporting  rotten  meat,  using  acid  and 
other  sometimes  carcinogenic  chemicals  to  mask  the  smell  of  the  rotten  meat,  altering  dates  of  meat  expiration, 
and  of  adding  potato,  water,  and  even  cardboard  to  chicken  meat  in  an  effort  to  increase  profits.  (341)  To 
maintain  the  appetizing  bright  red  color  and  prevent  rapid  spoilage  in  most  ground  beef,  beef  loin  steaks,  and 
pork  chops,  the  meat  is  packaged  in  a  modified  atmosphere  using  carbon  monoxide,  nitrogen,  oxygen,  and  high 
carbon  dioxide.  (451)  In  order  to  kill  any  bacteria  like  salmonella,  many  chickens  around  the  world  are  rinsed  or 
dipped  in  an  antimicrobial  solution  of  chlorine  dioxide,  acidified  sodium  chlorite,  trisodium  phosphate,  and 
peroxyacids.  (528)  What  does  this  say  about  a  food  source  which  uses  chemicals  to  maintain  an  appetizing  color, 
prolong  the  shelf  life,  or  eliminate  deadly  bacteria?  If  meat  was  allowed  to  turn  the  natural  color  as  it  is  rotting 
waiting  to  be  purchased,  would  there  be  less  meat  consumption? 

It  should  also  be  noted  that  in  addition  to  the  mainstream  western  faunae,  (e.g.  cows,  chickens,  pigs,  etc.)  being 
consumed  there  are  also  millions  of  donkeys,  camels,  pigeons,  goats,  ducks,  sheep,  snakes,  turtles,  civets,  dogs, 
cats,  rabbits,  rats,  monkeys,  guinea  pigs,  and  other  faunae  which  are  slaughtered  and  sold  every  day  at  live 
animal  markets  throughout  China  and  in  other  world  food  markets  for  local  consumption.  Insects  are  also 
consumed  by  many  around  the  world  as  they  cost  far  less  to  cultivate,  are  very  nutritional,  and  have  less 


environmental  impact  producing  less  greenhouse  gases  and  requiring  less  land  use.  The  September  2014 
National  Geographic  Magazine  stated  that, 


“2  billion  people  consume  more  than  2,000  different  species  of  insects  worldwide,  but  this  is  declining  as  more  people 
convert  to  a  western  diet.  The  percent  of  protein  and  fat  in  crickets  is  similar  to  that  of  most  meats.” 

Or  perhaps  meat  of  the  future  will  be  grown  in  a  factory  and  not  involve  actual  faunae  at  all.  In  2013,  scientists 
made  a  hamburger  from  muscle  fibers  which  were  grown  from  cow  stem  cells.  (215)  And  in  2016  a  company 
called  Perfect  Day  unveiled  that  they  had  created  milk  using  yeast,  cow  DNA,  and  plant  nutrients.  (216)  Will  the 
health  risks  of  eating  meat  and  dairy  still  be  ignored  even  if  the  moral  and  environmental  concerns  are 
alleviated? 

In  2010,  32  diseases  caused  an  estimated  600,000,000  foodbome  illnesses  cases  and  420,000  deaths  worldwide. 
More  than  90%  of  human  exposure  to  dioxins  is  through  food,  mainly  meat,  dairy,  fish,  and  shellfish.  (529)  Could 
many  of  these  deaths  be  easily  prevented  by  simply  not  consuming  meat  and  daily  products?  Alpha-gal  allergy  is 
a  recently  discovered  mammalian  meat  allergy  which  is  caused  by  certain  tick  bites.  A  similar  self-inflicted 
medical  condition  known  as  Pork-Cat  syndrome  was  first  described  in  1994,  where  some  cat  owners  became 
allergic  to  pork  after  being  exposed  to  cats.  Could  these  emerging  medical  conditions  be  nature’s  evolutionary 
reaction  to  Homo  sapiens  mass  meat  consumption?  If  more  Homo  sapiens  developed  a  meat  allergy  would  this 
lead  to  less  meat  consumption,  or  would  another  medication  simply  be  developed  to  alleviate  the  allergy  in  order 
to  continue  meat  consumption? 

Faunae  are  also  exploited  in  other  ways  by  Homo  sapiens  to  obtain  some  other  foods  as  well.  Tens  of  thousands 
of  Asian  palm  civets  are  exploited  daily  for  their  feces  in  order  to  create  kopi  luwak,  a  coffee  which  is  made  with 
the  partially  digested  coffee  cherries  eaten  and  defecated  by  the  Asian  palm  civet.  Homo  sapiens  have  been 
exploiting  bees  for  their  honey  and  beeswax  for  more  than  8,000  years.  In  1961  the  world  had  49,173,473 
beehives,  by  2016  this  number  increased  to  90,564,654  beehives.  (698)  If  each  hive  contains  an  average  of  30,000 
bees,  this  would  total  more  than  2,716,939,620,000  bees  being  exploited  every  year  for  their  honey.  In  addition 
to  the  stress  which  bees  undergo,  some  bees  are  injured  or  killed  from  beekeepers  haphazardly  handling  them 
when  harvesting  the  honey.  Some  beekeepers  also  permanently  maim  the  queen  bee  by  clipping  away  part  of  her 
wings  with  the  erroneous  notion  that  this  will  keep  the  colony  form  swarming.  Couldn't  maple  syrup,  molasses, 
coconut  nectar,  agave  nectar,  or  another  flower  nectar  be  used  instead?  If  every  consumer  had  to  collect  the 
honey  from  the  hive  without  protective  gear,  a  bee  smoker,  or  other  technology  how  much  less  honey  would  be 
eaten?  Could  colony  collapse  disorder  (CCD)  have  been  aggravated  from  this  exploitation? 

There  will  most  likely  always  be  omnivorous  Homo  sapiens  so  long  as  the  unwitting  new  generations  are  taught 
to  eat  meat  by  an  older  generation  of  omnivores,  and  while  this  type  of  diet  is  also  encouraged  by  food 
corporations  and  even  the  government  itself  which  is  being  vastly  influenced  by  these  same  food  corporations. 
Why  do  most  Homo  sapiens  feel  compassion  towards  some  sentient  beings  their  ancestors  once  exploited  or 
extirpated  (e.g.  whales,  buffalo,  wolves,  bears,  etc.)  and  then  deem  others  ok  to  continuously  exploit?  (e.g.  pigs, 
cows,  chickens,  etc.)  If  Homo  sapiens  had  to  see  the  fauna  born,  raise  it  for  years,  slaughter  it,  skin  and  gut  the 
animal  for  consumption,  would  they  still  eat  the  cow,  pig,  chicken,  fish,  or  other  fauna?  How  many  more  vegans 
would  there  be  in  the  world  if  this  was  the  process  in  which  everyone  acquired  meat  instead  of  the  current 
blinded  reality  where  it  is  commercially  presented  as  this  final  picture  perfect,  delicious  and  healthy  food  that 
everyone  is  told  they  want  and  need  to  consume?  Would  Homo  sapiens  eat  a  more  vegan  diet  if  they  were 
exposed  to  the  reality  of  the  foods  which  they  are  consuming,  the  environmental  impacts,  the  morality  issues, 
and  the  health  effects?  What  does  it  say  about  food  and  nutritional  education  when  some  consumers  believe  that 
chocolate  milk  comes  from  brown  cows  or  that  lean  beef  comes  from  skinny  cows? 

Livestock  Antibiotics,  Steroids,  and  Candy 

Antibiotics  were  a  revolution  in  medicine  but  ultimately  the  livestock  and  even  medical  industries  have  abused 
them,  and  now  they  may  become  useless  against  certain  strains  of  disease  as  a  result  of  this  abuse.  At  one  point 


recently,  most  antibiotics  were  being  used  on  livestock  animals  and  not  on  humans.  Until  2016,  antibiotics  were 
widely  used  on  livestock  animals,  not  to  treat  disease,  but  as  growth  promoters,  and  the  down  side  to  doing  this 
is  pathogens  could  develop  a  resistance  to  antibiotics  and  could  potentially  be  transmitted  to  humans.  Some 
antibiotics  are  given  to  cattle  to  prevent  liver  abscesses,  a  side  effect  of  the  unnatural  diet  fed  to  them  by  Homo 
sapiens.  In  the  March  2015  National  Geographic  Magazine,  Kelsey  Nowakowski  reported  that, 

“Americans  today  eat  three  times  as  much  poultry  as  they  did  in  1960.  Since  most  U.S.  chickens  are  raised  in  large,  crowded 
facilities,  farmers  feed  them  antibiotics  to  prevent  disease  as  well  as  speed  their  growth...  80%  of  all  antibiotics  sold  in  the 
United  States  are  given  to  poultry  and  other  livestock...  In  1960  it  took  63  days  to  grow  a  chicken  3.4  lbs.  chicken,  in  2011  it 
took  47  days  to  grow  a  5.4  lbs.  chicken...  Only  7  percent  of  some  400  antibiotic  drugs  given  to  livestock  have  been  reviewed 
by  the  FDA” 

To  abuse  antibiotics  in  this  irresponsible  manner  for  profits  and  increased  demand  has  allowed  for  the  potential 
of  a  pandemic,  as  antibiotics  are  now  becoming  useless  in  some  medical  applications.  The  December  2015 
Naked  Scientist  podcast  released  a  story  'Antibiotic  Apocalypse',  in  it,  they  reported  that  no  truly  new  antibiotics 
have  been  developed  in  the  last  20  years,  yet  the  rate  of  resistance  to  antibiotics  is  increasing.  Scientist  have 
attributed  this  resistance  mainly  to  the  overuse  of  antibiotics  to  treat  the  overwhelming  endemic  diseases  which 
farm  faunae  proliferate  as  a  result  of  stress  caused  by  the  conditions  which  the  faunae  are  exposed  to. 

In  March  2016,  CDC  Director  Tom  Frieden,  M.D.,  M.P.H.  said,  “New  data  show  that  far  too  many  patients  are 
getting  infected  with  dangerous,  drug-resistant  bacteria  in  healthcare  settings.”  The  antibiotic-resistant  superbugs 
are:  Carbapenem-resistant  Enterobacteriaceae  (CRE),  Methicillin-resistant  Staphylococcus  aureus  (MRSA), 
ESBL-producing  Enterobacteriaceae  (extended-spectrum  B-lactamases),  Vancomycin-resistant  Enterococcus 
(VRE),  Multidrug-resistant  Pseudomonas  aeruginosa,  Multidrug-resistant  Acinetobacter,  and  Clostridium 
difficile.  Clostridium  difficile  was  the  most  common  type  of  bacteria  responsible  for  infections  in  hospitals  and 
which  caused  almost  500,000  infections  in  the  United  States  in  2011.  (66)  The  October  22,  2013  PBS  Frontline 
report  ‘Hunting  the  Nightmare  Bacteria  ’  explains  the  issue  in  detail.  Antibiotics  are  often  misused,  as  they  are 
now  sold  over  the  counter  in  some  countries  and  available  globally  through  the  Internet  without  a  prescription, 
leading  to  regular  use  by  some  as  a  cure  all  solution,  but  this  has  only  led  to  antibiotic  resistant  bacteria. 

Perhaps  nature  has  a  solution  to  the  antibiotic  dilemma  with  an  alternative  antibiotic  source  from  a  flora  species 
in  one  of  the  ever-shrinking  rainforest.  Scientists  at  Rockefeller  University  have  discovered  microorganisms 
found  in  soil  that  can  be  used  to  create  antibiotics  which  kill  pathogens  resistant  to  multiple  drugs  currently  in 
use.  (706)  Or  perhaps  in  the  not  too  distant  past  the  solution  was  within  the  stomachs  of  Homo  sapiens  ancestors. 
Anew  study  by  scientists  of  Yanomani  tribespeople  has  revealed  some  very  interesting  facts  about  the  original 
human  digestive  bacteria  and  antibiotics.  In  April  2015,  Michael  Purdy  reported  that, 

"The  study,  published  April  17  in  Science  Advances,  reports  that  the  microbial  populations  on  the  skin  and  in  the  mouths  and 
intestines  of  the  Yanomami  tribespeople  were  much  more  diverse  than  those  found  in  people  from  the  United  States  and 
Europe.  The  multicenter  research  was  conducted  by  scientists  at  New  York  University  School  of  Medicine,  Washington 
University  School  of  Medicine  in  St.  Louis,  the  Venezuelan  Institute  of  Scientific  Research  and  other  institutions. 

In  recent  years,  the  abundance  of  antibiotics  in  medicine  and  agriculture  has  accelerated  this  process,  stimulating  the 
development  and  spread  of  genes  that  help  bacteria  survive  exposure  to  antibiotics.  Consequently,  strains  of  human  disease 
that  are  much  harder  to  treat  have  emerged.  “We  have  already  run  out  of  drugs  to  treat  some  types  of  multidrugresistant 
infections,  many  of  which  can  be  lethal,  raising  the  bleak  prospect  of  a  post-antibiotic  era,”  Dantas  said. 

“Our  results  bolster  a  growing  body  of  data  suggesting  a  link  between,  on  one  hand,  decreased  bacterial  diversity, 
industrialized  diets  and  modem  antibiotics,  and  on  the  other,  immunological  and  metabolic  diseases  —  such  as  obesity, 
asthma,  allergies  and  diabetes,  which  have  dramatically  increased  since  the  1970s,”  said  Maria  Dominguez-Bello,  PhD, 
associate  professor  of  medicine  at  New  York  University  Langone  Medical  Center  and  senior  author  of  the  study.  “We  believe 
there  is  something  occurring  in  the  environment  during  the  past  30  years  that  has  been  driving  these  diseases,  and  we  think  the 
microbiome  could  be  involved.” 

Dominguez-Bello  said  the  research  suggests  a  link  between  modem  antibiotics,  diets  in  industrialized  parts  of  the  world  and  a 
greatly  reduced  diversity  in  the  human  microbiome  —  the  trillions  of  bacteria  that  live  in  and  on  the  body  and  that  are 
increasingly  being  recognized  as  vital  to  good  health.  Yanomami  as  for  how  bacteria  could  resist  drugs  that  such  microbes 


never  before  had  encountered,  the  researchers  point  to  the  possibility  of  cross-resistance,  when  genes  that  resist  natural 
antibiotics  also  have  the  ability  to  resist  related  synthetic  antibiotics. 


“We’ve  seen  resistance  emerge  in  the  clinic  to  every  new  class  of  antibiotics,  and  this  appears  to  be  because  resistance 
mechanisms  are  a  natural  feature  of  most  bacteria  and  are  just  waiting  to  be  activated  or  acquired  with  exposure  to 
antibiotics,”  Dantas  said.”  (36) 

Cattle  are  also  given  steroids  like  estradiol  and  trenbolone  acetate  to  add  muscle  and  make  the  product  larger  to 
increase  profits.  To  inject  faunae  with  these  unnatural  steroids  is  some  of  the  worst  modifications  that  can  be 
done  to  a  food  source,  especially  when  flora-based  foods  never  need  these  antibiotics  or  steroids  to  produce  a 
perfectly  natural  and  healthy  food  product.  Shouldn’t  food  companies  be  required  to  reveal  the  sources  of  the 
food  they  are  selling,  any  modifications  done  with  genetics,  fertilizers,  pesticides,  medications,  or  other 
technologies? 

For  decades  now  in  the  United  States  some  cows  have  been  fed  aesthetically  defective  candy  like  Skittles  as  an 
inexpensive  carbohydrate  source.  (240)  Would  consumers  still  eat  this  meat  if  they  knew  exactly  what  the  fauna 
was  eating?  Why  is  this  meat  not  labeled  candy-fed  like  other  meat  which  is  labeled  grass-fed  or  grain-fed? 

Fresh  Fruits  and  Vegetables  /  Flora  Based  Food  Sources 

Compare  the  actions,  energy  level,  mood,  lifespan,  outer  appearance,  bowel  movements,  and  overall  health  of  an 
individual  who  eats  an  organic  vegan  diet  of  whole  grains,  beans,  fruits,  nuts,  seeds,  and  vegetables  with 
someone  who  eats  fast  food,  junk  food,  meat,  dairy,  and  other  disgusting  unhealthy  foods,  and  one  will  see  vast 
differences  with  far  more  positive  results  from  the  vegan  individual.  It  is  also  a  fact  that  vegans  have  a  smaller 
carbon  footprint  as  a  result  of  not  consuming  meat.  And  in  spite  of  the  erroneous  belief  that  meat  must  be 
consumed  in  order  to  maintain  health,  all  the  nutritional  needs  of  Homo  sapiens  can  be  fulfilled  entirely  on  a 
vegan  diet,  in  fact  even  more  so  than  on  a  fauna-based  diet.  Eating  a  vegan  diet  of  whole  grains,  beans,  fruits, 
nuts,  seeds,  and  vegetables  has  been  proven  to  be  far  healthier.  Many  vegan  converts  cannot  believe  how  they  ate 
meat  for  so  long  in  such  vast  quantities.  Some  are  even  disgusted  by  the  taste  of  dairy,  eggs,  and  meat  when 
attempting  to  revert  back  to  an  omnivore  diet,  and  ultimately  switch  back  to  the  healthier  better  tasting  vegan 
diet. 

Some  have  a  misconception  about  vegans  being  skinny  and  malnourished,  but  vegans  are  actually  far  healthier 
and  maintain  a  perfect  body  weight  compared  to  their  obese  omnivore  counterparts.  Many  athletes  eat  a  vegan 
diet,  and  Roman  gladiators  ate  mostly  a  vegan  diet  of  barley  and  vegetables,  they  were  even  sometimes  refered 
to  as  hordearii  which  literally  means  'barley  men'.  (291)  Claims  have  also  been  made  that  meat  must  be  consumed 
to  maintain  a  healthy  and  balanced  diet,  that  without  meat  an  individual  cannot  get  the  required  vitamins  and 
other  nutritional  components  to  maintain  health.  But  if  one  compares  the  vitamin  and  mineral  sources,  it  is 
obvious  that  all  of  the  vitamins  and  other  nutritional  components  needed  to  maintain  health  are  found  in  flora- 
based  sources.  In  fact,  many  nutritional  qualities  like  carbohydrates,  fiber,  vitamin  C,  vitamin  K,  and 
antioxidants  are  only  found  in  sufficient  quantities  when  from  flora-based  sources  and  are  found  in  minute 
quantities  from  a  fauna  source  as  a  result  of  the  fauna  consuming  flora.  The  following  table  illustrates  how  flora- 
based  food  sources  contain  far  more  nutrition,  and  that  there  is  also  allot  more  variety  to  choose  from  than  fauna- 
based  food  sources. 


Source  Comparison  of  Vitamins  and  Other  Nutrition  Components 

Component 

Some  of  the  Best  Flora  or  Other  Natural  Sources 

Some  of  the  Best  Fauna  or  Other  Modified  Sources 

Protein 

cereals,  most  all  fruits  and  vegetables,  legumes,  nuts, 
and  whole  grains 

beef,  dairy  products,  eggs,  fish,  and  poultry 

Fats 

nuts,  polyunsaturated  and  monounsaturated  fats  from 
vegetable-based  oils 

beef,  dairy  products,  eggs,  fish,  and  poultry 

Carbohydrates 

most  all  fruits  and  vegetables,  grains,  and  legumes 

NONE 

Fiber 

apple  skins,  avocados,  barley,  berries,  broccoli,  carrots, 

NONE 

cauliflower,  celery,  figs,  green  beans,  legumes, 
legumes,  nuts  and  seeds,  oats,  onions,  pears,  plums, 
potato  skins,  prunes,  ripe  bananas,  rye,  sweet  potatoes, 
wheat  and  corn  bran,  whole  grain  foods,  zucchini 

Vitamin  A 

apricots,  broccoli,  cantaloupe,  carrots,  collard  greens, 
kale,  mango,  papaya,  peas,  pumpkin,  spinach,  and 
tomatoes 

chicken,  beef,  pork,  and  fish  livers,  dairy  products,  and 
eggs 

Vitamin  B 1 
(Thiamine) 

corn  flour,  legumes,  rice,  seeds,  and  spinach 

enriched  breads  and  flour  and  pork 

Vitamin  B2 

almonds,  most  all  leaf  vegetables,  and  mushrooms 

dairy  products,  eggs,  kidneys,  and  livers 

Vitamin  B6 

bananas,  chickpeas,  pistachios,  potatoes,  and  whole 
grains 

beef,  pork,  and  turkey 

Vitamin  B12 

vegetables  grown  in  healthy  organic  soils  (see  notation 
below) 

beef,  dairy  products,  eggs,  poultry,  shellfish,  and  turkey 

Niacin 

apricots,  bell  peppers,  ginger,  portabella  mushrooms, 
potatoes,  sesame  seeds,  sunflower  seeds,  tarragon,  and 
whole  grains 

pork,  tuna,  and  turkey,  and  veal 

Vitamin  B9  (Folic 
Acid  /  Folate) 

asparagus,  avocados,  Brussels  sprouts,  legumes,  dark 
green  leafy  vegetables,  most  all  fruits,  nuts,  peas, 
spinach,  and  whole  grains 

beef,  eggs,  enriched  breads,  and  poultry,  and  seafood 

Vitamin  C 

most  all  fruits  and  vegetables 

NONE 

Vitamin  D 

sunlight 

fortified  dairy  products 

Vitamin  E 

avocados,  broccoli,  canola  oil,  kiwifruit,  mangos,  nuts, 
olive  oil,  pumpkins,  sesame  oil,  sunflower  oil,  and 
tomatoes 

dairy  products 

Vitamin  K 

asparagus,  broccoli,  Brussels  sprouts,  cabbage,  collard 
greens,  kale,  lettuce,  mustard  greens,  parsley,  spinach, 
and  turnip  greens 

NONE 

SOURCE:  Wikipedia  (with  some  corrections,  additions,  and  other  edits) 

NOTE  ON  B12:  Dr.  T.  Colin  Campbell,  Ph.D.  states  that, 

"Research  has  convincingly  shown  that  plants  grown  in  healthy  soil  that  has  a  good  concentration  of  vitamin  B12  will  readily 
absorb  the  nutrient.  However,  plants  grown  in  "lifeless”  soil  (non-organic  soil)  may  be  deficient  in  vitamin  B12.  In  the  United 
States,  most  of  our  agriculture  takes  place  on  relatively  lifeless  soil,  decimated  from  years  of  unnatural  pesticide,  herbicide 
and  fertilizer  use.  So  the  plants  grown  in  this  soil  and  sold  in  our  super  markets  lack  B12.  In  addition,  we  live  in  such  a 
sanitized  world  that  we  rarely  come  into  direct  contact  with  the  soil  home  microorganisms  that  produce  B 1 2.  At  one  point  in 
our  history,  we  got  B12  from  vegetables  that  hadn't  been  scoured  of  all  the  soil.”  (101) 

Furthermore,  if  one  examines  the  nutrient  composition  chart  below,  they  will  see  that  flora-based  foods  have  far 
more  nutrition  than  fauna-based  foods.  It  is  unfortunate  that  so  few  know  this  information,  or  even  take  the  time 
to  actually  inquire  about  the  foods  they  are  consuming,  but  instead  simply  consume  whatever  the  food 
conglomerates  supply  and  market  to  them. 


Nutrient  Composition  of  Plant  and  Animal-Based  Foods 
(Per  500  Calories  of  Energy) 

Nutrient 

Plant-Based  Foods  (i) 

Animal-Based  Foods  (2> 

Cholesterol(mg) 

0 

137 

Fat(g) 

4 

36 

Protein(g) 

33 

34 

Beta-carotene(mcg) 

29,919 

17 

Dietary  Fiber(g) 

31 

0 

Vitamin  C(mg) 

293 

4 

Folate(mcg) 

1,168 

19 

Vitamin  E  (mg  ATE) 

11 

0.5 

Iron(mg) 

20 

2 

Magnesium(mg) 

548 

51 

Calcium(mg) 

545 

252 

(1)  Equal  parts  of  tomatoes,  spinach,  lima  beans,  peas,  potatoes 

(2)  Equal  parts  of  beef,  pork,  chicken,  whole  milk 

SOURCE:  The  China  Study  (2006)  by:  Dr.  T.  Colin  Campbell,  Ph.D.  And  Thomas  M.  Campbell  II  ISBN:  1-932100-66-0  p.230 

Some  omnivores  consume  little  to  no  fiber  and  are  so  constipated  they  take  must  take  medication  in  order  to 
defecate,  while  others  resort  to  bringing  reading  material  into  the  bathroom  because  it  takes  them  so  long  to 
defecate  on  the  rare  occasion  that  they  actually  do.  Some  Homo  sapiens  consume  vast  quantities  of  vitamins  and 
nutritional  supplements  in  an  attempt  to  maintain  health,  most  do  not  monitor  and  regulate  their  intake  and  end 
up  taxing  their  organs  as  a  result  when  excreting  these  excess  vitamins  and  minerals  in  their  urine  and  feces.  This 
unnecessary  stress  on  the  liver,  kidneys,  and  digestive  system  can  also  lead  to  digestive  problems  and  even  early 
organ  failure.  The  billion-dollar  vitamin  and  nutritional  supplement  industry  is  strongly  based  on  the  erroneous 
assumption  that  Homo  sapiens  can’t  get  sufficient  vitamins  and  minerals  from  food  sources,  or  that  they  can 
simply  replace  food  with  a  pill.  Would  it  not  be  more  logical  to  consume  healthy  and  nutritional  flora-based 
foods  versus  attempting  to  get  vitamins,  minerals,  and  fiber  from  a  pill  source?  The  PBS  Frontline  report 
‘Supplements  and  Safety  ’  January  19,  2016  reports  on  this  controversial  billion-dollar  industry.  Would  vitamins 
and  other  nutritional  supplements  even  be  necessary  if  Homo  sapiens  simply  consumed  a  healthier  vegan-based 
diet  instead  of  a  meat-  and  dairy-based  diet? 

The  May  2014  National  Geographic  Magazine,  reported  that  Farmers  markets  which  sell  mainly  fruits  and 
vegetables  had  increased  from  4,685  markets  in  2008,  to  8,144  markets  in  2014.  This  increase  is  great  news  for 
consumers  that  prefer  local,  often  organic,  fresh  fruits  and  vegetables.  It  also  shows  that  food  can  be  supplied 
directly  from  farmer  to  customer  and  eliminate  all  the  greedy  brokers,  manufacturers,  wholesalers,  and  retailers 
which  serve  as  middlemen  and  only  make  the  food  far  costlier  than  it  should  be.  If  the  local  organic  farmers  can 
continue  growing  in  numbers,  then  this  positive  trend  could  have  an  enormous  impact  on  food  sources  and  the 
food  quality.  The  consumer  demand  for  more  natural,  organic,  and  less  genetically  modified  foods  is  growing, 
especially  as  consumers  have  more  natural  alternatives  for  flora-based  food  sources  from  around  the  world. 
Consumers  now  have  more  choices  than  ever  when  it  comes  to  food  sources  which  are  vegan,  organic,  and 
additive  free.  There  are  even  emerging  vegan  specialty  companies  like  Beyond  Meat,  Gardein,  Tofurky,  Yves 
Veggie  Cuisine,  Field  Roast,  LightLife,  Sweet  Earth  Foods,  The  Jackfruit  Company,  along  with  several  others 
and  now  there  is  even  Veganz,  a  chain  of  vegan  grocery  stores.  There  are  also  new  companies  like  Ugly  Juice 
which  not  only  make  a  vegan  product,  but  also  help  to  fight  food  waste  by  making  fresh  juice  from  produce 
which  would  otherwise  be  discarded  for  aesthetic  reasons. 

Healthy  fresh  fruits  and  vegetables  can  be  produced  inexpensively  on  an  individual  or  commercial  level,  and 
naturally  without  using  synthetic  pesticides,  additives,  hormones,  antibiotics,  or  genetic  modifications.  If  a 
majority  of  Homo  sapiens  switch  to  a  vegan-based  diet  consuming  no  meat  or  dairy  products  which  are  sourced 
from  other  mammals,  aves,  or  fish,  this  could  tremendously  help  in  reducing  pollution,  water  consumption,  and 
increase  the  overall  well-being  of  Homo  sapiens.  If  all  the  food  available  were  nutritional  and  healthy,  would  this 
not  alleviate  many  health  issues? 


Current  Medical  Epidemics 

Regarding  the  connection  that  nutrition  and  disease  have,  Hippocrates  wrote, 


"Whoever  pays  no  attention  to  these  things,  or,  paying  attention,  does  not  comprehend  them,  how  can  he  understand  the 
diseases  which  befall  a  man?"  (311) 


Nearly  2,500  years  ago  Hippocrates  referred  to  this  link  between  nutrition  and  disease,  and  150  years  ago 
surgeon  and  author  George  Macilwain  identified  alcohol,  grease,  and  fat  as  being  the  main  causes  of  cancer.  (105) 
Thus  for  a  very  long-time,  Homo  sapiens  have  been  aware  of  how  dietary  factors  can  cause  disease.  So  why  then 
is  modern  medicine  wasting  so  much  time  and  so  many  resources  attempting  to  cure  easily  preventable  diseases? 
Why  are  more  individuals  not  educated  from  youth  about  nutrition  and  how  to  live  a  more  healthy  and  longer 
life  while  also  making  less  impact  upon  Earth? 

Many  individuals  know  Greek  history,  it  is  taught  in  many  schools  at  many  grade  levels,  but  there  is  a 
mainstream  focus  on  the  antiquated  subjects  of  mythology,  war,  and  the  tyrants  who  waged  these  wars,  while  the 
subjects  of  science  and  health  often  go  virtually  unnoticed,  and  this  is  unfortunate  as  there  is  much  to  be  learned. 
Dr.  T.  Colin  Campbell,  Ph.D.  tells  of  one  such  ancient  lesson  that  perhaps  applies  even  more  so  today  than  when 
it  was  written, 

“Almost  2,500  years  ago,  Plato  wrote  a  dialogue  between  two  characters,  Socrates  and  Glaucon,  in  which  they  discuss  the 
future  of  their  cities.  Socrates  says  the  cities  should  be  simple,  and  the  citizens  should  subsist  on  barley  and  wheat,  with 
“relishes”  of  salt,  olives,  cheese  and  “country  fare  of  boiled  onions  and  cabbage,”  with  deserts  of  “figs,  peas,  beans,”  roasted 
myrtle-berries  and  beechnuts,  and  wine  in  moderation.  Socrates  says,  “And  thus,  passing  their  days  in  tranquility  and  sound 
health,  they  will  in  all  probability,  live  to  an  advanced  age....” 

But  Glaucon  replies  that  such  a  diet  would  only  be  appropriate  for  “a  community  of  swine,”  and  that  the  citizens  should  live 
“in  a  civilized  manner.”  He  continues,  “They  ought  to  recline  on  couches.. .and  have  the  usual  dishes  and  dessert  of  a  modem 
dinner.”  In  other  words,  the  citizens  should  have  the  “luxury”  of  eating  meat.  Socrates  replies,  “if  you  wish  us  also  to 
contemplate  a  city  that  is  suffering  from  inflammation.. ..We  shall  also  need  great  quantities  of  all  kinds  of  cattle  for  those  who 
may  wish  to  eat  them,  shall  we  not?” 

Glaucon  says,  “Of  course  we  shall.”  Socrates  then  says,  “Then  shall  we  not  experience  the  need  of  medical  men  also  to  a 
much  greater  extent  under  this  than  under  the  former  regime?”  Glaucon  can't  deny  it.  “Yes,  indeed,”  he  says.  Socrates  goes  on 
to  say  that  this  luxurious  city  will  be  short  of  land  because  of  the  extra  acreage  required  to  raise  animals  for  food.  This 
shortage  will  lead  to  citizens  to  take  land  from  others,  which  could  precipitate  violence  and  war,  thus  a  need  for  justice. 

Furthermore,  Socrates  writes,  “when  dissoluteness  and  disease  abound  in  a  city,  are  not  law  courts  and  surgeries  opened  in 
abundance,  and  do  not  Law  and  Physic  begin  to  hold  their  heads  high,  when  number  even  of  well-bom  persons  devote 
themselves  with  eagerness  to  these  professions?”  In  other  words,  in  this  luxurious  city  of  sickness  and  disease,  lawyers  and 
doctors  will  become  the  nonn. 

Plato,  in  this  passage,  made  it  perfectly  clear:  we  shall  eat  animals  only  at  our  own  peril.  Though  it  is  indeed  remarkable  that 
one  of  the  greatest  intellectuals  in  the  history  of  the  Western  world  condemned  meat  eating  almost  2,500  years  ago,  I  find  it 
even  more  remarkable  that  few  know  about  this  history.  Hardly  anybody  knows,  for  example,  that  the  father  of  Western 
medicine,  Hippocrates,  advocated  diet  as  the  chief  way  to  prevent  and  treat  disease  or  that  George  Macilwain  knew  that  diet 
was  the  way  to  prevent  and  treat  disease  or  that  the  man  instrumental  in  founding  the  American  Cancer  Society,  Frederick  L. 
Hoffman,  knew  that  diet  was  the  way  to  prevent  and  treat  disease. 

How  did  Plato  predict  the  future  so  accurately?  He  knew  that  consuming  animal  foods  would  not  lead  to  true  health  and 
prosperity.  Instead,  the  false  sense  of  rich  luxury  granted  by  being  able  to  eat  animals  would  only  lead  to  a  culture  of  sickness, 
disease,  land  disputes,  lawyers  and  doctors.  This  is  a  pretty  good  description  of  some  of  the  challenges  faced  by  modem 
America!”  (114) 

The  mainstream  western  society  diet  is  high  in  fat,  sugar,  cholesterol,  and  sodium  which  has  resulted  in 
epidemics  of  obesity,  diabetes,  high  blood  pressure,  cardiovascular  disease,  strokes,  autoimmune  diseases, 
various  cancers,  and  other  chronic  diseases  of  affluence.  These  resulting  medical  conditions  have  also  cost 
trillions  of  dollars  and  placed  unneeded  stress  on  the  medical  resources  of  the  world.  These  conditions  have 
helped  to  create  a  massive  trillion-dollar  network  of  businesses  offering  life-threatening  surgery,  pseudo 
specialists,  pseudo  treatments,  potentially  lethal  prescription  drugs,  gimmicks,  and  other  pseudo  solutions  that 
are  unable  to  solve  an  ever  growing  worldwide  self-inflicted  health  epidemic.  In  other  countries  where  plant- 
based  diets  are  more  predominant,  these  diseases  are  virtually  non-existent  until  the  fauna-based  western  diet  is 
introduced,  and  the  population  begins  consuming  vast  quantities  of  meat  and  dairy.  Gluttonous  consumption  of 
foods  high  in  fat,  sugar,  cholesterol,  and  sodium  combined  with  alcohol,  tobacco,  stress,  and  a  sedentary  lifestyle 


have  made  cardiovascular  disease  the  leading  cause  of  death  worldwide.  And  the  number  of  annual  victims  is 
quickly  rising,  from  12,300,000  Homo  sapiens  worldwide  dying  of  cardiovascular  related  causes  in  1993,  to 
17,300,000  in  2013.  (37)  There  has  also  been  an  increase  in  the  incidence  rate  of  anaphylaxis.  Dr.  F.  Estelle  R. 
Simons  states, 

“. . .  it  is  clear  that  anaphylaxis  is  not  rare  and  that  the  rate  of  occurrence  is  increasing,  especially  in  the  first  2  decades  of  life. 

In  a  retrospective,  population-based  study  using  the  resources  of  the  Rochester  Epidemiology  Project,  the  incidence  rate  of 
anaphylaxis  was  reported  to  double  from  21  per  100,00  person-years  in  the  1980s  to  49.8  per  100,000  person-years  in  the 
1990s.”  (126) 

In  addition,  a  20 1 5  study  on  clinical  and  diagnostic  aspects  of  gluten  related  disorders  stated, 

“Gluten  is  one  of  the  most  abundant  and  widely  distributed  components  of  food  in  many  areas.  It  can  be  included  in  wheat, 
barley,  rye,  and  grains  such  as  oats,  barley,  spelt,  kamut,  and  triticale.  Gluten-containing  grains  are  widely  consumed;  in 
particular,  wheat  is  one  of  the  world’s  primary  sources  of  food,  providing  up  to  50%  of  the  caloric  intake  in  both 
industrialized  and  developing  countries.  Until  two  decades  ago,  celiac  disease  (CD)  and  other  gluten-related  disorders  were 
believed  to  be  exceedingly  rare  outside  of  Europe  and  were  relatively  ignored  by  health  professionals  and  the  global  media. 

In  recent  years,  however,  the  discovery  of  important  diagnostic  and  pathogenic  milestones  led  CD  from  obscurity  to  global 
prominence.  In  addition,  interestingly,  people  feeding  themselves  with  gluten-free  products  greatly  outnumber  patients 
affected  by  CD,  fuelling  a  global  consumption  of  gluten-free  foods  with  approximately  $2.5  billion  in  United  States  sales 
each  year.  The  acknowledgment  of  other  medical  conditions  related  to  gluten  that  has  arisen  as  health  problems,  providing  a 
wide  spectrum  of  gluten-related  disorders.”  (92) 

This  deadly  diet,  along  with  other  lifestyle  choices,  combined  with  the  polluted  and  toxic  environment  of  Earth, 
is  also  impacting  Homo  sapiens  reproduction  abilities.  Diabetes,  obesity,  heart  disease,  and  high  blood  pressure 
all  helped  to  increase  the  maternal  mortality  rates  27%  in  48  U.S.  states  and  Washington,  D.C.  between  2000  to 
20  1  4.  (437)  The  52.4%  sperm  count  decline  between  1973  and  2011  in  men  from  North  America,  Europe, 
Australia,  and  New  Zealand  has  been  plausibly  associated  with  environmental  influences  and  lifestyle  factors 
like:  pesticides,  diet,  smoking,  and  stress.  (442)  In  the  United  States,  4,500,000  women  had  impaired  fecundity  or 
difficulties  conceiving  or  bringing  a  pregnancy  to  term  in  1982,  by  2002  this  number  increased  to  7,300,000 
women.  And  while  this  dramatic  increase  in  infertility  and  impaired  fecundity  are  not  well  understood,  sexually 
transmitted  infections,  environmental  toxins,  and  certain  lifestyle  factors  have  been  the  focus  of  ongoing 
research.  (694) 

Many  of  these  chronic  diseases  of  affluence  are  so  easily  preventable  as  they  are  caused  primarily  by  vitamin 
deficiencies.  (12 1)  Scientific  research  and  the  evidence  it  has  gathered  shows  that  countries  with  a  diet  of  mostly 
unrefined  flora-based  foods  have  far  lower  rates  of  these  chronic  diseases.  Most  consumers  are  very  ignorant 
about  health  knowledge  and  more  especially  about  nutrition,  thus  they  naively  allow  commercial  food 
companies  to  take  this  responsibility.  Unfortunately  for  consumers  health,  most  commercial  food  companies  are 
in  the  business  to  make  profits,  and  this  has  resulted  in  making  the  cheapest  food  products  using  the  unhealthiest 
ingredients.  Many  think  the  solution  to  solving  chronic  diseases  of  affluence  is  through  genetic  modification,  but 
genetics  determines  only  2  to  3%  of  these  diseases  while  environmental  factors,  lifestyle,  and  diet  are  major 
influences.  This  misunderstanding  lead  many  to  believe  that  these  chronic  diseases  of  affluence  will  someday  be 
cured  by  simply  turning  the  gene  off.  Another  misconception  is  that  eating  grass  fed,  farm  raised  meat  and  dairy 
is  somehow  safer  and  healthier,  but  it's  not  so  much  the  process  as  it  is  the  product  being  consumed,  which  is 
unhealthy.  And  yet  this  erroneous  notion  is  still  peipetuated  by  some  companies  as  being  a  safer  better 
alternative,  while  also  allowing  these  companies  to  charge  exorbitant  prices  for  something  that  will  have  the 
same  negative  health  consequences.  And  although  the  Hippocratic  oath  states,  “1  will  prevent  disease  whenever  1 
can,  for  prevention  is  preferable  to  cure,”  many  doctors  practice  the  exact  opposite  of  this  philosophy.  By 
utilizing  education  and  making  healthy  alternatives  readily  available,  chronic  diseases  of  affluence  can  be 
prevented  in  many  if  not  most  instances.  So  why  then  isn't  it  being  done?  Dr.  T.  Colin  Campbell,  Ph.D.  states 
that, 


“When  nutrition  education  is  provided  in  relation  to  public  health  problems,  guess  who  is  supplying  the  “educational” 
material?  The  Dannon  Institute,  Egg  Nutrition  Board,  National  Cattlemen's  Beef  Association,  National  Dairy  Council,  Nestle 
Clinical  Nutrition,  Wyeth-Ayerst  Laboratories,  Bristol-Myers  Squibb  Company,  Baxter  Healthcare  Corporation  and  others 
have  all  joined  forces  to  product  a  Nutrition  in  Medicine  program  and  the  Medical  Nutrition  Curriculum  Initiative.  Do  you 


think  that  this  all-star  team  of  animal  foods  and  drug  industries  representatives  is  going  to  objectively  judge  and  promote 
optimal  nutrition,  which  science  has  shown  to  be  a  whole  foods,  plant -based  diet  that  minimizes  the  need  for  drugs?  Or  might 
they  try  to  protect  the  meat-centered,  Western  diet  where  everyone  expects  to  pop  a  pill  for  every  sickness?” 

“Our  institutions  and  infonnation  providers  are  failing  us.  Even  cancer  organizations,  at  both  the  national  and  local  level,  are 
reluctant  to  discuss  or  even  believe  this  evidence.  Food  as  a  key  to  health  represents  a  powerful  challenge  to  conventional 
medicine,  which  is  fundamentally  built  on  drugs  and  surgery.  The  widespread  communities  of  nutrition  professionals, 
researchers  and  doctors  are,  as  a  whole,  either  unaware  of  this  evidence  or  reluctant  to  share  it.  Because  of  the  failings, 

Americans  are  being  cheated  out  of  infonnation  that  could  save  their  lives.”  (118) 

During  his  extensive  career  Dr.  T.  Colin  Campbell,  Ph.D.  has  been  at  the  forefront  of  nutrition  research,  he  has 
conducted  studies  which  focus  on  cancer  and  the  effects  that  fauna-based  protein  versus  flora-based  protein  have 
on  promoting  and  even  decreasing  cancer.  The  China  Study,  which  is  to  date,  the  most  comprehensive  study  of 
health  and  nutrition  ever  conducted,  revealed  some  very  interesting  data.  In  the  China  Study  and  several  other 
nutritional  studies  all  the  results  point  to  the  same  conclusion,  meat  and  dairy  based  food  sources  are  unhealthy 
and  even  deadly,  while  flora-based  food  sources  are  healthy  and  promote  life.  Dr.  T.  Colin  Campbell,  Ph.D. 
states  that, 

“More  commonly  known  as  the  China  Study,  this  project  eventually  produced  more  than  8,000  statistically  significant 
associations  between  various  dietary  factors  and  disease! 

What  made  this  project  especially  remarkable  is  that,  among  the  many  associations  that  are  relevant  to  diet  and  disease,  so 
many  pointed  to  the  same  finding:  people  who  ate  the  most  animal-based  foods  got  the  most  chronic  disease.  Even  relatively 
small  intakes  of  animal-based  food  were  associated  with  adverse  effects.  People  who  ate  the  most  plant-based  foods  were  the 
healthiest  and  tended  to  avoid  chronic  disease.” 

“ In  fact,  dietary  protein  proved  to  be  so  powerful  in  its  effect  that  we  could  turn  on  and  turn  off  cancer  growth  simply  by 
changing  the  level  consumed...  What  protein  consistently  and  strongly  promoted  cancer?  Casein,  which  makes  up  87%  of 
cow's  milk  protein,  promoted  all  stages  of  the  cancer  process.  What  type  of  protein  did  not  promote  cancer,  even  at  high  levels 
of  intake?  The  safe  proteins  were  from  plants,  including  wheat  and  soy.” 

“...nutrients  from  animal-based  foods  increased  tumor  development  while  nutrients  from  plant-based  foods  decreased  tumor 
development.” 

“Almost  all  of  us  in  the  United  States  will  die  of  diseases  of  affluence.  In  our  China  Study,  we  saw  that  nutrition  has  a  very 
strong  effect  on  these  diseases.  Plant-based  foods  are  linked  to  lower  blood  cholesterol;  animal-based  foods  are  linked  to 
higher  blood  cholesterol.  Animal-based  foods  are  linked  to  higher  breast  cancer  rates;  plant-based  foods  are  linked  to  lower 
rates.  Fiber  and  antioxidants  from  plants  are  linked  to  a  lower  risk  of  cancers  of  the  digestive  tract.  Plant-based  diets  and 
active  lifestyles  result  in  a  healthy  weight,  yet  permit  people  to  become  big  and  strong.. .we  can  minimize  our  risk  of 
contracting  deadly  diseases  just  by  eating  the  right  food.”  (117) 

Furthermore,  Dr.  T.  Colin  Campbell,  Ph.D.  speculates  that  cancer  could  be  dormant  just  waiting  to  be  activated 
by  the  consumption  of  meat  and  dairy  foods,  in  writing, 

“In  simple  terms,  the  body  holds  a  grudge.  It  suggests  that  if  we  are  exposed  in  the  past  to  a  carcinogen  that  initiates  a  bit  of 
cancer  that  remain  donnant,  this  cancer  can  still  be  “reawakened”  by  bad  nutrition.” 

“Is  it  possible  that  chemical  carcinogens,  in  general,  do  not  cause  cancer  unless  the  nutritional  conditions  are  “right”?  Is  it 
possible  that,  for  much  of  our  lives,  we  are  being  exposed  to  small  amounts  of  cancer  causing  chemicals,  but  cancer  does  not 
occur  unless  we  consume  foods  that  promote  and  nurture  tumor  development?  Can  we  control  cancer  through  nutrition?” 

“...in  both  rodents  and  humans  the  initiation  stage  is  far  less  important  than  the  promotion  stage  of  cancer.  This  is  because  we 
are  very  likely  “dosed”  with  a  certain  amount  of  carcinogens  in  our  everyday  lives,  but  whether  they  lead  to  full  tumors 
depends  on  their  promotion  or  lack  thereof.” 

“...our  most  powerful  weapon  against  cancer  is  the  food  we  eat  every  day.”  (122) 

Obesity  has  nearly  tripled  worldwide  since  1975.  In  2016,  there  were  more  than  1,900,000,000  adults  aged  18 
years  and  older  which  were  overweight,  with  650,000,000  of  them  being  obese.  In  addition,  there  were 
41,000,000  children  under  the  age  of  5  that  were  either  overweight  or  obese,  and  more  than  340,000,000  children 
and  adolescents  aged  5  to  19  that  were  also  overweight  or  obese.  (608)  Of  the  195  countries  in  the  world,  96 


countries  have  high  obesity  rates  with  20%  or  more  of  the  population  being  obese.  It  should  also  be  noted,  that  in 
addition  to  the  obese  percentage,  another  20%  or  more  of  the  population  of  many  countries  is  overweight. 


SOME  COUNTRIES  WITH  HIGH  OBESITY  RATES 

%  OF  POPULATION  OBESE 

COUNTRY 

42 

KUWAIT 

33 

BELIZE 

33 

EGYPT 

33 

UNITED  STATES 

33 

SAUDI  ARABIA 

32 

CZECH  REPUBLIC 

32 

UNITED  ARAB  EMIRATES 

32 

MEXICO 

31 

SOUTH  AFRICA 

30 

FIJI 

30 

VENEZUELA 

29 

ARGENTINA 

29 

CHILE 

28 

NEW  ZEALAND 

27 

LIBYA 

27 

TURKEY 

27 

HUNGARY 

27 

LITHUANIA 

27 

LEBENON 

27 

SYRIA 

27 

IRAQ 

26 

UNITED  KINGDOM 

26 

AUSTRALIA 

26 

SPAIN 

26 

RUSSIA 

26 

CANADA 

26 

ISRAEL 

26 

LUXEMBOURG 

25 

EL  SALVADOR 

25 

CYPRUS 

25 

PANAMA 

25 

POLAND 

25 

IRELAND 

25 

GERMANY 

SOURCE:  CIA  WORLD  FACT  BOOK  2017 

When  1/4  to  1/3  of  a  population  is  obese,  one  might  be  led  to  believe  that  there  is  a  serious  problem  with  the 
society’s  food  sources  and  lifestyle  choices.  The  CDC  states  that  American  adult  men  and  women  are  25  pounds 
heavier  on  average  than  they  were  in  1960.  (161)  In  2008,  the  estimated  yearly  medical  costs  of  obesity  in  the 
United  States  was  as  high  as  $147,000,000,000  a  year,  or  nearly  10%  of  all  medical  spending.  An  amount  which 
nearly  doubled  since  1998  from  an  estimated  of  $78,500,000,000  a  year.  (162)  Obesity  is  now  more  than  ever  an 


accepted  part  of  western  society,  and  it  is  considered  just  another  lifestyle.  The  entertainment  industry  portrays 
obese  Homo  sapiens  as  happy  and  funny,  as  just  another  character.  There  are  even  specialty  clothing  stores 
which  cater  specifically  towards  obese  Homo  sapiens,  with  the  socially  acceptable  name  called  'Plus  Size’.  An 
entire  billion-dollar  pseudo  diet  and  weight  loss  industry  has  developed  around  obesity.  Obesity  has  in  fact 
become  just  another  negative  thing  that  society  accepts,  while  ignoring  the  simple  solution  that  most  obesity 
issues  could  easily  be  corrected  with  daily  exercise  and  consuming  a  healthy  diet.  Some  are  also  delusional  in 
thinking  that  as  you  get  older  your  metabolism  slows  down  and  you  just  simply  get  fatter  with  age. 

Obesity  is  so  prevalent  in  western  societies  that  it  has  also  affected  dogs  and  cats  which  have  developed  this 
condition.  As  a  result  of  Homo  sapiens  feeding  them  a  diet  high  in  fat  combined  with  a  sedentary  lifestyle,  an 
estimated  35%  of  cats  and  34%  of  dogs  in  the  United  States  are  overweight  or  obese.  (404)  Engaging  in  glutton 
competitions  while  other  Homo  sapiens  are  starving  around  the  world  is  a  major  warning  sign  that  society  has 
serious  issues  with  regard  to  food  consumption  and  distribution.  If  every  individual  in  developed  countries  went 
hungry  for  a  month  eating  a  daily  diet  which  consisted  of  only  one  small  bowl  of  rice  and  beans  per  day,  would 
their  attitude  not  change  towards  helping  to  eliminate  world  hunger  and  food  waste?  One  thing  is  certain  it 
would  definitely  help  those  who  are  morbidly  obese  to  lose  some  weight.  Will  the  world  ever  reverse  the  current 
obesity  epidemic,  or  will  future  generations  continue  down  the  same  path  their  ancestors  took?  Perhaps  the  most 
recent  spikes  in  consumer  food  cost  combined  with  recent  product  quantity  decreases  will  lead  to  slightly  less 
consumption  and  more  awareness  about  the  quantities  of  food  they  are  consuming  versus  the  recommended 
amount. 

Part  of  the  cause  is  from  consumers  not  having  had  nutritional  education  and  disciplinary  eating  habits,  while  the 
other  part  is  a  result  of  commercial  companies  themselves  offering  and  promoting  unhealthy  foods.  There  are 
nutritional  and  ingredient  labels  which  detail  everything  about  the  food  item,  but  how  many  consumers  actual 
read  or  even  understand  this  data?  And  what  good  are  the  labels  if  the  members  of  the  Food  and  Nutrition  Board 
(FNB)  who  decide  the  Recommended  Daily  Allowance  (RDA)  are  heavily  influenced  by  the  meat,  dairy,  sugar, 
and  other  food  industries?  Why  must  Homo  sapiens  waste  resources  attempting  to  fight  and  control  these 
medical  issues  with  science  and  medicine,  when  they  could  easily  be  prevented  by  not  consuming  meat,  dairy, 
and  other  unhealthy  foods?  Flow  many  billions  of  dollars  each  year  goes  towards  the  medical  expenses  of  these 
easily  preventable  diseases?  Could  medical  treatments  be  decreased  by  70%  or  more  if  Homo  sapiens  simply 
changed  their  lifestyle  and  diet?  Is  it  simply  a  matter  of  the  consumer's  eating  habits  changing  by  choice,  either 
through  education  or  as  a  result  of  health  issues  from  an  indulgent  and  unhealthy  diet  in  the  past? 

Temporary  Solutions  for  Permanent  Problems 

The  lengths  some  Homo  sapiens  will  go  to  for  medical  treatment  are  sometimes  unthinkable,  (e.g.  dental 
amalgam  is  still  practiced  for  treating  cavities  even  though  it  utilizes  highly  toxic  mercury)  Why  would  anyone 
put  such  a  highly  toxic  substance  permanently  into  their  mouth  potentially  endangering  their  health,  and 
ultimately  releasing  mercury  pollution  into  the  atmosphere  or  soil  when  they  die?  Why  are  toxic  treatments  like 
chemotherapy  used  when  they  have  so  many  adverse  side  effects  and  such  a  low  success  rate?  Why  are  medical 
procedures  like  electroconvulsive  therapy  still  used  when  there  are  questions  as  to  the  efficacy,  ethics,  and 
adverse  side  effects  of  the  treatment?  Why  are  synthetically  created  medicines  used  so  heavily  when  they  have 
so  many  possible  adverse  side  effects  and  warnings? 

There  were  66,000  kidney  transplants  in  2005  which  only  covered  around  10%  of  requested  donations.  Organ 
transplants  have  extended  some  lives  with  many  organs  transplanted  which  are  taken  from  willing  donors  who 
want  to  help  others  when  they  die.  But  unfortunately,  like  most  medicine,  organ  transplants  have  become  just 
another  medical  industry  based  around  profits  that  cannot  meet  the  demand  resulting  in  a  black  market  of 
desperate  poor  donors.  In  some  villages  in  Pakistan  40  to  50%  of  the  village  residents  have  only  one  kidney 
because  they  have  sold  the  other.  (367)  In  China,  an  estimated  60,000  to  100,000  organs  are  transplanted  each 
year  with  the  majority  of  donor  organs  coming  from  executed  prisoners  of  conscience.  Between  2000  and  2016, 
an  estimated  1,500,000  organ  transplants  took  place  in  China.  (368)  Do  these  organ  recipients  know,  or  even  care 
where  these  organs  are  being  sourced  from?  If  an  individual  has  taxed  their  organs  to  the  point  of  failure  because 


of  their  negative  lifestyle  choices  and  now  needs  an  organ  transplant,  would  not  the  simpler  more  cost-effective 
solution  have  been  prevention?  Would  there  even  be  such  a  demand  for  organs  if  Homo  sapiens  maintained 
healthier  lifestyles?  Are  Homo  sapiens  so  desperate  to  live  they  will  attempt  insane  pseudo  medical  treatments 
and  go  so  far  as  to  transplant  organs?  Have  these  individuals  not  reached  a  point  of  acceptance  that  death  is 
inevitable  and  that  nothing  can  make  you  live  forever?  Homo  sapiens  seem  so  desperate  to  live  as  long  as 
possible  that  they  will  pay  any  amount  and  attempt  anything,  risking  even  the  certain  possibility  of  death  which 
they  are  attempting  to  defy.  If  some  have  their  way,  organ  transplants  in  the  future  will  be  grown  inside  pigs,  one 
of  the  very  fauna  species  which  is  being  eaten  and  causing  so  many  to  need  an  organ  transplant  in  the  first  place. 
(430)  What  does  it  say  about  a  society’s  morals  toward  another  sentient  being,  which  is  exploited  first  by  eating  it 
and  then  by  using  it  to  harvest  replacement  organs?  Perhaps  future  medicine  will  be  more  like  Miguel 
Sapochnik’s  2010  ‘Repo  Men  ’,  where  organ  transplants  will  be  just  another  overpriced  commodity  which  is  sold 
and  repossessed  when  consumers  can  no  longer  afford  it.  Shouldn’t  Homo  sapiens  attempt  to  solve  the 
anthropogenic  issues  which  claim  far  more  lives  before  attempting  to  change  and  alter  the  natural  ones? 

There  are  many  natural  medicines  which  are  derived  from  florae,  some  of  which  have  been  used  for  thousands  of 
years.  But  much  knowledge  about  natural  medicine  which  was  known  by  Homo  sapiens  ancient  ancestors  is 
unknown  today  and  is  simply  waiting  to  be  rediscovered.  This  ancient  and  once  common  knowledge  has  either 
been  replaced  by  synthetic  drugs  or  simply  forgotten.  Many  florae  of  Earth  have  not  been  identified,  classified, 
or  described,  and  these  unknown  florae  and  much  of  the  known  florae  have  never  even  been  scientifically 
researched  for  medicinal  applications.  Perhaps  if  a  more  natural  cure  to  diseases  is  sought  through  ethnobotany, 
so  many  ailments  which  plague  Homo  sapiens  could  be  a  thing  of  the  past.  Nature  is  perfect  and  has  a  solution  to 
every  problem  that  is  encountered,  for  it  is  not  seen  as  a  problem  to  nature,  but  simply  a  piece  of  nature's  larger 
puzzle.  The  hurdle  which  Homo  sapiens  are  faced  with  is  not  one  of  finding  the  solution  to  nature's  problems, 
but  the  correct  natural  solution  which  nature  already  knows.  If  Homo  sapiens  continue  to  seek  the  answers  to 
problems  in  a  synthetic  way  attempting  to  playing  God  with  science,  they  may  continue  to  only  find  temporary 
solutions  to  permanent  self-inflicted  problems.  Do  potential  new  medicinal  drugs  await  Homo  sapiens  from 
undiscovered  flora  in  one  of  the  many  unexplored  ecosystems  of  the  Earth?  Could  florae  revolutionize  medicine 
and  lead  Homo  sapiens  to  abandon  potentially  harmful  synthetic  drugs  which  result  in  the  deaths  of  so  many 
every  year?  How  much  different  would  the  medical  system  be  if  more  resources  were  devoted  to  researching 
ethnobotany,  herbalism,  nutrition,  ethnomedicine,  and  other  natural  alternative  therapies? 

The  human  body  is  resilient  and  can  heal  itself  if  given  time  and  the  proper  nutrition,  but  much  of  modern 
medicine  is  based  on  extreme  treatments,  some  even  experimental,  which  actually  weaken  the  immune  system 
and  can  result  in  additional  medical  issues  and  even  death.  Homo  sapiens  are  a  beautifully  created  complex 
organism,  to  attempt  manipulation  of  it  through  technology  or  to  rely  on  pseudo-science  for  shortcuts  as  an 
alternative  for  better  health  is  nothing  more  than  ignorance  and  foolishness.  No  pill  can  replace  whole  foods,  no 
surgery  can  permanently  fix  the  body  or  make  one  live  a  healthier  life,  no  genetic  modifications  will  alleviate 
diseases  of  affluence,  and  no  fauna-based  diet  will  ever  be  as  healthy  as  a  flora-based  one.  The  only  true  way  to 
maintain  a  healthy  body,  is  through  a  healthy  flora-based  diet  and  an  active  lifestyle.  Age  is  a  part  of  life,  and 
acceptance  of  aging  is  something  many  do  not  want  to  do  so  they  instead  attempt  to  hide  or  stop  the  inevitable 
with  plastic  surgery,  pseudo  medicines,  and  other  anti -aging  schemes.  Some  Homo  sapiens  take  5,  10,  15,  or 
more  pills  per  day,  how  stressed  are  the  livers,  kidneys,  and  other  organs  of  these  individuals?  Is  attempting  to 
prolong  an  inevitable  death  really  worth  the  excessive  strain  placed  on  the  medical  community  and  environment? 
Is  fighting  an  inevitable  death  in  this  manner  really  considered  living? 

A  Healthcare  System  Based  Around  Money  and  Profits 

Medicine  has  become  an  industry  based  on  profits,  not  a  system  based  solely  on  helping  the  sick.  In  2013,  the 
world  spent  $7,350,000,000,000  on  healthcare,  more  than  double  spent  in  2000,  with  a  total  world  market  for 
medicines  and  medical  technologies  estimated  to  be  $11,000,000,000,000.  (413)  The  United  States  spends  more 
than  17%  of  its  GDP  on  healthcare.  In  2010,  the  costs  of  cancer  care  in  the  United  States  alone  was 
$124,570,000,000.  (270)  In  2013,  the  top  10  bestselling  cancer  drugs  had  a  combined  revenue  of 
$37,470,000,000.  (271)  Has  cancer  become  just  another  sector  of  the  medical  industry  with  a  profitable  pseudo 


cure,  while  natural  treatments  and  possibly  even  a  cure  utilizing  cannabis  has  been  proven  scientifically  in 
laboratory  tests,  but  is  ignored  by  most  of  the  medical  establishment?  CNBC  reported  in  2017,  that  the  top  six 
health  insurers  in  the  United  States  reported  $6,000,000,000  in  adjusted  profits  for  the  second  quarter,  which  was 
a  29%  increase  from  the  same  quarter  a  year  ago.  (577)  Millions  of  Homo  sapiens  every  year  become  even  poorer 
as  a  result  of  their  medical  expenses.  A  2015  WHO  report  concluded, 

"Every  year,  some  100  million  people  fall  below  the  poverty  line  as  a  result  of  out-of-pocket  expenditures  on  health,  and  a 

further  1.2  billion,  already  living  in  poverty,  are  pushed  further  into  penury  for  the  same  reason."  (413) 

Basing  medical  care  mainly  around  money  and  profits  has  ultimately  led  to  exorbitant  prices  for  medical 
treatment,  and  more  especially  for  synthetic  prescription  drugs,  resulting  in  many  around  the  world  having 
limited  access  to  medicine  because  they  simply  cannot  afford  it.  How  can  life  itself  be  based  on  a  monetary 
value?  How  many  patients  are  treated  each  year  unnecessarily  to  make  a  profit?  How  many  millions  of  dollars 
and  resources  were  wasted  on  patients  who  would  have  inevitably  died  anyway?  Why  must  millions  of  Homo 
sapiens  become  poor  in  order  to  get  medical  treatment  to  sustain  life?  Shouldn’t  medical  care  be  based  on 
helping  patients  and  not  on  making  profits?  What  good  it  a  cure  if  it  is  based  mainly  on  money  and  thus 
unavailable  to  much  of  the  world’s  population?  When  the  government  mandates  all  Americans  have  health 
insurance  or  pay  a  tax  penalty,  is  this  not  further  evidence  the  health  system  is  based  around  money  and  profits 
and  not  on  actual  healthcare?  Why  is  the  Catholic  religion  allowed  to  own  hospitals  and  other  healthcare 
facilities  allowing  medical  directives  to  be  influenced  with  their  religious  beliefs,  while  also  receiving  federal 
funding?  Will  there  ever  be  free  Universal  Health  Care  for  the  entire  world? 

In  the  United  States,  care  for  the  elderly,  disabled,  and  dying  has  become  just  another  business  where  private 
companies  charge  vast  sums  of  money  and  often  provide  inadequate  care.  In  2014,  the  CDC  reported  that  in  the 
United  States,  there  were  12,400  home  health  agencies  serving  4,900,000  patients  with  80%  of  home  health 
agencies  being  for-profit  ownership,  30,200  residential  care  communities  with  835,200  residents  with  81.8%  of 
residential  care  communities  being  for-profit  ownership,  4,000  hospice  care  agencies  with  1,300,000  patients 
with  60.2%  of  hospice  care  agencies  being  for-profit  ownership,  and  15,600  nursing  homes  housing  1,400,000 
residents  with  69.8%  of  nursing  homes  being  for-profit  ownership.  (581)  Between  2012  and  2014,  there  were 
8,100  fires  in  nursing  homes,  66%  of  which  were  started  by  cooking  vessels.  (580)  How  can  so  many  fires  occur 
in  facilities  which  are  supposed  to  be  providing  things  like  hot  food  and  beverages  within  a  safe  and  secure 
environment?  How  can  families  with  adequate  resources  abandon  their  relatives  in  such  facilities? 

Prescription  Drug  Epidemic 

The  vast  majority  of  medical  issues  today  are  caused  by  negative  lifestyle  choices  and  environmental  factors, 
and  yet  to  cure  today's  medical  issues,  be  it  mental  illness,  stress,  depression,  or  dietary  health  issues,  society  has 
resorted  to  experimental  science  in  an  attempt  to  'Cure  all  with  a  pill'.  Many  of  these  preventative  ills  could 
easily  be  cured  by  simple  lifestyle  and  dietary  changes,  education,  social  changes,  or  perhaps  even  alternative 
natural  medicines  derived  from  florae.  Other  medical  issues  like  asthma  could  be  drastically  reduced  if 
environmental  conditions  in  cities  improved  and  the  air  quality  were  less  polluted.  Everything  is  susceptible  to 
the  biological  laws  of  cause  and  effect,  especially  dietary  habits,  if  you  eat  unhealthily  or  live  in  an  unhealthy 
environment  you  will  become  unhealthy,  and  no  amount  of  pills  or  extreme  medical  treatments  will  change  the 
results,  they  may  perhaps  delay  the  inevitable,  but  only  temporarily.  In  many  instances,  modern  medicine  and 
what  doctors  call  a  cure  has  done  nothing  more  than  prolong  pain  and  suffering  of  many  preventative  diseases 
and  other  health  ailments.  In  fact,  most  prescription  drugs  only  work  on  50%  or  less  of  the  patients  who  take 
them,  an  open  secret  within  the  drug  industry  and  one  admitted  to  in  2003  by  Allen  Roses,  the  former  worldwide 
vice-president  of  genetics  at  GlaxoSmithKline  who  stated, 


"The  vast  majority  of  drugs  -  more  than  90  per  cent  -  only  work  in  30  or  50  per  cent  of  the  people,  I  wouldn't  say  that  most 
drugs  don't  work.  I  would  say  that  most  drugs  work  in  30  to  50  per  cent  of  people.  Drugs  out  there  on  the  market  work,  but 
they  don't  work  in  everybody."  (197) 


The  pharmaceutical  companies  have,  in  essence,  formed  a  monopoly  over  many  drugs  while  also  engaging  in 
price  gouging  to  increase  profits.  This  monopoly  has  created  a  trillion-dollar  industry  of  over  overpriced,  over¬ 
prescribed,  and  sometimes  addictive  pharmaceutical  drugs.  Utilizing  patents,  tax  breaks,  and  government 
subsidies  the  pharmaceutical  industry  has  created  a  monopoly  that  charges  exorbitant  prices  on  drugs  that  the 
public  is  either  addicted  to  taking  or  unknowingly  forced  to  take  through  ignorance  and  a  medical  community  of 
doctors  who  condone  the  practice  and  perpetuate  it  on  a  daily  basis.  Dr.  T.  Colin  Campbell,  Ph.D.  remarks  that, 

“Considered  from  another  perspective,  the  NCI  (of  the  NIH),  in  1999  had  a  budget  of  $2.93  billion.  In  a  “major”  5-A-Day 
dietary  program,  it  was  spending  $500,000  to  $1  million  to  educate  the  public  to  consume  five  or  more  servings  of  fruits  and 
vegetables  per  day.  This  is  only  three  hundredths  of  one  percent  (0.0256%)  of  its  budget.  That's  $2.56  for  every  $10,000!  If  it 
calls  this  a  major  campaign,  I  pity  its  minor  campaigns.” 

“If  very  few  of  our  tax  dollars  are  used  to  fund  nutrition  research,  what  do  they  fund?  Almost  all  of  the  billions  of  dollars  of 
taxpayer  money  expended  by  the  NIH  each  year  funds  projects  to  develop  drugs,  supplements  and  mechanical  devices.  In 
essence,  the  vast  bulk  of  biomedical  research  funded  by  you  and  me  is  basic  research  to  discover  products  that  the 
pharmaceutical  industry  can  develop  and  market.  In  2000,  Dr.  Marcia  Angell,  a  former  editor  of  the  New  England  Journal  of 
Medicine,  summarized  it  well  when  she  wrote: 

...the  pharmaceutical  industry  enjoys  extraordinary  government  protections  and  subsidies.  Much  of  the  early  basic  research 
that  may  lead  to  drug  development  is  funded  by  the  National  Institutes  of  Health.  It  is  usually  only  later,  when  the  research 
shows  practical  promise  that  the  drug  companies  become  involved.  The  industry  enjoys  great  tax  advantages.  Not  only  are  its 
research  and  development  costs  deductible,  but  so  are  its  massive  marketing  expenses.  The  average  tax  tare  of  major  U.S. 

Industries  from  1993  to  1996  was  27.3%  of  revenues.  During  the  same  period  the  pharmaceutical  industry  was  reportedly 
taxed  at  a  rate  of  only  16.2%.  Most  important,  the  drug  companies  enjoy  seventeen-year  government-granted  monopolies  on 
their  new  drugs-that  is,  patent  protection.  Once  a  drug  is  patented,  no  one  else  may  sell  it,  and  the  drug  company  is  free  to 
charge  whatever  the  traffic  will  bear.”  (119) 

The  pharmaceutical  industry  makes  huge  profits  every  year  but  spends  far  more  on  marketing  medications  than 
on  actual  research  and  development.  (316)  Globally,  pharmaceutical  industry  revenue  each  year  is  now  more  than 
$1,000,000,000,000.  Every  year  in  the  United  States  physicians  order  or  provide  2,915,400,000  drugs  to  their 
patients.  48.7%  of  the  United  States  population  uses  one  prescription  drug,  21.8%  use  three  or  more  prescription 
drugs,  10.7%  use  5  or  more  prescription  drugs.  What  does  it  mean  when  nearly  half  the  population  takes  a 
prescription  drug?  Are  Americans  extremely  sick  or  are  they  being  overmedicated  for  monetary  profits?  (202) 

Many  pharmaceutical  drugs  cost  very  little  to  manufacture  but  retail  for  an  exorbitant  amount,  the  epinephrine 
autoinjector,  aka  EpiPen  is  a  prime  example  of  this  costing  around  $1  to  manufacture  and  retailing  for  $600.  In 
the  United  States  from  2002  to  2013,  spending  for  insulin  per  patient  increased  from  $231.48  to  $736.09  which 
affects  some  29,000,000  American  diabetics,  or  9.3%  of  the  population.  (307)  Lomustine,  a  40-year  old  cancer 
drug,  was  sold  to  a  new  pharmaceutical  company  in  2013,  it  has  since  risen  from  $50.00  per  capsule  to  $768.00 
per  pill,  an  increase  of  nearly  1,400%.  (664)  How  can  companies  be  allowed  to  charge  such  exorbitant  amounts 
on  life  saving  drugs?  Do  these  scientists,  doctors,  and  businesspersons  who  run  these  pharmaceutical  giants  have 
no  morals,  and  only  care  about  profits?  Why  are  companies  like  Turing  Pharmaceuticals  allowed  to  obtain  the 
sole  manufacturing  license  for  an  antiparasitic  drug  like  Daraprim,  and  engage  in  price  gouging  by  increasing  the 
price  from  $13.50  USD  per  pill  to  $750.00  USD  per  pill,  while  in  Brazil  the  same  drug  is  available  for  $0.02 
USD  per  pill?  (409)  An  investigation  by  Reuters  found  that  4  of  the  most  10  prescribed  drugs  in  the  United  States 
have  increased  in  price  by  more  than  100%  since  2011,  and  that  in  2014  sales  for  the  10  most  prescribed  drugs 
increased  44%,  even  though  prescriptions  for  these  same  medications  dropped  22%.  Patient  spending  on 
pharmaceutical  drugs  also  increased  faster  than  doctor  visits  and  hospitalization  over  a  five-year  period.  (412) 


List  of  Most  Expensive  Prescription  Drugs  | 

Drug  Name 

Cost 

Glybera 

$  1 ,000,000  per  year 

Ravicti 

$794,000  per  year  (an  estimated  2000  Homo  sapiens  in  the  United  States  suffer  from 
this  rare  genetic  disease,  if  each  patient  pays  this  exorbitant  price  it  would  be  a  total 
of:  $1,588,000,000. 

Spinraza 

$750,000  for  the  first  year  and  $375,000  for  each  year  after 

Lumizyme 

$626,000  per  year 

Carbaglu 

$585,000  per  year 

Actimmune 

$572,000  per  year 

Soliris 

$543,000  per  year  (with  an  estimated  41,000  patients  worldwide,  if  each  patient  pays 
this  exorbitant  price  it  would  be  a  total  of:  $22,263,000,000 

As  of  2015  there  were  90  other  prescription  drugs  that  each  had  an  annual  cost  of  $100,000  or  more,  5  of  them  costing  more  than 
$400,000  per  year. 

SOURCE:  The  Motley  Fool  -  The  7  Most  Expensive  Prescription  Drugs  in  the  World  -  April  18,  2017  - 
httDs://www.fool.com/investing/2017/04/28/teva-Dhannaceutical-is-looking-to-deal-and-thats-a.aspx 

Pharmaceutical  companies  have  used  unethical  business  schemes  like:  Medicaid  Price  Reporting,  Best  Price 
Fraud,  CME  Fraud,  Off  Label  Marketing,  Good  Manufacturing  Practice  Violations,  Manufactured  Compound 
Drugs,  and  other  methods  to  defraud  the  health  care  system  in  an  effort  to  increase  profits.  From  2001  to  2013, 
there  were  many  settlements  made  between  pharmaceutical  companies  and  the  United  States  Department  of 
Justice,  the  22  largest  settlements  amounted  to  $19,755,000,000  in  fines.  Flow  can  these  companies  continue  to 
break  the  law  with  little  or  no  real  consequences? 

Children  today  are  often  prescribed  Ritalin,  Adderall,  or  another  experimental  pharmaceutical  concoction  to 
correct  behavioral  problems.  In  1990,  there  were  600,000  children  that  were  taking  stimulants  like  Ritalin,  by 
2013  the  number  increased  to  3,500,000  children  while  the  stimulant  Ritalin  was  largely  replaced  by  Adderall. 
(459)  Worldwide,  global  Ritalin  consumption  was  2,400,000,000  doses  in  2013.  (461)  About  83,000  prescriptions 
for  Prozac,  and  almost  20,000  prescriptions  for  Risperdal,  Seroquel,  and  other  antipsychotic  medications  were 
written  in  2014  for  children  that  were  2  years  old  and  younger.  (460)  Why  is  Ritalin,  a  drug  that  essentially  has 
the  same  pharmacological  properties  as  amphetamines,  used  to  treat  children  with  behavioral  problems?  Are 
these  children’s  behavioral  issues  a  result  from  social  and  environmental  factors?  (e.g.  alcohol,  drug,  pesticide, 
or  other  chemical  exposure  during  pregnancy,  premature  birth,  low  birth  weight,  vitamin  or  other  nutritional 
deficiencies,  social  deprivation,  neglect  or  abuse,  etc.)  Instead  of  prescription  drugs,  could  the  solution  be  in 
treating  these  children  with  behavior  therapy,  diet  and  lifestyle  changes,  and/or  social  changes?  The  January 
2008  PBS  Frontline  program  ‘The  Medicated  Child’  documents  the  issue  in  depth. 


Top  25  Most  Prescribed  Pharmaceutical  Drugs  in  the  United  States  -  April  2014  to  March  2015 

Prescription  Drug 

Total  Prescriptions 

Use 

Synthroid 

21,561,481 

thyroid  hormone  deficiency 

Crestor 

21,478,776 

high  cholesterol  and  related  conditions  and  to  prevent 
cardiovascular  disease 

Ventolin  HFA 

18,203,939 

asthma 

Nexium 

15,298,228 

stomach  acid  reducer 

Advair  Diskus 

13,776,325 

asthma  and  chronic  obstructive  pulmonary  disease 

Lantus  Solostar 

10,939,840 

diabetes 

Vyvanse 

10,413,999 

attention  deficit  hyperactivity  disorder  (ADHD)  and  binge  eating 
disorder 

Lyrica 

10,022,365 

epilepsy,  neuropathic  pain,  fibromyalgia,  and  generalized  anxiety 
disorder 

Spiriva  Handihaler 

9,635,935 

asthma 

Januvia 

9,148,946 

diabetes 

Lantus 

9,145,153 

diabetes 

Ability 

9,099,978 

atypical  antipsychotic 

Symbicort 

8,265,594 

asthma  and  chronic  obstructive  pulmonary  disease 

Tamiflu 

8,025,275 

antiviral  flu  medication 

Cialis 

7,472,719 

erectile  dysfunction 

Viagra 

7,104,074 

erectile  dysfunction 

Suboxone 

6,985,631 

used  in  the  treatment  of  opioid  dependence 

Zetia 

6,925,137 

high  cholesterol 

Xarelto 

6,739,752 

preventing  and  treating  blood  clots 

Bystolic 

6,461,435 

high  blood  pressure 

Celebrex 

6,449,730 

pain  and  inflammation 

Nasonex 

6,432,382 

inflammation 

Namenda 

5,961,360 

Alzheimer's  disease 

Flo  vent  HFA 

5,736,650 

asthma,  allergic  rhinitis,  nasal  polyps,  various  skin  disorders  and 
Crohn's  disease  and  ulcerative  colitis 

Oxycontin 

5,347,532 

pain 

Source:  Medscape  -  100  Best-Selling,  Most  Prescribed  Branded  Drugs  Through  March  -  by:  Troy  Brown,  RN  -  May  06,  2015  - 
httr>://www.medscar>e.com/viewarticle/8443 1 7#vn  1 

The  vast  majority  of  prescription  drugs  used  today  are  synthetic,  with  some  even  containing  known  chemicals 
that  have  adverse  health  effects  for  some  patients  who  use  them  only  once.  Prolonged  use  of  prescription  drugs 
can  also  result  in  severe  irreversible  liver,  kidney,  or  other  bodily  damage.  There  are  no  official  statistics  from 
the  FDA,  CDC,  or  any  United  States  government  agency  for  the  total  number  of  adverse  drug  reactions  and 
adverse  drug  reaction  deaths.  There  is  however  one  study  which  analyzed  data  between  1966  and  1996,  the  study 
estimated  that  in  1994  there  were  2,216,000  hospitalized  patients  that  had  a  serious  adverse  drug  reaction,  while 
another  106,000  hospitalized  patients  had  a  fatal  adverse  drug  reaction,  making  this  an  unreported  and  hidden 
leading  cause  of  death.  (458)  These  estimates  do  not  include  adverse  drug  reactions  which  occurred  in  a  nursing 
home  or  in  an  ambulatory  setting,  which  could  add  hundreds  of  thousands  to  the  total.  Why  are  adverse  drug 
reaction  deaths  not  a  focal  point  for  relative  government  agencies,  hospitals,  doctors,  and  patients?  Why  are  no 
government  statistics  available  on  this  issue,  and  why  is  there  no  system  in  place  to  record,  track,  and  further 
investigate  each  adverse  drug  reaction  incident?  How  can  the  government  ignore  such  a  prevalent  issue  within 
medicine?  How  many  millions  of  adverse  drug  reactions  occur  worldwide?  How  many  hundreds  of  thousands  of 
deaths  worldwide  occur  because  of  an  adverse  drug  reaction?  Why  is  there  so  much  focus  on  the  abuse  and 
overdose  deaths  of  prescription  and  illegal  drugs,  but  so  little  attention  given  to  a  prescription  drug  which  kills 
the  patient  it  was  intending  to  save?  If  the  public  was  more  aware  of  the  real  total  number  of  adverse  drug 
reactions  and  adverse  drug  reaction  deaths  which  occur,  would  they  take  less  prescription  drugs?  Have  patients 
become  the  ultimate  clinical  trial  for  prescription  drugs?  Why  would  anyone  take  such  a  substance  to  cure 
something  that  can  be  done  in  a  more  natural  way  with  florae,  lifestyle  changes,  or  physical  therapy? 

Prescription  drug  advertisements  are  presented  in  a  soothing  calm  and  happy  voice  when  talking  about  not  only 
the  drug  itself,  but  even  the  side  effects,  as  if  allergic  reactions,  drowsiness,  nausea,  vomiting,  insomnia,  heart 
palpitations,  addiction,  dependence,  and  other  negative  and  even  fatal  side  effects  are  normal  and  to  be  accepted. 
A  recent  study  found  that  32%  of  prescription  drugs  approved  by  the  FDA  had  safety  issues  prompting  either 
withdrawal  of  the  drug  from  market,  a  box  warning,  or  prompted  a  safety  communication  release.  (346)  Since  the 
1960’s,  many  prescription  drugs  in  the  United  States  and  Europe  have  been  recalled  due  to  adverse  and 
sometimes  previously  unknown  fatal  side-effects.  Why  are  so  many  highly  addictive  drugs  prescribed  so 
frequently?  Why  have  so  many  drugs  with  known  side-effects  been  allowed  to  reach  consumers  only  to  later  be 
recalled?  If  2  out  of  1 ,000  patients  experience  a  side-effect  from  taking  a  prescribed  drug  and  the  side-effect  is  a 
guaranteed  statistical  probability,  then  what  use  is  a  black  box  warning  or  other  government  warning?  Is  society 
being  so  heavily  influenced  by  the  medical  establishment,  corporations,  and  their  advertising  that  they  consume 
whatever  is  marketed  towards  them  no  matter  how  toxic  and  deadly  it  could  possibly  be? 


Some  Controversial  Medications 

Drug 

Description 

Alosetron 

Alosetron  was  withdrawn  from  the  market  in  2000  owing  to  the  occurrence  of  serious  life-threatening 
gastrointestinal  adverse  effects,  but  was  reintroduced  in  2002  with  availability  and  use  restricted.  Alosetron 
was  withdrawn  from  the  market  voluntarily  by  Glaxo  Wellcome  on  November  28,  2000  owing  to  the 
occurrence  of  serious  life-threatening  gastrointestinal  adverse  effects,  including  5  deaths  and  additional  bowel 
surgeries.  The  FDA  said  it  had  reports  of  49  cases  of  ischemic  colitis  and  21  cases  of  "severe  constipation" 
and  that  ten  of  the  70  patients  underwent  surgeries  and  34  others  were  examined  at  hospitals  and  released 
without  surgery.  Severe  adverse  events  continued  to  be  reported,  with  a  final  total  of  84  instances  of 
ischaemic  colitis,  113  of  severe  constipation,  143  admissions  to  hospital,  and  7  deaths.  It  was  the  first  drug 
returned  to  the  U.S.  market  after  withdrawal  for  safety  concerns. 

Amphetamine  and 
Methamphetamine 

In  the  United  States,  methamphetamine  hydrochloride,  under  the  trade  name  Desoxyn,  has  been  approved  by 
the  FDA  for  treating  ADHD  and  obesity  in  both  adults  and  children;  however,  the  FDA  also  indicates  that  the 
limited  therapeutic  usefulness  of  methamphetamine  should  be  weighed  against  the  inherent  risks  associated 
with  its  use.  Methamphetamine  is  sometimes  prescribed  off  label  for  narcolepsy  and  idiopathic  hypersomnia. 

In  the  United  States,  methamphetamine's  levorotary  form  is  available  in  some  over-the-counter  (OTC)  nasal 
decongestant  products.  As  methamphetamine  is  associated  with  a  high  potential  for  misuse,  the  drug  is 
regulated  under  the  Controlled  Substances  Act  and  is  listed  under  schedule  II  in  the  United  States. 

One  of  the  earliest  uses  of  amphetamine  and  methamphetamine  was  during  World  War  II,  when  they  were 
used  by  Axis  and  Allied  forces.  As  early  as  1919,  Akira  Ogata  synthesized  methamphetamine  via  reduction  of 
ephedrine  using  red  phosphorus  and  iodine.  Later,  the  chemists  Hauschild  and  Dobke  from  the  German 
pharmaceutical  company  Temmler  developed  an  easier  method  for  converting  ephedrine  to 
methamphetamine.  As  a  result,  it  was  possible  for  Temmler  to  market  it  on  a  large  scale  as  a  nonprescription 
drug  under  the  trade  name  Pervitin  (methamphetamine  hydrochloride).  It  was  not  until  1986  that  Pervitin 
became  a  controlled  substance,  requiring  a  special  prescription  to  obtain.  Pervitin  was  commonly  used  by  the 
German  and  Finnish  militaries. 

It  was  widely  distributed  across  German  military  ranks  and  divisions,  from  elite  forces  to  tank  crews  and 
aircraft  personnel,  with  many  millions  of  tablets  being  distributed  throughout  the  war  for  its  performance 
enhancing  stimulant  effects  and  to  induce  extended  wakefulness.  Its  use  by  German  Tank  (Panzer)  crews  also 
led  to  it  being  known  as  Panzerschokolade  ("Tank-Chocolates").  It  was  also  colloquially  known  among 

German  Luftwaffe  pilots  as  Stuka-Tabletten  ("Stuka-Tablets")  and  Hermann-Goring-Pillen  ("Herman-Goring- 
Pills").  More  than  35  million  three-milligram  doses  of  Pervitin  were  manufactured  for  the  German  army  and 
air  force  between  April  and  July  1940.  From  1942  until  his  death  in  1945,  Adolf  Hitler  was  given  intravenous 
injections  of  methamphetamine  by  his  personal  physician  Theodor  Morell.  In  Japan,  methamphetamine  was 
sold  under  the  registered  trademark  of  Philopon  by  Dainippon  Pharmaceuticals  (present-day  Dainippon 
Sumitomo  Pharma  [DSP])  for  civilian  and  military  use.  It  has  been  estimated  that  one  billion  Phiporon  pills 
were  produced  between  1939  and  1945.  As  with  the  rest  of  the  world  at  the  time,  the  side  effects  of 
methamphetamine  were  not  well  studied,  and  regulation  was  not  seen  as  necessary.  In  the  1940s  and  1950s, 
the  drug  was  widely  administered  to  Japanese  industrial  workers  to  increase  their  productivity.  In  Finland, 
Pervitin  was  colloquially  known  as  hookipulveri  ("pep  powder").  Its  use  was  essentially  restricted  to  special 
forces,  especially  to  long  range  commandos. 

Amphetamine  was  given  to  Allied  bomber  pilots  during  World  War  II  to  sustain  them  by  fighting  off  fatigue 
and  enhancing  focus  during  long  flights.  During  the  Persian  Gulf  War,  amphetamine  became  the  drug  of 
choice  for  American  bomber  pilots,  being  used  on  a  voluntary  basis  by  roughly  half  of  U.S.  Air  Force  pilots. 

The  Tamak  Farm  incident,  in  which  an  American  F-16  pilot  killed  several  friendly  Canadian  soldiers  on  the 
ground,  was  blamed  by  the  pilot  on  his  use  of  amphetamine.  A  nonjudicial  (UCMJ  Article  15)  U.S.  Air  Force 
hearing  rejected  the  pilot's  claim. 

Aprotinin 

Under  the  trade  name  Trasylol,  aprotinin  was  used  as  a  medication  administered  by  injection  to  reduce 
bleeding  during  complex  surgery,  such  as  heart  and  liver  surgery.  Its  main  effect  is  the  slowing  down  of 
fibrinolysis,  the  process  that  leads  to  the  breakdown  of  blood  clots.  The  aim  in  its  use  was  to  decrease  the 
need  for  blood  transfusions  during  surgery,  as  well  as  end-organ  damage  due  to  hypotension  (low  blood 
pressure)  as  a  result  of  marked  blood  loss.  The  drug  was  temporarily  withdrawn  worldwide  in  2007  after 
studies  suggested  that  its  use  increased  the  risk  of  complications  or  death;  this  was  confirmed  by  follow-up 
studies.  Trasylol  sales  were  suspended  in  May  2008,  except  for  very  restricted  research  use.  In  February  2012 
the  European  Medicines  Agency  (EMA)  scientific  committee  reverted  its  previous  standpoint  regarding 
aprotinin,  and  has  recommended  that  the  suspension  be  lifted.  Nordic  became  distributor  of  aprotinin  in  2012. 
On  October  25,  2007,  the  FDA  issued  a  statement  regarding  the  "Blood  conservation  using  antifibrinolytics" 
(BART)  randomized  trial  in  a  cardiac  surgery  population.  The  preliminary  findings  suggest  that,  compared  to 
other  antifibrinolytic  drugs  (epsilon-aminocaproic  acid  and  tranexamic  acid)  aprotinin  may  increase  the  risk 
of  death.  On  October  29,  2006  the  Food  and  Drag  Administration  issued  a  warning  that  aprotinin  may  have 
serious  kidney  and  cardiovascular  toxicity.  The  producer,  Bayer,  reported  to  the  FDA  that  additional 
observation  studies  showed  that  it  may  increase  the  chance  for  death,  serious  kidney  damage,  congestive  heart 
failure  and  strokes.  FDA  warned  clinicians  to  consider  limiting  use  to  those  situations  where  the  clinical 
benefit  of  reduced  blood  loss  is  essential  to  medical  management  and  outweighs  the  potential  risks.  On 
November  5,  2007,  Bayer  announced  that  it  was  withdrawing  Aprotinin  because  of  a  Canadian  study  that 
showed  it  increased  the  risk  of  death  when  used  to  prevent  bleeding  during  heart  surgery. 

Benoxaprofen 

Benoxaprofen,  also  known  as  Benoxaphen,  is  a  non-steroidal  anti-inflammatory  drug  and  was  marketed  under 
the  brand  name  Oraflex  in  the  United  States  and  as  Opren  in  Europe  by  Eli  Lilly  and  Company.  Lilly 
suspended  sales  of  Oraflex  in  1982  after  reports  from  the  British  government  and  the  U.S.  Food  and  Drag 
Administration  (FDA)  of  adverse  effects  and  deaths  linked  to  the  drag.  When  benoxaprofen  was  on  the 
market  as  Oraflex  in  the  USA  the  first  sign  of  trouble  came  for  the  Lilly  Company.  The  British  Medical 

Journal  reported  in  May  1982  that  physicians  in  the  UK  believed  that  the  drug  was  responsible  for  at  least  12 
deaths,  mainly  caused  by  kidney  and  liver  failure.  A  petition  was  filed  to  have  Oraflex  removed  from  the 
market.  On  the  fourth  of  August  1982  the  British  government  temporarily  suspended  sales  of  the  drug  in  UK 
‘on  grounds  of  safety’.  The  British  Committee  on  the  Safety  of  Medicines  declared,  in  a  telegram  to  the  FDA, 
that  it  had  received  reports  of  more  than  3,500  adverse  side-effects  among  patients  who  had  used  Oraflex. 

There  were  also  61  deaths,  most  of  which  were  of  elderly  people.  Almost  simultaneously,  the  FDA  said  it  had 
reports  of  1 1  deaths  in  the  USA  among  Oraflex  users,  most  of  which  were  caused  by  kidney  and  liver  damage. 

Cerivastatin 

Cerivastatin  is  a  synthetic  member  of  the  class  of  statins  used  to  lower  cholesterol  and  prevent  cardiovascular 
disease.  It  was  marketed  by  the  pharmaceutical  company  Bayer  A. G.  in  the  late  1990s,  competing  with 

Pfizer's  highly  successful  atorvastatin  (Lipitor).  Cerivastatin  was  voluntarily  withdrawn  from  the  market 
worldwide  in  2001,  due  to  reports  of  fatal  rhabdomyolysis.  During  postmarketing  surveillance,  52  deaths 
were  reported  in  patients  using  cerivastatin,  mainly  from  rhabdomyolysis  and  its  resultant  renal  failure 

Dexfenfluramine 

Dexfenfluramine  was,  for  some  years  in  the  mid-1990s,  approved  by  the  United  States  Food  and  Drug 
Administration  for  the  purposes  of  weight  loss.  Flowever,  following  multiple  concerns  about  the 
cardiovascular  side-effects  of  the  drug,  the  FDA  withdrew  the  approval  in  1997.  After  it  was  removed  in  the 

US,  dexfenfluramine  was  also  pulled  out  in  other  global  markets.  It  was  later  superseded  by  sibutramine, 
which,  although  initially  considered  a  safer  alternative  to  both  dexfenfluramine  and  fenfluramine,  was 
likewise  removed  from  the  US  market  in  2010. 

Dcxtropropoxyphene 

Dcxtropropoxyphene  is  an  analgesic  in  the  opioid  category,  it  is  intended  to  treat  mild  pain  and  also  has 
antitussive  (cough  suppressant)  and  local  anaesthetic  effects.  The  drag  has  been  taken  off  the  market  in 

Europe  and  the  US  due  to  concerns  of  fatal  overdoses  and  heart  arrhythmias.  Dcxtropropoxyphene  is  subject 
to  some  controversy:  while  many  physicians  prescribe  it  for  a  wide  range  of  mildly  to  moderately  painful 
symptoms,  as  well  as  for  treatment  of  diarrhea,  many  others  refuse  to  prescribe  it,  citing  limited  effectiveness. 

In  addition,  the  therapeutic  index  of  dextroproxyphene  is  relatively  narrow. 

Caution  should  be  used  when  administering  dextropropoxyphene,  particularly  with  children  and  the  elderly 
and  with  patients  who  may  be  pregnant  or  breast  feeding;  other  reported  problems  include  kidney,  liver  or 
respiratory  disorders,  and  prolonged  use.  Attention  should  be  paid  to  concomitant  use  with  tranquillizers, 
antidepressants  or  excess  alcohol.  Darvon,  a  dextropropoxyphene  formulation  made  by  Eh  Lilly,  which  had 
been  on  the  market  for  25  years,  came  under  heavy  fire  in  1978  by  consumer  groups  that  said  it  was 
associated  with  suicide.  Darvon  was  never  withdrawn  from  the  market,  until  recently.  But  Lilly  has  waged  a 
sweeping,  and  largely  successful,  campaign  among  doctors,  pharmacists  and  Darvon  users  to  defend  the  drag 
as  safe  when  it  is  used  in  proper  doses  and  not  mixed  with  alcohol.  After  determining  the  risks  outweigh  the 
benefits,  the  USFDA  requested  physicians  stop  prescribing  the  drug.  On  November  19,  2010  the  FDA 
announced  that  Xanodyne  Pharmaceuticals  agreed  to  withdraw  Darvon  and  Darvocet  in  the  United  States, 
followed  by  manufacturers  of  dextropropoxyphene. 

Diethyls  tilbestrol 

Diethylstilbestrol  is  a  synthetic,  non-steroidal  estrogen  of  the  stilbestrol  group  that  was  first  synthesized  in 

1938.  It  is  also  classified  as  an  endocrine  disruptor.  Human  exposure  to  DES  occurred  through  diverse 
sources,  such  as  dietary  ingestion  from  supplemented  cattle  feed  and  medical  treatment  for  certain  conditions, 
including  breast  and  prostate  cancers.  From  about  1940  to  1971,  DES  was  given  to  pregnant  women  in  the 
mistaken  belief  it  would  reduce  the  risk  of  pregnancy  complications  and  losses. 

In  1971,  DES  was  shown  to  cause  clear  cell  carcinoma,  a  rare  vaginal  tumor  in  girls  and  women  who  had 
been  exposed  to  this  drug  in  utero.  The  United  States  Food  and  Drug  Administration  subsequently  withdrew 
approval  of  DES  as  a  treatment  for  pregnant  women.  Follow-up  studies  have  indicated  that  DES  also  has  the 
potential  to  cause  a  variety  of  significant  adverse  medical  complications  during  the  lifetimes  of  those  exposed. 
The  United  States  National  Cancer  Institute  recommends  women  born  to  mothers  who  took  DES  undergo 
special  medical  exams  on  a  regular  basis  to  screen  for  complications  as  a  result  of  the  drug. 

The  greatest  usage  of  DES  was  in  the  livestock  industry,  used  to  improve  feed  conversion  in  beef  and  poultry. 
During  the  1960s,  DES  was  used  as  a  growth  hormone  in  the  beef  and  poultry  industries.  It  was  later  found  to 
cause  cancer  by  1971,  but  was  not  phased  out  until  1979.  When  DES  was  discovered  to  be  harmful  to 
humans,  it  was  moved  to  veterinary  use. 

Fenfluramine  and 
Phentennine 

The  drag  combination  fenfluramine/phentermine,  usually  called  fen-phen,  was  an  anti-obesity  treatment  that 
utilized  two  anorectics.  Fenfluramine  was  marketed  by  American  Home  Products  (later  known  as  Wyeth)  as 
Pondimin,  but  was  shown  to  cause  potentially  fatal  pulmonary  hypertension  and  heart  valve  problems,  which 
eventually  led  to  its  withdrawal  and  legal  damages  of  over  $13  billion.  Phentennine  was  not  shown  to  have 
harmful  effects. 

Lysergic  Acid 
Diethylamide 

Lysergic  acid  diethylamide  (LSD),  also  known  as  acid,  is  a  psychedelic  drug  known  for  its  psychological 
effects.  This  may  include  altered  awareness  of  the  surroundings,  perceptions,  and  feelings  as  well  as 
sensations  and  images  that  seem  real  though  they  are  not.  In  the  1950s  and  1960s  LSD  was  used  in  psychiatry 
to  enhance  psychotherapy  known  as  psychedelic  therapy.  Some  psychiatrists  [who?]  believed  LSD  was 
especially  useful  at  helping  patients  to  "unblock"  repressed  subconscious  material  through  other 
psychotherapeutic  methods,  and  also  for  treating  alcoholism.  One  study  concluded,  "The  root  of  the 
therapeutic  value  of  the  LSD  experience  is  its  potential  for  producing  self-acceptance  and  self-surrender," 
presumably  by  forcing  the  user  to  face  issues  and  problems  in  that  individual's  psyche.  Two  recent  reviews 
concluded  that  conclusions  drawn  from  most  of  these  early  trials  are  unreliable  due  to  serious  methodological 
flaws.  These  include  the  absence  of  adequate  control  groups,  lack  of  followup,  and  vague  criteria  for 
therapeutic  outcome.  In  many  cases  studies  failed  to  convincingly  demonstrate  whether  the  drag  or  the 
therapeutic  interaction  was  responsible  for  any  beneficial  effects. 

Methaqualone 

Methaqualone,  sold  under  the  brand  name  Quaalude.  The  sedative-hypnotic  activity  of  methaqualone  was 
first  noted  by  researchers  in  the  1950s.  In  1962,  methaqualone  was  patented  in  the  US  by  Wallace  and 

Tiernan.  By  1965,  it  was  the  most  commonly  prescribed  sedative  in  Britain,  where  it  has  been  sold  legally 
under  the  names  Malsed,  Malsedin,  and  Renoval.  In  1965,  a  methaqualone/antihistamine  combination  was 

sold  as  the  sedative  drug  Mandrax,  by  Roussel  Laboratories  (now  part  of  Sanofi-Aventis).  In  1972,  it  was  the 
sixth-bestselling  sedative  in  the  US,  where  it  was  legal  under  the  brand  name  Quaalude.  Its  use  peaked  in  the 
early  1970s  as  a  hypnotic,  for  the  treatment  of  insomnia,  and  as  a  sedative  and  muscle  relaxant.  Methaqualone 
peaks  in  the  bloodstream  within  several  hours,  with  a  half-life  of  20-60  hours.  Regular  users  build  up  a 
physical  tolerance,  requiring  larger  doses  for  the  same  effect.  Overdose  can  lead  to  nervous  system  shutdown, 
coma  and  death.  An  overdose  can  cause  delirium,  convulsions,  hypertonia,  hyperreflexia,  vomiting,  kidney 
failure,  coma,  and  death  through  cardiac  or  respiratory  arrest.  It  resembles  barbiturate  poisoning,  but  with 
increased  motor  difficulties  and  a  lower  incidence  of  cardiac  or  respiratory  depression.  The  standard  one 
tablet  adult  dose  of  Quaalude  was  300  mg  when  made  by  Lemmon.  A  dose  of  8000  mg  is  lethal  and  a  dose  as 
little  as  2000  mg  could  induce  a  coma  if  taken  with  an  alcoholic  beverage. 

Methylhexanamine 

Methylhexanamine  (trade  names  Forthane,  Geranamine)  or  methylhexamine,  commonly  known  as  1,3- 
dimethylamylamine  (1,3-DMAA)  or  simply  dimethylamylamine  (DMAA),  is  an  indirect  sympathomimetic 
drug  invented  and  developed  by  Eli  Lilly  and  Company  and  marketed  as  an  inhaled  nasal  decongestant  from 
1944  until  it  was  voluntarily  withdrawn  from  the  market  in  1983. 

Since  2006  methylhexanamine  has  been  sold  extensively  under  many  names  as  a  stimulant  or  energy-boosting 
dietary  supplement  under  the  claim  that  it  is  similar  to  certain  compounds  found  in  geraniums,  but  its  safety 
has  been  questioned  as  a  number  of  adverse  events  and  at  least  five  deaths  have  been  associated  with 
methylhexanamine-containing  supplements.  It  is  banned  by  many  sports  authorities  and  governmental 
agencies.  The  FDA  has  stated  that  methylhexanamine  "is  known  to  narrow  the  blood  vessels  and  arteries, 
which  can  elevate  blood  pressure  and  may  lead  to  cardiovascular  events  ranging  from  shortness  of  breath  and 
tightening  in  the  chest  to  heart  attack."  Numerous  adverse  events  and  at  least  five  deaths  have  been  reported 
in  association  with  methylhexanamine-containing  dietary  supplements. 

Natalizumab 

Natalizumab  is  used  in  the  treatment  of  multiple  sclerosis  and  Crohn's  disease.  Natalizumab  was  approved  in 
2004  by  the  U.S.  Food  and  Drug  Administration  (FDA).  It  was  subsequently  withdrawn  from  the  market  by 
its  manufacturer  after  it  was  linked  with  three  cases  of  the  rare  neurological  condition  progressive  multifocal 
leukoencephalopathy  (PML)  when  administered  in  combination  with  interferon  beta- la,  another 
immunosuppressive  drug  often  used  in  the  treatment  of  multiple  sclerosis.  After  a  review  of  safety 
information  and  no  further  deaths,  the  drug  was  returned  to  the  US  market  in  2006  under  a  special 
prescription  program.  As  of  June  2009,  ten  cases  of  PML  were  known.  However,  twenty-four  cases  of  PML 
had  been  reported  since  its  reintroduction  by  October  2009,  showing  a  sharp  rise  in  the  number  of  fatalities 
and  prompting  a  review  of  the  chemical  for  human  use  by  the  European  Medicines  Agency.  By  January  2010, 

3 1  cases  of  PML  were  attributed  to  natalizumab.  The  FDA  did  not  withdraw  the  drug  from  the  market  because 
its  clinical  benefits  outweigh  the  risks  involved. 

Obetrol 

Obetrol  was  the  brand  of  amphetamine  mixed  salts  based  drugs  indicated  for  treatment  of  exogenous  obesity 
by  the  American  pharmaceutical  company  Obetrol  Pharmaceuticals.  Obetrol  was  a  popular  diet  pill  in 

America  in  the  1950s  and  1960s.  A  formulation  of  amphetamine  mixed  salts  that  included  methamphetamine 
was  approved  by  the  U.S.  Food  and  Drug  Administration  (FDA)  on  January  19,  1960  under  the  name  Obetrol. 
Between  1965  and  1973,  this  fonnula  was  offered  in  10  mg  and  20  mg  strength  through  Obetrol 
Pharmaceuticals  division  of  an  American  pharmaceutical  company  Rexar  under  the  trade  name  Obetrol.  Its 
indication  was  for  exogenous  obesity.  Obetrol  was  withdrawn  from  the  market  in  1973  under  DESI  statute. 
Rexar  reformulated  Obetrol  to  exclude  methamphetamine  and  continued  to  sell  this  new  formulation  under 
the  same  Obetrol  brand  name.  This  new  unapproved  formulation  was  later  rebranded  and  sold  as  Adderall  by 
Richwood  after  it  acquired  Rexar  resulting  in  FDA  warning  in  1994.  When  Richwood  acquired  Rexar,  the 
drug's  name  was  changed  from  Obetrol  to  Adderall,  and  the  drug  was  marketed  for  use  in  the  treatment  of 
Attention  Deficit  Disorder  (in  both  children  and  adults). 

Oxymorphone 

Oxymorphone,  sold  under  the  brand  names  Numorphan  among  others,  is  a  powerful  semi-synthetic  opioid 
analgesic  (painkiller)  developed  1914  in  Germany.  In  June  2017,  the  FDA  asked  Endo  Pharmaceuticals  to 
remove  Opana  ER  from  the  US  market,  because  vis  a  vis  the  opioid  epidemic  the  drug's  benefits  may  no 
longer  outweigh  its  risks,  this  being  the  first  time  the  agency  has  taken  steps  to  remove  a  currently  marketed 
opioid  pain  medication  from  sale  due  to  public  health  consequences  of  abuse. 

Phenformin 

Phenformin  is  an  antidiabetic  drug  from  the  biguanide  class.  It  was  marketed  as  DBI  by  Ciba-Geigy,  but  was 
withdrawn  from  most  markets  in  the  late  1970s  due  to  a  high  risk  of  lactic  acidosis,  which  was  fatal  in  50%  of 
cases.  Phenformin  sales  began  to  decline  in  the  US  from  1973  due  to  negative  trial  studies  and  reports  of 
lactic  acidosis.  By  October  1976,  the  FDA  Endocrinology  and  Metabolism  Advisory  Committee 
recommended  phenformin  be  removed  from  the  market.  The  FDA  began  formal  proceedings  in  May  1977, 
leading  to  its  eventual  withdrawal  on  November  15,  1978. 

Rimonabant 

Rimonabant  (trade  names  Acomplia,  Zimulti)  was  an  anorectic  antiobesity  drug  that  was  first  approved  in 
Europe  in  2006  but  was  withdrawn  worldwide  in  2008  due  to  serious  psychiatric  side  effects;  it  was  never 
approved  in  the  United  States.  Rimonabant  is  an  inverse  agonist  for  the  cannabinoid  receptor  CB1  and  was 
the  first  drug  approved  in  that  class.  In  October  2008,  the  European  Medicines  Agency  recommended  the 
suspension  of  Acomplia  after  the  Committee  for  Medicinal  Products  for  Human  Use  (CHMP)  had  determined 
that  the  risks  of  Acomplia  outweighed  its  benefits  due  to  the  risk  of  serious  psychiatric  problems,  including 
suicide. 

Rofecoxib 

Rofecoxib  is  a  nonsteroidal  anti-inflammatory  drug  (NSAID)  that  has  now  been  withdrawn  over  safety 

concerns.  It  was  marketed  by  Merck  &  Co.  to  treat  osteoarthritis,  acute  pain  conditions,  and  dysmenorrhea. 
Rofecoxib  was  approved  by  the  U.S.  Food  and  Drag  Administration  (FDA)  on  May  20,  1999,  and  was 
marketed  under  the  brand  names  Vioxx,  Ceoxx,  and  Ceeoxx.  Rofecoxib  gained  widespread  acceptance  among 
physicians  treating  patients  with  arthritis  and  other  conditions  causing  chronic  or  acute  pain.  Worldwide,  over 

80  million  people  were  prescribed  rofecoxib  at  some  time.  On  September  30,  2004,  Merck  withdrew 
rofecoxib  from  the  market  because  of  concerns  about  increased  risk  of  heart  attack  and  stroke  associated  with 
long-tenn,  high-dosage  use.  Merck  withdrew  the  drag  after  disclosures  that  it  withheld  infonnation  about 
rofecoxib's  risks  from  doctors  and  patients  for  over  five  years,  resulting  in  between  88,000  and  140,000  cases 
of  serious  heart  disease.  Rofecoxib  was  one  of  the  most  widely  used  drugs  ever  to  be  withdrawn  from  the 
market.  In  the  year  before  withdrawal,  Merck  had  sales  revenue  of  US$2.5  billion  from  Vioxx.  Merck 
reserved  $970  million  to  pay  for  its  Vioxx-related  legal  expenses  through  2007,  and  has  set  aside  $4.85bn  for 
legal  claims  from  US  citizens. 

Rosiglitazone 

Rosiglitazone  (trade  name  Avandia)  is  an  antidiabetic  drag  in  the  thiazolidinedione  class.  It  works  as  an 
insulin  sensitizer,  by  binding  to  the  PPAR  in  fat  cells  and  making  the  cells  more  responsive  to  insulin.  It  is 
marketed  by  the  pharmaceutical  company  GlaxoSmithKline  (GSK)  as  a  stand-alone  drug  or  for  use  in 
combination  with  metformin  or  with  glimepiride.  First  released  in  1999,  annual  sales  peaked  at  approximately 
$2. 5-billion  in  2006;  however,  following  a  meta-analysis  published  in  the  New  England  Journal  of  Medicine 
in  2007  that  linked  the  drug's  use  to  an  increased  risk  of  heart  attack,  sales  plummeted  to  just  $9. 5-million  in 
2012.  The  drug's  patent  expired  in  2012. 

Despite  rosiglitazone's  effectiveness  at  decreasing  blood  sugar  in  type  2  diabetes  mellitus,  its  use  decreased 
dramatically  as  studies  showed  apparent  associations  with  increased  risks  of  heart  attacks  and  death.  Adverse 
effects  alleged  to  be  caused  by  rosiglitazone  were  the  subject  of  over  13,000  lawsuits  against  GSK;  as  of  July 
2010,  GSK  had  agreed  to  settlements  on  more  than  11,500  of  these  suits.  In  Europe,  the  European  Medicines 
Agency  (EM A)  recommended  in  September  2010  that  the  drag  be  suspended  from  the  European  market 
because  the  benefits  of  rosiglitazone  no  longer  outweighed  the  risks.  It  was  withdrawn  from  the  market  in  the 
UK  and  India  in  2010,  and  in  New  Zealand  and  South  Africa  in  201 1. 

In  2012,  the  U.S.  Justice  Department  announced  GlaxoSmithKline  had  agreed  to  plead  guilty  and  pay  a  $3 
billion  fine,  in  part  for  withholding  the  results  of  two  studies  of  the  cardiovascular  safety  of  Avandia  between 
2001  and  2007.  The  settlement  stems  from  claims  made  by  four  employees  of  GlaxoSmithKline,  including  a 
former  senior  marketing  development  manager  for  the  company  and  a  regional  vice  president,  who  tipped  off 
the  government  about  a  range  of  improper  practices  from  the  late  1990s  to  the  mid-2000s. 

Following  the  reports  in  2007  that  Avandia  can  significantly  increase  the  risk  of  heart  attacks,  the  drug  has 
been  controversial.  A  2010  article  in  Time  uses  the  Avandia  case  as  evidence  of  a  broken  FDA  regulatory 
system  that  "may  prove  criminal  as  well  as  fatal".  It  details  the  disclosure  failures,  adding,  "Congressional 
reports  revealed  that  GSK  sat  on  early  evidence  of  the  heart  risks  of  its  drug,  and  that  the  FDA  knew  of  the 
dangers  months  before  it  informed  the  public."  It  reports,  "the  FDA  is  investigating  whether  GSK  broke  the 
law  by  failing  to  fully  inform  the  agency  of  Avandia's  heart  risks",  according  to  deputy  FDA  commissioner 

Dr.  Joshua  Sharfstein.  GSK  threatened  academics  who  reported  adverse  research  results,  and  received 
multiple  warning  letters  from  the  FDA  for  deceptive  marketing  and  failure  to  report  clinical  data.  The  maker 
of  the  drug,  GlaxoSmithKline,  has  dealt  with  serious  backlash  against  the  company  for  the  drag's  controversy. 
Sales  on  the  drug  dropped  significantly  after  the  story  first  broke  in  2007,  dropping  from  $2.5  billion  in  2006 
to  less  than  $408  million  in  2009  in  the  US. 

Sibutramine 

Sibutramine  (usually  in  the  fonn  of  the  hydrochloride  monohydrate  salt)  is  an  oral  anorexiant.  It  was  sold 
under  a  variety  of  brand  names  including  Reductil,  Meridia,  Siredia,  and  Sibutrex.  Until  2010  it  was  marketed 
and  prescribed  as  an  adjunct  in  the  treatment  of  exogenous  obesity  along  with  diet  and  exercise.  It  has  been 
associated  with  increased  cardiovascular  events  and  strokes  and  has  been  withdrawn  from  the  market  in 
several  countries  and  regions  including  Australia,  Canada,  China,  the  European  Union  (EU),  Hong  Kong, 

India,  Mexico,  New  Zealand,  the  Philippines,  Thailand,  the  United  Kingdom,  and  the  United  States. 

Temafloxacin 

Temafloxacin  (marketed  by  Abbott  Laboratories  as  Omniflox)  is  a  fluoroquinolone  antibiotic  drag  which  was 
withdrawn  from  sale  in  the  United  States  shortly  after  its  approval.  Omniflox  was  approved  to  treat  lower 
respiratory  tract  infections,  genital  and  urinary  infections  like  prostatitis,  and  skin  infections  in  the  United 

States  by  the  Food  and  Drug  Administration  in  January  1992.  Severe  adverse  reactions,  including  allergic 
reactions  and  hemolytic  anemia,  developed  in  over  100  patients  during  the  first  four  months  of  its  use,  leading 
to  three  patient  deaths.  Abbott  withdrew  the  drag  from  sale  in  June  1992. 

Thalidomide 

Thalidomide  was  first  marketed  in  1957  in  West  Germany  under  the  trade-name  Contergan.  The  German  drug 
company  Chemie  Griinenthal  developed  and  sold  the  drag.  Primarily  prescribed  as  a  sedative  or  hypnotic, 
thalidomide  also  claimed  to  cure  "anxiety,  insomnia,  gastritis,  and  tension".  Afterwards,  it  was  used  against 
nausea  and  to  alleviate  morning  sickness  in  pregnant  women.  Thalidomide  became  an  over-the-counter  drug 
in  West  Germany  on  October  1,  1957.  Shortly  after  the  drug  was  sold  in  West  Germany,  between  5,000  and 
7,000  infants  were  bom  with  phocomelia  (malformation  of  the  limbs).  Only  40%  of  these  children  survived. 
Throughout  the  world,  about  10,000  cases  were  reported  of  infants  with  phocomelia  due  to  thalidomide;  only 
50%  of  the  10,000  survived.  Those  subjected  to  thalidomide  while  in  the  womb  experienced  limb  deficiencies 

in  a  way  that  the  long  limbs  either  were  not  developed  or  presented  themselves  as  stumps.  Other  effects 
included  deformed  eyes  and  hearts,  deformed  alimentary  and  urinary  tracts,  blindness  and  deafness.  The 
negative  effects  of  thalidomide  led  to  the  development  of  more  structured  drug  regulations  and  control  over 
drug  use  and  development. 

In  the  late  1950s  and  early  1960s,  more  than  10,000  children  in  46  countries  were  born  with  defonnities  such 
as  phocomelia  as  a  consequence  of  thalidomide  use.  The  severity  and  location  of  the  deformities  depended  on 
how  many  days  into  the  pregnancy  the  mother  was  before  beginning  treatment;  thalidomide  taken  on  the  20th 
day  of  pregnancy  caused  central  brain  damage,  day  21  would  damage  the  eyes,  day  22  the  ears  and  face,  day 

24  the  arms,  and  leg  damage  would  occur  if  taken  up  to  day  28.  Thalidomide  did  not  damage  the  fetus  if  taken 
after  42  days  gestation.  It  is  not  known  exactly  how  many  worldwide  victims  of  the  drug  there  have  been, 
although  estimates  range  from  10,000  to  20,000  to  100,000.  Despite  the  side  effects,  thalidomide  was  sold  in 
pharmacies  in  Canada  until  1962.  In  the  United  Kingdom,  the  drug  was  licensed  in  1958  and  withdrawn  in 
1961.  Of  the  approximately  2,000  babies  born  with  defects,  around  half  died  within  a  few  months  and  466 
survived  to  at  least  2010.  In  Spain,  thalidomide  was  widely  available  throughout  the  1970s,  perhaps  even  into 
the  1980s.  There  were  two  reasons  for  this.  First,  state  controls  and  safeguarding  were  poor;  indeed,  it  was  not 
until  2008  that  the  government  even  admitted  the  country  had  ever  imported  thalidomide.  Second,  Griinenthal 
failed  to  insist  that  its  sister  company  in  Madrid  warn  Spanish  doctors,  and  pennitted  it  to  not  warn  them.  The 
Spanish  advocacy  group  for  victims  of  thalidomide  estimates  that  in  2015,  there  were  250-300  living  victims 
of  thalidomide  in  Spain. 

Tienilic  acid 

Tienilic  acid  (INN  and  BAN)  or  ticrynafen  (USAN)  is  a  loop  diuretic  drug  with  uric  acid-lowering 
(uricosuric)  action,  formerly  marketed  for  the  treatment  of  hypertension.  It  was  approved  by  FDA  on  May  2, 
1979,  and  withdrawn  in  1982,  after  case  reports  in  the  United  States  indicated  a  link  between  the  use  of 
ticrynafen  and  hepatitis.  Criminal  charges  were  brought  against  SmithKline  executives  with  regard  to  hiding 
data  related  to  toxicity  while  gaining  FDA  approval.  The  company  pleaded  guilty  to  14  counts  of  failure  to 
report  adverse  reactions  and  20  counts  of  selling  a  misbranded  drug. 

Triparanol 

Triparanol  was  patented  in  1959  and  introduced  in  the  United  States  in  1960,  was  the  first  synthetic 
cholesterol- lowering  drug.  It  was  withdrawn  in  1962  due  to  severe  adverse  effects  such  as  nausea  and 
vomiting,  vision  loss  due  to  irreversible  cataracts,  alopecia,  skin  disorders  (e.g.,  dryness,  itching,  peeling,  and 
"fish-scale"  texture),  and  accelerated  atherosclerosis  and  is  now  considered  to  be  obsolete 

Troglitazone 

Troglitazone  (Rezulin,  Resulin,  Romozin,  Noscal)  is  an  antidiabetic  and  anti-inflammatory  drug,  and  a 
member  of  the  drug  class  of  the  thiazolidinediones.  It  was  prescribed  for  patients  with  diabetes  mellitus  type 

2.  It  was  developed  by  Daiichi  Sankyo  (Japan).  In  the  United  States,  it  was  introduced  and  manufactured  by 
Parke -Davis  in  the  late  1990s,  but  turned  out  to  be  associated  with  an  idiosyncratic  reaction  leading  to  drug- 
induced  hepatitis.  The  FDA  medical  officer  assigned  to  evaluate  troglitazone,  John  Gueriguian,  did  not 
recommend  its  approval  due  to  potential  high  liver  toxicity;  Parke -Davis  complained  to  the  FDA  and 

Gueriguian  was  subsequently  removed  from  his  post.  A  full  panel  of  experts  approved  it  in  January  1997. 

Once  the  prevalence  of  adverse  liver  effects  became  known,  troglitazone  was  withdrawn  from  the  British 
market  in  December  1997,  from  the  United  States  market  in  2000,  and  from  the  Japanese  market  soon 
afterwards.  It  did  not  get  approval  in  the  rest  of  Europe.  On  March  21,  2000,  the  FDA  withdrew  the  drug  from 
the  market.  Dr.  Robert  I.  Misbin,  an  FDA  medical  officer,  wrote  in  a  July  3,  2000  letter  to  the  House  Energy 
and  Commerce  Committee  of  strong  evidence  that  Rezulin  could  not  be  used  safely,  after  having  been 
threatened  by  the  FDA  with  dismissal  in  March  2000.  By  that  time  the  drug  had  been  linked  to  63  liver- failure 
deaths  and  had  generated  sales  of  more  than  $2.1  billion  for  Warner-Lambert 

Trovafloxacin 

Trovafloxacin  (sold  as  Trovan  by  Pfizer  and  Turvel  by  Laboratories  Almirall)  was  a  broad  spectrum  antibiotic 
that  inhibits  the  uncoiling  of  supercoiled  DNA  in  various  bacteria  by  blocking  the  activity  of  DNA  gyrase  and 
topoisomerase  IV.  It  was  withdrawn  from  the  market  due  to  the  risk  of  hepatotoxicity.  In  1996,  during  a 
meningitis  epidemic  in  Kano,  Nigeria,  the  drag  was  administered  to  approximately  200  infected  children. 

Eleven  children  died  in  the  trial:  five  after  taking  Trovan  and  six  after  taking  an  older  antibiotic  used  for 
comparison  in  the  clinical  trial.  Others  suffered  blindness,  deafness  and  brain  damage,  common  sequalae  of 
meningitis  that  have  not  been  seen  in  patients  treated  with  trovafloxacin  for  other  infection  types.  An 
investigation  by  the  Washington  Post  concluded  that  Pfizer  had  administered  the  drug  as  part  of  an  illegal 
clinical  trial  without  authorization  from  the  Nigerian  government  or  consent  from  the  children's  parents.  The 
case  came  to  light  in  December  2000  as  the  result  of  an  investigation  by  The  Washington  Post,  and  sparked 
significant  public  outcry. 

Valdecoxib 

Valdecoxib  is  a  non-steroidal  anti-inflammatory  drug  (NSAID)  used  in  the  treatment  of  osteoarthritis, 
rheumatoid  arthritis,  and  painful  menstruation  and  menstrual  symptoms.  It  is  a  selective  cyclooxygenase-2 
inhibitor.  Valdecoxib  was  manufactured  and  marketed  under  the  brand  name  Bextra  by  G.  D.  Searle  & 

Company  as  an  anti-inflammatory  arthritis  drag.  It  was  approved  by  the  United  States  Food  and  Drag 
Administration  on  November  20,  2001,  to  treat  arthritis  and  menstrual  cramps,  and  was  available  by 
prescription  in  tablet  fonn  until  2005  when  the  FDA  requested  that  Pfizer  withdraw  Bextra  from  the  American 
market.  The  FDA  cited  "potential  increased  risk  for  serious  cardiovascular  (CV)  adverse  events,"  an 
"increased  risk  of  serious  skin  reactions"  and  the  "fact  that  Bextra  has  not  been  shown  to  offer  any  unique 
advantages  over  the  other  available  NSAIDs."  In  September  2009  Bextra  was  at  the  center  of  the  "largest 
health  care  fraud  settlement  and  the  largest  criminal  fine  of  any  kind  ever."  Pfizer  paid  a  $2.3  billion  civil  and 

criminal  fine.  Pharmacia  and  Upjohn,  a  Pfizer  subsidiary,  violated  the  United  States  Food,  Drug  and  Cosmetic 
Act  for  misbranding  Bextra  "with  the  intent  to  defraud  or  mislead." 

Zolpidem 

Zolpidem  (originally  marketed  as  Ambien  and  available  worldwide  under  many  brand  names)  is  a  sedative 
primarily  used  for  the  treatment  of  insomnia.  It  works  quickly,  usually  within  15  minutes,  and  has  a  short 
half-life  of  two  to  three  hours.  Zolpidem  has  not  adequately  demonstrated  effectiveness  in  maintaining  sleep, 
unless  delivered  in  a  controlled-release  (CR)  form.  However,  it  is  effective  in  initiating  sleep.  Zolpidem 
addresses  sleep-initiation  problems,  but  is  not  effective  in  maintaining  sleep.  Also,  a  2012  NIH  study  showed 
that  Zolpidem's  effectiveness  is  nearly  as  much  due  to  psychological  effects  as  to  the  drug  itself,  so  "increased 
attention  should  be  directed  at  psychological  intervention  of  insomnia." 

Some  users  have  reported  unexplained  sleepwalking  while  using  zolpidem,  as  well  as  sleep  driving,  Night 
eating  syndrome  while  asleep,  and  performing  other  daily  tasks  while  sleeping.  Research  by  Australia's 

National  Prescribing  Service  found  these  events  occur  mostly  after  the  first  dose  taken,  or  within  a  few  days 
of  starting  therapy.  Rare  reports  of  sexual  parasomnia  (sleep  sex)  episodes  related  to  zolpidem  intake  have 
also  been  reported.  Sleepwalkers  can  sometimes  perform  these  tasks  as  normally  as  they  might  if  they  were 
awake.  Residual  'hangover'  effects,  such  as  sleepiness  and  impaired  psychomotor  and  cognitive  function,  may 
persist  into  the  day  following  nighttime  administration.  Such  effects  may  impair  the  ability  of  users  to  drive 
safely  and  increase  risks  of  falls  and  hip  fractures.  In  February  2008,  the  Australian  Therapeutic  Goods 
Administration  attached  a  boxed  warning  to  zolpidem,  stating  that  "Zolpidem  may  be  associated  with 
potentially  dangerous  complex  sleep-related  behaviors  that  may  include  sleep  walking,  sleep  driving,  and 
other  bizarre  behaviours. 

The  United  States  Air  Force  uses  zolpidem  as  one  of  the  hypnotics  approved  as  a  "no-go  pill"  (with  a  6-hour 
restriction  on  subsequent  flight  operation)  to  help  aviators  and  special  duty  personnel  sleep  in  support  of 
mission  readiness.  (The  other  hypnotics  used  are  temazepam  and  zaleplon.)  "Ground  tests"  are  required  prior 
to  authorization  issued  to  use  the  medication  in  an  operational  situation. 

|  SOURCE:  Wikipedia  (with  some  corrections,  additions,  and  other  edits)  1 

Death  and  other  Medical  Statistics 

It  should  be  noted  that  many  low-  and  middle-income  countries  do  not  have  systems  in  place  for  collecting 
information  on  causes  of  death,  so  all  worldwide  estimates  are  based  on  incomplete  data  and  could  be  much 
higher.  Of  the  56,400,000  deaths  worldwide  in  2015,  heart  disease  and  stroke  accounted  for  15,000,000  deaths 
and  they  have  been  the  leading  causes  of  death  globally  for  the  last  15  years.  Chronic  obstructive  pulmonary 
disease  killed  3,200,000  Homo  sapiens,  diabetes  killed  1,600,000  Homo  sapiens,  tuberculosis  killed  1,400,000 
Homo  sapiens,  and  there  were  an  estimated  1 ,400,000  Homo  sapiens  worldwide  that  died  from  a  diarrheal 
disease.  In  low-income  countries  52%  of  all  deaths  in  2015  were  caused  by  communicable  diseases.  (358)  (e.g. 
maternal  causes,  conditions  arising  during  pregnancy  and  childbirth,  and  nutritional  deficiencies)  The  World 
Health  Organization  (WHO)  reported  that  environmental  risks,  (e.g.  indoor  and  outdoor  air  pollution,  second¬ 
hand  smoke,  unsafe  water,  lack  of  sanitation,  and  inadequate  hygiene)  take  the  lives  of  1,700,000  children  under 
5  years  of  age  every  year,  which  equates  to  3  children  dying  every  minute  of  easily  preventable  causes.  (383) 
How  can  easily  preventable  diseases  and  medical  conditions  still  claim  the  lives  of  so  many?  UNICEF  reported 
that, 


"About  29,000  children  under  the  age  of  five  -  21  each  minute  -  die  every  day,  mainly  from  preventable  causes.  More  than  70 
per  cent  of  almost  1 1  million  child  deaths  every  year  are  attributable  to  six  causes:  diarrhoea,  malaria,  neonatal  infection, 
pneumonia,  pretenn  delivery,  or  lack  of  oxygen  at  birth."  (204) 

A  20 15  WHO  report  concluded  that  noncommunicable  diseases  (NCD)  were  the  leading  cause  of  death 
worldwide.  The  report  stated, 

"In  2012,  an  estimated  52%  of  all  deaths  under  age  70  was  due  to  NCDs,  and  two  thirds  of  those  deaths  were  caused  by 
cardiovascular  diseases  (CVD),  cancer,  diabetes  and  chronic  respiratory  disease  (CRD)." 

"NCDs  are  estimated  to  kill  around  38  million  people  per  year,  accounting  for  68%  of  all  deaths  worldwide,  1  and  the  main 
NCDs  (CVD,  cancers,  CRD  and  diabetes),  taken  singly,  are  among  the  top  10  leading  killers.  Nearly  80%  of  NCD  deaths  - 
30  million  -  occurs  in  low-,  middle-  and  non-OECD  high-income  countries,  where  NCDs  are  fast  replacing  infectious 
diseases  and  malnutrition  as  the  leading  causes  of  disability  and  premature  death.  Despite  their  obvious  and  growing 
significance,  NCDs  have  long  been  hidden,  misunderstood  and  underrecorded.  They  were  passed  over  in  the  MDGs,  which, 
by  focusing  attention  on  other  issues,  may  have  actually  contributed  to  the  sidelining  of  this  core  public  health  concern  in 


global  health." 

"In  terms  of  mortality,  the  leading  NCD  is  cardiovascular  disease  (CVD),  which  claimed  17.5  million  lives  in  2012  (46%  of 
all  NCD  deaths),  6  million  of  which  were  people  under  age  70  Of  those  17.5  million  deaths,  7.4  million  were  due  to  coronary 
heart  disease  (heart  attacks)  and  6.7  million  to  stroke.  Cancers  kill  around  half  as  many  (8.2  million,  with  4.3  million  under 
age  70),  while  CRD  and  diabetes  accounted  for  4.0  million  and  1.5  million  deaths,  respectively.  1  Diabetes  is  also  a  risk  factor 
for  CVD,  with  about  11%  of  cardiovascular  deaths  attributed  to  high  blood  glucose." 

“Globally,  the  prevalence  of  diabetes  continues  to  increase  The  leading  risk  factors  for  type  2  diabetes  are  excess  body  weight 
and  physical  inactivity.  Diabetes  is  highly  correlated  with  the  global  prevalence  of  obesity,  which  has  nearly  doubled  since 
1980.  In  2014,  11%  of  men  and  15%  of  women  age  18  and  older  were  obese,  while  more  than  42  million  children  under  five 
years  were  overweight  in  2013  It  is  encouraging  to  note,  however,  that  a  few  high-income  countries  have  managed  to  slow  or 
halt  the  increase  in  obesity  prevalence  in  children, 14, 15  which  may  eventually  help  to  stabilize  diabetes  prevalence.  In  2012, 
diabetes  was  the  direct  cause  of  1 .5  million  deaths  (4%  of  all  NCD  deaths),  46%  of  which  occurred  under  age  70.” 

“Many  of  the  products  associated  with  the  development  of  NCDs  make  companies  money.. .Globalization  of  marketing  and 
trade  offers  unprecedented  opportunities  for  companies  to  promote  products  leading  to  tobacco  use,  harmful  use  of  alcohol, 
consumption  of  food  that  is  high  in  fat,  especially  saturated  and  trans  fats,  sugars,  and  salt/sodium,  and  sedentary  lifestyles, 
often  taking  advantage  of  the  weaker  regulatory  frameworks  in  many  low-  and  middle-income  countries.”  (413) 

Cancer  can  be  caused  by  physical,  chemical,  or  oncogenic  carcinogens,  and  while  it  is  often  very  difficult  to  find 
the  exact  source  of  the  cancer,  most  evidence  will  point  to  something  the  victim  was  exposed  to  throughout  their 
lifetime,  sometimes  even  being  self-inflicted  through  dietary  or  other  lifestyle  choices.  As  there  are  so  many 
agents  in  the  world  which  can  cause  cancer,  and  too  often  there  is  very  little  investigation  done  into  the  cause  of 
the  cancer,  the  cause  usually  remains  a  mystery.  Worldwide  cancer  is  the  second  leading  cause  of  death  claiming 
8,800,000  lives  in  2015.  In  2012,  more  than  14,000,000  new  cancer  cases  were  diagnosed,  and  this  number  is 
expected  to  rise  by  70%  over  the  next  2  decades.  (607)  While  much  research  has  been  done,  and  new  technologies 
can  now  be  used  to  help  with  early  diagnosis  and  control,  no  cure  exists  utilizing  modern-day  mainstream 
medicine.  Is  there  a  direct  or  even  indirect  connection  between  the  use  of  some  toxic  chemicals  and  exploding 
cancer  rates  over  the  last  1 00  years?  If  there  never  really  is  a  direct  connection  to  these  toxic  chemicals,  will  they 
ever  be  seen  as  one  of  the  possible  sources  of  this  cancer  epidemic? 

In  the  United  States,  an  estimated  30,200,000  adults  aged  18  years  or  older  had  diabetes  in  2015,  while  an 
estimated  84,000,000  adults  aged  18  years  or  older  had  prediabetes,  equating  to  46.1%  of  the  adult  population. 
(436)  Again,  one  might  be  led  to  believe  that  there  is  a  serious  problem  with  the  society’s  food  sources  and 
lifestyle  choices  when  46. 1%  of  the  United  States  adult  population  has  diabetes  or  prediabetes.  Worldwide,  over 
50%  of  indigenous  adults  over  the  age  of  35  have  type  2  diabetes.  (494) 


Leading  Causes  of  Death  in  United  States 

Cause  of  Death 

Total  Deaths  Per  Year 

Heart  disease 

614,348 

Cancer 

591,699 

Chronic  lower  respiratory  diseases 

147,101 

Accidents  (unintentional  injuries) 

136,053 

Stroke  (cerebrovascular  diseases) 

133,103 

Adverse  Drag  Reaction  (1998  Estimated  no  official  or  updated  statistics)  (458) 

106,000 

Alzheimer's  disease 

93,541 

Diabetes 

76,488 

Dmg  Overdose  (heroin,  natural  and  semi -synthetic  opioids,  methadone,  synthetic  opioids 
excluding  methadone,  cocaine,  or  psychostimulants  with  abuse  potential)  (535) 

64,070 

Influenza  and  pneumonia 

55,227 

Nephritis,  nephrotic  syndrome,  and  nephrosis 

48,146 

Intentional  self-harm  (suicide) 

42,773 

Source:  CDC  National  Center  for  Health  Statistics  -  Health,  United  States,  2015:  With  Special  Feature  on  Racial  and  Ethnic  Health 
Disparities  Hvattsville.  MD.2016.  Library  of  Congress  Catalog  Number  76-641496  -  httns://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/husl5.Ddf 

(458)  Incidence  of  adverse  drug  reactions  in  hospitalized  patients:  a  meta-analysis  of  prospective  studies  -  April  15,  1998  -  by:  Lazarou 
J,  Pomeranz  BH,  and  Corey  PN  -  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9555760 

(535)  CDC  •  National  Center  for  Health  Statistics  •  National  Vital  Statistics  System  -  PROVISIONAL  COUNTS  OF  DRUG 
OVERDOSE  DEATHS,  as  of  8/6/2017  -  https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/health  policv/monthlv-drug-overdose-death-estimates.pdf 


Mental  Health  and  Drug  Addiction 

In  2013,  there  were  61,700,000  Americans  that  visited  a  physician's  office  with  a  mental  disorder  as  the  primary 
diagnosis.  (443)  In  addition,  another  4,700,000  Americans  visited  an  emergency  department  with  a  mental 
disorder  as  the  primary  diagnosis.  (444)  Very  few  species  on  Earth  have  ever  been  observed  committing  suicide, 
and  it  is  often  a  result  of  Homo  sapiens  confining  a  species  and  causing  so  much  stress  that  it  refuses  to  eat  and 
just  simply  shuts  down  losing  the  will  to  live,  and  ultimately  dies  of  sadness.  Homo  sapiens  are  the  only  species 
on  Earth  that  commit  suicide  on  a  mass  scale.  In  2012,  an  estimated  804,000  Homo  sapiens  committed  suicide 
globally.  (413)  What  does  it  say  about  a  society  when  804,000  members  of  society  lose  the  will  to  live  from 
sadness,  anger,  or  another  emotion  ultimately  committing  suicide?  When  the  members  of  a  society  begin  to 
commit  suicide  perhaps  there  is  something  seriously  wrong  within  parts  of  the  society  itself. 

In  December  2016,  after  releasing  videos  in  which  she  talked  about  being  bullied  at  school  and  being  sexually 
and  physically  abused  by  her  stepfather,  12-year  old  Katelyn  Nicole  Davis  live  streamed  her  suicide  on  social 
media.  Less  than  a  month  later  on  January  26,  2017,  two  days  after  having  been  beaten  by  fellow  students  and 
found  unconscious  in  a  school  bathroom,  8 -year-old  Gabriel  Taye  committed  suicide.  Later  that  year  on  March 
14,  2017  an  11-year-old  boy  committed  suicide  after  his  girlfriend  faked  her  own  death.  Then  on  June  14,  2017, 
after  being  taunted  at  school  and  on  social  media,  12-year-old  Mallory  Grossman  committed  suicide.  A  similar 
bullying  situation  in  South  Carolina  resulted  in  1 1 -year-old  Toni  Rivers  committing  suicide  on  October  25,  2017, 
and  another  incident  in  California  of  prolonged  bullying  over  years  eventually  led  to  13-year-old  Rosalie  Avile 
hanging  herself  in  December  2017.  Have  children  become  so  disconnected  with  their  friends,  parents,  or  other 
mentors  that  they  commit  suicide  instead  of  getting  help  from  an  adult?  What  does  it  say  about  society  when 
children  are  taught  and  allowed  to  bully  other  children  to  the  point  of  suicide?  What  does  it  say  about  society 
when  children  are  committing  suicide? 

Stress  and  depression  caused  mainly  by  social  factors  have  led  some  to  abuse  alcohol  and  drugs  to  the  point  of 
self-destruction,  incarceration,  or  death.  In  the  United  States,  an  estimated  88,000  Homo  sapiens  die  from 
alcohol-related  causes  each  year.  Worldwide,  there  were  3,300,000  deaths  of  Homo  sapiens  which  were 
attributed  to  alcohol  consumption  in  2012.  (538)  Beginning  in  the  late  1990s,  United  States  healthcare  providers 
began  widely  prescribing  opioids  to  treat  chronic  pain.  This  ultimately  resulted  in  a  billion-dollar  opioid 
prescription  drug  market  and  an  opioid  drug  epidemic  which  has  plagued  many  parts  of  the  United  States.  In 
2010,  there  were  38,329  Homo  sapiens  in  the  United  States  that  died  of  a  drug  overdose,  and  in  2014  this 
number  increased  23%  to  47,055.  The  10  drugs  most  frequently  involved  in  overdose  deaths  were  heroin, 
oxycodone,  methadone,  morphine,  hydrocodone,  fentanyl,  alprazolam,  diazepam,  cocaine,  and 
methamphetamine.  (356)  In  the  United  States,  there  were  52,898  overdose  deaths  in  2016,  of  which  9,945 
resulted  from  synthetic  opioids  excluding  methadone,  by  2017  the  number  of  overdoses  increased  to  64,070  with 
20,145  caused  from  synthetic  opioids  excluding  methadone.  (535)  There  were  197,713  deaths  in  the  United  States 
from  prescription  opioid  overdoses  between  2000  and  20016.  (620)  OxyContin  was  released  into  the  United 
States  market  in  1996,  and  when  prescriptions  for  the  drug  peaked  in  2012,  doctors  were  writing  enough 
prescriptions  for  every  American  adult  to  have  a  bottle.  Since  the  peak  in  2012  there  has  been  a  decline  in  opioid 
prescriptions  and  yet  an  increase  in  opioid  related  overdose  deaths.  (357)  The  CDC  reported  that  in  2015  the 
number  of  opioids  prescribed  in  the  United  States  was  enough  for  every  American  to  be  medicated  around  the 
clock  for  3  weeks.  (399)  How  can  the  United  States  spend  more  than  $4,000,000,000,000  on  the  Iraq  and 
Afghanistan  wars  halfway  around  the  world,  while  only  spending  $2,500,000,000  to  help  Mexico  in  fighting  the 
drug  war  which  has  claimed  more  than  100,000  civilians  and  police?  Why  doesn’t  the  United  States  government 
focus  more  on  this  drug  war  which  is  happening  within  the  United  States  and  in  neighboring  Mexico?  Would 
simply  legalizing  all  drugs  end  the  drug  war?  Could  rampant  drug  use  be  prevented  simply  through  education 
and  social  changes? 


Estimated  Age-adjusted  Death  Rates?  for  Drug  Poisoning 
by  County,  United  States:  1999 


Legend  for  Estimated  Age-adjusted  Death  Rate  per  100,000 

■  0-2  □  8.1-10  □  16.1-18  ■  26.1-28 

■  2.1-4  □  10  1-12  □  18.1-20 

□  4.1-6  □  12.1-14  H  20.1-22 

□  6.1-8  □  14.1-16  B  22.1-24 

SOURCE:  CDC  -  Drug  Poisoning  Mortality  in  the  United  States,  1999-2015  -  https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data-visualization/dmg- 
poisoning-mortalitv/ 


Estimated  Age-adjusted  Death  Rates?  for  Drug  Poisoning 
by  County,  United  States:  2015 


Legend  for  Estimated  Age-adjusted  Death  Rate  per  100,000 

■  0-2  □  8.1-10  □  16.1-18 

■  2.1-4  □  10.1-12  □  18.1-20 

□  4.1-6  □  12.1-14  □  20.1-22 

□  6.1-8  □  14.1-16  @  22.1-24 


■  24  1-26 

■  26  1-28 
■  28.1-30 


SOURCE:  CDC  -  Drug  Poisoning  Mortality  in  the  United  States,  1999-2015  -  https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data-visualization/dmg- 


poisoning-mortality/ 


Why  has  the  FDA  and  DEA  allowed  opioids  to  be  prescribed  so  easily  and  for  so  long  when  there  is  such  a 
prevalent  prescription  opioid  epidemic  with  rapidly  increasing  rates  of  addiction  and  overdoses,  many  of  which 
result  in  death?  How  did  this  fatal  prescription  opioid  epidemic  begin?  Former  DEA  deputy  assistant 
administrator  Joe  Rannazzisi  told  60  Minutes  that  pharmaceutical  distributors  Cardinal  Health,  McKesson,  and 
AmerisourceBergen,  which  control  most  of  the  industry,  allowed  millions  of  pharmaceutical  opioid  painkillers  to 
go  into  what  he  described  as  bad  pharmacies  and  doctor  offices,  which  then  distributed  them  to  patients  that  had 
no  legitimate  medical  need  for  the  drugs.  Drug  companies  then  lobbied  in  Washington  D.C.  to  get  the  Ensuring 
Patient  Access  and  Effective  Drug  Enforcement  Act  passed,  which  limited  the  Drug  Enforcement 
Administration’s  ability  to  stop  the  prescription  opioid  epidemic.  Joe  Rannazzisi  told  60  minutes, 

“Because  I  think  that  the  drug  industry  —  the  manufacturers,  wholesalers,  distributors  and  chain  drugstores  — 
have  an  influence  over  Congress  that  has  never  been  seen  before.  And  these  people  came  in  with  their  influence 
and  their  money  and  got  a  whole  statute  changed  because  they  didn't  like  it”  (619) 


Countries  with  the  Highest  Rates  of  Burden  of  Disease  for  Mental  Illness  and  Behavioral  Related  Disorders 

Overall 

Depression 

Anxiety 

Alcohol  and  Illegal  Drug  Use 

China 

India 

India 

China 

India 

China 

China 

India 

United  States 

United  States 

United  States 

United  States 

Russia 

Indonesia 

Brazil 

Russia 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Indonesia 

Brazil 

SOURCE:  World  Health  Organization  -  Global  Burden  Diseases  2002  to  2012  -  Health  statistics  and  information  systems 

Why  do  these  advanced  nations  have  such  high  rates  of  depression,  anxiety,  and  other  mental  issues?  Why  do  the 
citizens  of  these  nations  choose  to  consume  vast  quantities  of  prescription  drugs,  illegal  drugs,  and  alcohol  as  a 
solution  to  these  problems? 

Tobacco 

Every  year  around  5,500,000,000,000  cigarettes  are  produced  worldwide,  and  between  1950  and  2004  the  world 
produced  94,340,000,000,000  cigarettes.  (248)  Every  year  6,000,000  Homo  sapiens  die  as  a  result  of  smoking 
tobacco,  and  an  additional  600,000  Homo  sapiens  die  as  a  result  of  second-hand  smoke.  (413)  In  2017,  an 
estimated  1,000,000,000  Homo  sapiens  worldwide  smoked  cigarettes.  In  the  20th  century  more  than  100,000,000 
Homo  sapiens  were  killed  as  a  result  of  tobacco  use.  (226)  Each  year  during  the  Epiphany  celebrations  in  the 
village  of  Vale  de  Salgueiro  in  Portugal,  parents  encourage  their  children,  some  as  young  as  5,  to  smoke 
cigarettes.  And  while  no  one  is  really  sure  what  the  centuries  old  tradition  symbolizes  or  even  why  they  continue 
it,  this  victimization  of  children  through  forced  tobacco  use  continues.  (666)  More  than  7,000  chemical 
compounds  are  created  and  released  into  the  atmosphere  when  a  cigarette  is  burned,  hundreds  of  which  are  toxic, 
and  about  70  that  are  known  to  cause  cancer.  (225)  Toxic  substances  which  include  arsenic,  nicotine,  tar,  cyanide, 
and  even  the  radioactive  materials:  polonium-210  and  lead-210.  (439)  In  addition  there  is  not  only  second-hand 
smoke  which  can  potentially  affect  others  around  the  smoker,  but  also  third-hand  smoke  which  is  the  remnants  of 
these  toxic  chemicals  on  surfaces  after  the  second-hand  smoke  has  cleared  the  air. 

E-cigarettes  are  now  the  latest  trend,  and  they  are  often  marketed  as  a  safer  alternative  to  traditional  cigarettes 
and  even  advertised  as  a  method  to  quit  smoking,  but  they  can  in  fact  be  just  as  addictive  and  deadly  as 
traditional  cigarettes  as  they  can  potentially  contain  nicotine,  diacetyl  and  other  flavorings,  volatile  organic 
compounds,  heavy  metals  such  as  nickel,  tin,  and  lead  along  with  other  cancer-causing  chemicals  and  ultrafine 
particles  that  can  be  inhaled  deep  into  the  lungs.  (679)  How  many  billions  of  cigarette  butts  litter  the  Earth  today? 
Why  does  the  government  even  allow  a  product  that  is  known  to  kill  so  many  millions  of  Homo  sapiens  and 
pollute  the  Earth  so  badly?  A  20 1 5  World  Health  Organization  report  on  the  environmental  and  health  impacts  of 
tobacco  concluded, 


'Tobacco  growing  usually  involves  substantial  use  of  chemicals  -  including  pesticides,  fertilizers  and  growth  regulators. 


These  chemicals  may  affect  drinking  water  sources  as  a  result  of  run-off  from  tobacco  growing  areas.  Research  has  also 
shown  that  tobacco  crops  deplete  soil  nutrients  by  taking  up  more  nitrogen,  phosphorus  and  potassium  than  other  major 
crops.  This  depletion  is  compounded  by  topping  and  de-suckering  plants,  which  increase  the  nicotine  content  and  leaf  yields 
of  tobacco  plants. 

Land  used  for  subsistence  farming  in  low-  and  middle-income  countries  may  be  diverted  to  tobacco  as  a  cash  crop.  Intensive 
lobbying  and  investments  by  multinational  tobacco  companies  (e.g.  Philip  Morris  International,  British  American  Tobacco 
and  Japan  Tobacco  International)  and  leaf  buyers  (e.g.  Universal  Corporation  and  Alliance  One  International)  along  with 
market  liberalization  measures  have  encouraged  the  expansion  of  tobacco  agriculture  in  low-  and  middle- income  countries. 
Many  of  these  countries  have  limited  legislative  and  economic  capacities  to  resist  multinational  tobacco  companies’  influence 
and  investments.  As  a  consequence  of  expanded  tobacco  agriculture,  there  are  short-term  economic  benefits  for  some 
farmers,  but  there  will  be  long-tenn  social,  economic,  health  and  environmental  detriments  for  many  others. 

Due  to  widespread  concerns  about  unfair  labour  practices  in  tobacco  agriculture,  tobacco  control  advocates  have  recently 
been  working  with  tobacco  farmers  and  farm  workers  to  ensure  the  right  to  collective  bargaining  and  to  receive  living  wages 
and  fair  leaf  prices. 5  Given  the  agricultural  labour  practices  in  both  low-  and  middle-income  countries  and  more  developed 
countries,  attention  is  also  needed  to  ensure  the  safety  of  children  involved  in  tobacco  farming.  Farm  workers,  especially 
child  labourers,  minorities  and  migrant  workers  are  at  risk  of  nicotine  toxicity  (green  tobacco  illness),  caused  by  handling 
tobacco  leaves  without  protection  during  harvest  and  processing. 

In  1995,  it  was  estimated  that  global  tobacco  manufacturing  produced  over  2,000,000  tonnes  of  solid  waste,  300,000  tonnes 
of  non-recyclable  nicotine-containing  waste  and  200,000  tonnes  of  chemical  waste.  If  annual  cigarette  production  had 
remained  constant  for  the  past  20  years  (output  has  actually  increased  from  5  to  6.3  trillion  cigarettes  annually),  tobacco 
factories  would  have  deposited  a  total  of  45,000,000  tonnes  of  solid  wastes,  6,000,000  tonnes  of  nicotine  waste  and  almost 
4,000,000  tonnes  of  chemical  wastes  during  this  time.  Other  toxic  by-products  of  tobacco  manufacturing  or  chemicals  used  in 
manufacturing  include  ammonia,  hydrochloric  acid,  toluene  and  methyl  ethyl  ketone. 

The  health  impacts  of  environmental  tobacco  smoke  exposure  include  lung  cancer,  cardiovascular  disease  and  pulmonary 
disease.  Exposure  to  residual  chemicals  in  environments  where  smoking  has  taken  place  may  also  have  human  health 
impacts,  though  these  impacts  have  not  yet  been  quantified.  Most  cigarettes  are  lit  using  matches  or  gas-filled  lighters.  If,  for 
example,  one  wooden  match  is  used  to  light  two  cigarettes,  the  six  trillion  cigarettes  smoked  globally  each  year  would  require 
the  destruction  of  about  nine  million  trees  to  produce  three  trillion  matches.  There  are  also  environmental  impacts  of 
manufacturing  and  disposing  of  the  plastic,  metal  and  butane  used  in  making  cigarette  lighters. 

Cigarettes  remain  an  important  cause  of  accidental  fires  and  resulting  deaths.  In  the  United  Kingdom  of  Great  Britain  and 
Northern  Ireland,  cigarettes  caused  7%  of  fires  in  2013-2014,  making  them  the  single  most  important  cause  of  deaths  related 
to  fires  (34  deaths/1,000  fires). 11  In  the  United  States  of  America,  cigarettes  have  been  responsible  for  8-10%  of  all  fires 
over  the  past  10  years  (on  average  90,000  fires  per  year);  they  also  remain  the  single  most  important  cause  of  deaths  related 
to  fires  (540  of  2855  total  deaths  in  2011).  These  fires  were  responsible  for  621  million  United  States  dollars  in  direct 
property  damage  and  1,640  civilian  injuries.  Regulations  requiring  cigarettes  to  self-extinguish  in  Canada  and  the  USA  were 
associated  with  a  30%  decline  in  fire-related  deaths  from  2003  to  201 1. 

Cigarette  butts  are  the  most  commonly  discarded  piece  of  waste  globally  and  are  the  most  frequent  item  of  litter  picked  up  on 
beaches  and  water  edges  worldwide.  14  The  non-biodegradable  cellulose  acetate  filter  attached  to  most  manufactured 
cigarettes  is  the  main  component  of  cigarette  butt  waste  and  trillions  of  filter-tipped  butts  are  discarded  annually.  Assuming 
that  each  filter  weighs  170  milligrams,  the  weight  of  all  tobacco-attributable  non-biodegradable  (filter)  waste  discarded 
annually  is  about  175,200  tonnes. 

Hazardous  substances  have  been  identified  in  cigarette  butts  -  including  arsenic,  lead,  nicotine  and  ethyl  phenol.  These 
substances  are  leached  from  discarded  butts  into  aquatic  environments  and  soil.  Although  the  environmental  impact  of  this 
waste  has  not  yet  been  quantified,  the  large  quantity  of  discarded  butts  may  allow  leachates  to  affect  the  quality  of  drinking 
water.  Other  post-consumption  wastes,  such  as  medicines,  pesticides  and  plastic  microbeads  from  cosmetics,  have  been  found 
in  drinking  water  sources.  It  is  possible  that  tobacco  product  waste  may  also  prove  to  be  a  significant  environmental 
contaminant  and  potential  human  health  hazard  through  bioaccumulation  in  the  food-chain. 

With  6  trillion  cigarettes  manufactured  annually,  about  300  billion  packages  (assuming  20  cigarettes  per  pack)  are  made  for 
tobacco  products.  Assuming  each  empty  pack  weighs  about  six  grams,  this  amounts  to  about  1,800,000  tonnes  of  packaging 
waste,  composed  of  paper,  ink,  cellophane,  foil  and  glue.  The  waste  from  cartons  and  boxes  used  for  distribution  and  packing 
brings  the  total  annual  solid  post-consumption  waste  to  at  least  2,000,000  tonnes.  This  compares  with  an  estimated  1,830,000 
tonnes  annually  of  plastic  waste  from  mineral  water  bottles  (estimation  method  available  from  the  corresponding  author). 

Electronic  cigarettes  may  contain  batteries  that  require  special  disposal  as  well  as  chemicals,  packaging  and  other  non- 
biodegradable  materials.  The  US  Federal  Emergency  Management  Agency  (FEMA)  has  expressed  concerns  about  the 
flammability  and  lack  of  product  regulation  of  electronic  cigarettes  and  their  components. 


Tobacco  smoking  leads  directly  to  the  emission  of  2,600,000  tonnes  of  carbon  dioxide  and  about  5,200,000  tonnes  of 
methane.  Data  from  66  low-  and  middle-income  countries  showed  that  tobacco  growing  and  curing  caused  significant 
deforestation  between  1990  and  1995,  amounting  to  approximately  2,000  hectares  -  on  average,  5%  of  each  country’s 
estimated  deforestation  during  that  five-year  period.  Worldwide,  approximately  13,000,000  hectares  of  forest  are  lost  due  to 
agriculture  or  natural  causes  each  year,  and  of  this,  at  least  200,000  hectares  are  for  tobacco  agriculture  and  curing.  1 
Deforestation  is  the  second  largest  anthropogenic  source  of  carbon  dioxide  to  the  atmosphere  (approximately  20%),  after 
fossil  fuel  combustion.  One  estimate  of  the  impact  of  deforestation  in  tobacco  agriculture  and  curing  is  that  it  causes  almost 
5%  of  global  greenhouse  gas  production. 

Despite  their  now  well-known  efforts  to  sow  doubt  among  the  public  and  policy-makers  about  anthropogenic  climate  change, 
tobacco  companies  have  advertised  their  efforts  to  reduce  carbon  emissions.  British  American  Tobacco  estimated  in  2006  that 
production  of  one  million  cigarettes  produces  0.79  tonnes  of  carbon  dioxide.  According  to  this  estimate,  4,740,000  tonnes  of 
carbon  dioxide  would  be  emitted  annually  by  global  cigarette  manufacturing.  Other  analyses  assert  that  this  is  a  gross 
underestimate  of  the  greenhouse  gas  burden  due  to  tobacco  growing,  manufacturing  and  transport.23  No  estimates  are  as  yet 
available  on  the  extent  of  carbon  dioxide  emissions  due  to  tobacco  product  transport."  (438) 


Major  Medical  Outbreaks 

There  are  thousands  of  diseases  on  Earth  which  can  affect  Homo  sapiens  with  only  26  available  vaccines  and 
another  24  vaccines  in  the  pipeline  being  developed.  (250)  And  although  Polio  will  most  likely  be  eradicated 
soon,  as  of  20 1 7  smallpox  was  the  only  human  infectious  disease  to  have  been  completely  eradicated.  Does  this 
not  prove  the  resilience  and  evolutionary  brilliance  with  which  nature  works,  and  how  little  Homo  sapiens 
actually  understand  about  nature?  The  XDR  (extensively  drug  resistant)  typhoid  outbreak  in  Pakistan  which 
began  in  November  2016  and  other  pathogens  which  have  developed  resistance  to  antibiotics  or  vaccines  are 
also  evidence  of  this  as  well. 

Modem  medicine  and  lifestyle  changes  have  halted  the  spread  of  some  diseases  and  prevented  a  mass  pandemic 
for  nearly  1 00  years,  but  Homo  sapiens  activities  have  led  to  the  emergence  of  zoonotic  human  pathogens 
including  viruses,  bacteria,  protozoa,  and  rickettsia  in  addition  to  the  spread  of  vector  borne  diseases.  When  the 
first  large  cities  were  beginning,  diseases  were  rampant  until  chlorinated  water  and  the  introduction  of  sewers, 
but  even  today  cities  are  breeding  grounds  for  diseases.  Modem  medicine,  science,  and  government 
import/export  regulations  have  thus  far  prevented  the  spread  of  a  major  outbreak  like  Black  Death,  but  could  a 
new  pathogen  emerge  that  medicine  and  science  cannot  fight?  Why  have  so  many  of  these  recent  outbreaks 
originated  from  livestock  operations  and  animal  consumption?  If  these  faunae  were  not  being  consumed  in  such 
mass  quantities,  could  many  of  these  outbreaks  have  been  avoided? 


Major  Medical  Outbreaks  in  Recent  History  Involving  Fauna  and  Homo  sapiens 

1964  Aberdeen  typhoid 
outbreak 

The  1967  United  Kingdom  foot-and-mouth  outbreak  was  a  major  outbreak  of  foot  and  mouth 
disease  in  the  United  Kingdom.  The  In  1964  there  was  an  outbreak  of  typhoid  in  the  city  of 

Aberdeen,  Scotland.  The  first  two  cases  were  identified  on  20  May  1964;  eventually  over  400  cases 
were  diagnosed  and  the  patients  were  quarantined  at  the  City  Hospital  in  Urquhart  Road,  but  no 
fatalities  resulted.  Dr  Ian  MacQueen,  the  Medical  Officer  of  Health  for  Aberdeen,  became  well 
known  in  the  media  for  his  twice-daily  briefings.  The  outbreak  was  eventually  traced  to 
contaminated  tinned  corned  beef  from  South  America  made  by  Fray  Bentos  and  sold  in  the  city's 
branch  of  the  Scottish  grocery  chain  William  Low. 

Chronic  wasting  disease 
(CWD)  1967 

The  origin  and  mode  of  transmission  of  the  prions  causing  Chronic  wasting  disease  (CWD)  is 
unknown,  but  recent  research  indicates  that  prions  can  be  excreted  by  deer  and  elk,  and  are 
transmitted  by  eating  grass  growing  in  contaminated  soil.  Animals  bom  in  captivity  and  those  bom 
in  the  wild  have  been  affected  with  the  disease.  Based  on  epidemiology,  transmission  of  CWD  is 
thought  to  be  lateral  (from  animal  to  animal).  Maternal  transmission  may  occur,  although  it  appears 
to  be  relatively  unimportant  in  maintaining  epidemics.  An  infected  deer's  saliva  is  able  to  spread  the 
CWD  prions.  Exposure  between  animals  is  associated  with  sharing  food  and  water  sources 
contaminated  with  CWD  prions  shed  by  diseased  deer. 

The  disease  was  first  identified  in  1967  in  a  closed  herd  of  captive  mule  deer  in  contiguous  portions 
of  northeastern  Colorado.  In  1980,  the  disease  was  determined  to  be  a  TSE.  It  was  first  identified  in 
wild  elk  and  mules  in  1981  in  Colorado  and  Wyoming,  and  in  farmed  elk  in  1997.  In  May  2001, 

CWD  was  also  found  in  free-ranging  deer  in  the  southwestern  corner  of  Nebraska  (adjacent  to 
Colorado  and  Wyoming)  and  later  in  additional  areas  in  western  Nebraska.  The  limited  area  of 
northern  Colorado,  southern  Wyoming,  and  western  Nebraska  in  which  free-ranging  deer,  moose, 

and/or  elk  positive  for  CWD  have  been  found  is  referred  to  as  the  endemic  area.  The  area  in  2006 
has  expanded  to  six  states,  including  parts  of  eastern  Utah,  southwestern  South  Dakota,  and 
northwestern  Kansas.  Also,  areas  not  contiguous  (to  the  endemic  area)  areas  in  central  Utah  and 
central  Nebraska  have  been  found.  The  limits  of  the  affected  areas  are  not  well  defined,  since  the 
disease  is  at  a  low  incidence  and  the  amount  of  sampling  may  not  be  adequate  to  detect  it.  In  2002, 
CWD  was  detected  in  wild  deer  in  south-central  Wisconsin  and  northern  Illinois  and  in  an  isolated 
area  of  southern  New  Mexico.  In  2005,  it  was  found  in  wild  white-tailed  deer  in  New  York  and  in 
Hampshire  County,  West  Virginia.  In  2008,  the  first  confirmed  case  of  CWD  in  Michigan  was 
discovered  in  an  infected  deer  on  an  enclosed  deer-breeding  facility.  It  is  also  found  in  the  Canadian 
provinces  of  Alberta  and  Saskatchewan.  In  February  2011,  the  Maryland  Department  of  Natural 
Resources  reported  the  first  confirmed  case  of  the  disease  in  that  state.  The  affected  animal  was  a 
white-tailed  deer  killed  by  a  hunter. 

CWD  has  also  been  diagnosed  in  farmed  elk  and  deer  herds  in  a  number  of  states  and  in  two 

Canadian  provinces.  The  first  positive  farmed  elk  herd  in  the  United  States  was  detected  in  1997  in 
South  Dakota.  Since  then,  additional  positive  elk  herds  and  farmed  white-tailed  deer  herds  have 
been  found  in  South  Dakota  (7),  Nebraska  (4),  Colorado  (10),  Oklahoma  (1),  Kansas  (1),  Minnesota 
(3),  Montana  (1),  Wisconsin  (6)  and  New  York  (2).  As  of  fall  of  2006,  four  positive  elk  herds  in 
Colorado  and  a  positive  white-tailed  deer  herd  in  Wisconsin  remain  under  state  quarantine.  All  of 
the  other  herds  have  been  depopulated  or  have  been  slaughtered  and  tested,  and  the  quarantine  has 
been  lifted  from  one  herd  that  underwent  rigorous  surveillance  with  no  further  evidence  of  disease. 
CWD  also  has  been  found  in  farmed  elk  in  the  Canadian  provinces  of  Saskatchewan  and  Alberta.  A 
retrospective  study  also  showed  mule  deer  exported  from  Denver  to  the  Toronto  Zoo  in  the  1980s 
were  affected.  In  June  2015,  the  disease  was  detected  in  a  male  white-tailed  deer  on  a  breeding 
ranch  in  Medina  County,  Texas.  State  officials  euthanized  34  deer  in  an  effort  to  contain  a  possible 
outbreak. 

Species  that  have  been  affected  with  CWD  include  elk,  mule  deer,  white-tailed  deer,  black-tailed 
deer,  and  moose.  Other  ruminant  species,  including  wild  ruminants  and  domestic  cattle,  sheep,  and 
goats,  have  been  housed  in  wildlife  facilities  in  direct  or  indirect  contact  with  CWD -affected  deer 
and  elk,  with  no  evidence  of  disease  transmission.  However,  experimental  transmission  of  CWD 
into  other  ruminants  by  intracranial  inoculation  does  result  in  disease,  suggesting  only  a  weak 
molecular  species  barrier  exists.  Research  is  ongoing  to  further  explore  the  possibility  of 
transmission  of  CWD  to  other  species.  By  April  2016  CWD  had  been  found  in  captive  animals  in 
South  Korea;  the  disease  arrived  there  with  live  elk  that  were  imported  for  farming  in  the  late 

1990s. 

In  2016,  the  first  case  of  CWD  in  Europe  was  from  the  Nordfjella  free  ranging  reindeer  in  Southern 
Norway.  Scientists  surveyed  the  diseased  female  reindeer  until  the  reindeer  died  and  used  the 
carcass  to  isolate  the  prions.  The  main  origin  of  CWD  to  Norway  is  still  unknown,  whereas 
importation  of  infected  deer  was  the  contamination  source  in  South  Korea.  Norway  has  strict 
legislation  and  rules  not  allowing  importation  of  live  animals  and  cervids  into  the  country.  Norway 
has  had  a  scrapie  surveillance  program  since  1997;  while  no  reports  of  scrapie  within  the  range  of 
Nordfjella  reindeer  sup  population  have  been  identified,  sheep  are  herded  through  that  region  and 
are  a  potential  source  of  infection.  In  each  of  May  and  June,  infected  wild  moose  were  found 
around  300  km  north  from  the  first  case,  in  Selbu.  By  the  end  of  August,  a  fourth  case  had  been 
confirmed  in  a  wild  reindeer  shot  in  the  same  area  as  the  first  case  in  March.  In  2017,  the 

Environment  Agency  of  the  Norwegian  government  released  guidelines  for  hunters  hunting  reindeer 
in  the  Nordfjella  areas.  The  guidelines  contain  infonnation  on  identifying  animals  with  CWD 
symptoms,  instructions  for  minimizing  the  risk  of  contamination,  as  well  as  a  list  of  supplies  given 
to  hunters  to  be  used  for  taking  and  submitting  samples  from  shot  reindeer. 

1967  United  Kingdom  foot- 
and-mouth  outbreak 

Over  the  course  of  six  months,  430,000  animals  across  2300  fanns  were  slaughtered.  The  average 
number  of  animals  that  were  slaughtered  in  each  confirmed  case  was  around  200.  The  1967  crisis 
saw  the  last  reported  case  of  human  foot-and-mouth  disease.  The  victim  was  a  farm- worker  who 
was  believed  to  have  contracted  the  virus  by  consuming  contaminated  milk.  The  disease  was  not 
life-threatening  and  they  were  able  to  recover  within  several  weeks. 

1968  H3N2  outbreak  AKA 
‘Hong  Kong  Flu’ 

The  1968  flu  pandemic  was  a  category  2  flu  pandemic  whose  outbreak  in  1968  and  1969  killed  an 
estimated  1,000,000  people  worldwide.  Both  the  H2N2  and  H3N2  pandemic  flu  strains  contained 
genes  from  avian  influenza  viruses.  The  new  subtypes  arose  in  pigs  coinfected  with  avian  and 
human  viruses  and  were  soon  transferred  to  humans.  Swine  were  considered  the  original 
"intermediate  host"  for  influenza,  because  they  supported  reassortment  of  divergent  subtypes. 
However,  other  hosts  appear  capable  of  similar  coinfection  (e.g.,  many  poultry  species),  and  direct 
transmission  of  avian  viruses  to  humans  is  possible. 

1976  Swine  flu  outbreak 

The  1976  swine  flu  outbreak,  also  known  as  the  swine  flu  fiasco,  or  the  swine  flu  debacle,  was  a 
strain  of  H 1N1  influenza  virus  that  appeared  in  1976.  Infectious  morbidity  was  only  detected  from 

January  19  to  February  9,  and  were  not  found  outside  Fort  Dix.  The  outbreak  is  most  remembered 
for  the  mass  immunization  that  it  prompted  in  the  United  States.  The  strain  itself  killed  one  person 
and  hospitalized  13.  However,  side-effects  from  the  vaccine  are  thought  to  have  caused  five 
hundred  cases  of  Guillain-Barre  syndrome  and  25  deaths. 

1984  Rabbit  haemorrhagic 
disease  outbreak 

Rabbit  haemorrhagic  disease  (RHD),  also  known  as  rabbit  calicivirus  disease  (RCD)  or  viral 
haemorrhagic  disease  ( VHD),  is  a  highly  infectious  and  often  fatal  disease  that  affects  wild  and 
domestic  rabbits  of  the  species  Oryctolagus  cuniculus.  The  infectious  agent  responsible  for  the 
disease  is  rabbit  haemorrhagic  disease  virus  (RHDV),  or  rabbit  calicivirus  (RCV),  genus  Lagovirus 
of  the  family  Caliciviridae.  The  virus  infects  only  rabbits,  and  has  been  used  in  some  countries  to 
control  rabbit  populations.  RHD  first  appeared  in  the  Winter  of  1983  in  Jiangsu  Province  of  the 
People's  Republic  of  China.  It  was  first  isolated  and  characterized  by  S.J.  Fiu  et  al.  in  1984.  The 
Chinese  outbreak  was  spread  by  the  angora  rabbit,  which  had  originated  in  Europe.  Fourteen 
million  domesticated  rabbits  died  within  nine  months  in  the  outbreak.  In  1984  the  virus  that  caused 
the  disease  was  identified.  The  virus  spread  westward  and  reached  Europe  in  1988.  The  virus  has 
since  appeared  in  Mexico,  Cuba,  Australia,  New  Zealand  and  the  United  States.  In  1992,  the  United 
Kingdom  reported  its  first  case  of  RHD  in  domestic  show  rabbits.  By  the  late  1990s,  RHD  stretched 
to  forty  countries  and  had  become  endemic  in  wild  and  feral  rabbit  populations  in  Europe,  Australia, 
New  Zealand  and  Cuba.  In  Europe,  there  was  a  rapid  increase  in  research  into  RHD,  due  to  the 
importance  of  the  commercial  breeding  of  rabbits  for  meat  and  fur  production.  The  first  reported 
case  in  the  United  States  was  in  Iowa  on  March  9,  2000.  The  affected  breeds  included  Palominos 
and  California  Whites.  By  April  6,  25  of  the  27  affected  rabbits  had  died  of  the  infection.  In  order  to 
contain  the  disease,  the  remaining  two  rabbits  were  euthanized.  No  new  introductions  of  rabbits 
were  placed  on  the  farm  for  two  years  after  the  discovery  of  RHD  and  August  1999  was  the  last 
time  rabbits  left  and/or  returned  to  the  farm.  The  United  States  experienced  other  outbreaks  of  RHD 
in  2001  (Utah,  Illinois,  New  York)  and  2005  (Indiana).  In  2010,  a  new  virus  variant  called  rabbit 
hemorrhagic  disease  virus  2  (RHDV2)  emerged  in  France 

1985  California  listeria 
outbreak 

The  1985  California  listeria  outbreak  was  in  Mexican  style  soft  cheese  made  by  Jalisco  in 

California.  There  were  52  confirmed  deaths,  including  19  stillbirths  and  10  infant  deaths. 

1985  United  States 
salmonellosis  outbreak 

The  1985  United  States  salmonellosis  outbreak  was  Salmonella  typhimurium  in  milk  from  the 
Hillfarm  Dairy  in  Melrose  Park,  Illinois.  Two  people  died  and  the  infection  was  a  contributing 
factor  in  the  deaths  of  "four,  possibly  five,  others". 

1998  United  States  listeriosis 
outbreak 

The  1998  United  States  listeriosis  outbreak  was  the  third  deadliest  outbreak  of  foodbome  illness  in 
the  United  States  since  the  Centers  for  Disease  Control  and  Prevention  started  tracking  in  the  1970s. 
There  were  14  deaths  and  4  miscarriages  or  stillbirths  in  a  listeria  outbreak  in  hot  dogs  and  cold  cuts 
from  Sara  Lee  Corporation.  Some  sources  put  the  death  toll  as  high  as  21. 

1993  Jack  in  the  Box  E.  coli 
outbreak 

Health  inspectors  traced  the  contamination  to  the  restaurants'  "Monster  Burger"  sandwich  which 
had  been  on  a  special  promotion  (using  the  slogan  So  good  it's  scary!)  and  sold  at  a  discounted 
price.  The  ensuing  high  demand  "overwhelmed"  the  restaurants  and  the  product  was  not  cooked  for 
long  enough  or  at  a  high  enough  temperature  to  kill  the  bacteria.  At  a  1993  press  conference  the 
president  of  Foodmaker  (the  parent  company  of  Jack  in  the  Box)  blamed  Vons  Companies  Inc. 
(supplier  of  their  hamburger  meat)  for  the  E.  coli  epidemic.  However,  the  Jack  in  the  Box  fast- food 
chain  knew  about  but  disregarded  Washington  state  laws  which  required  burgers  to  be  cooked  to 

155  °F  (68  °C),  the  temperature  necessary  to  completely  kill  E.  coli.  Instead,  it  adhered  to  the 
federal  standard  of  140  °F  (60  °C).  Had  Jack  in  the  Box  followed  the  state  cooking  standard,  the  E. 
coli  outbreak  would  have  been  prevented. 

1999  Nipah  virus  outbreak 

Nipah  virus  was  identified  in  April  1999,  when  it  caused  an  outbreak  of  neurological  and  respiratory 
disease  on  pig  farms  in  peninsular  Malaysia,  resulting  in  257  human  cases,  including  105  human 
deaths  and  the  culling  of  one  million  pigs.  In  Singapore,  11  cases,  including  one  death,  occurred  in 
abattoir  workers  exposed  to  pigs  imported  from  the  affected  Malaysian  farms.  The  Nipah  virus  has 
been  classified  by  the  Centers  for  Disease  Control  and  Prevention  as  a  Category  C  agent.  The  name 
"Nipah"  refers  to  the  place,  Kampung  Baru  Sungai  Nipah  in  Port  Dickson,  Negeri  Sembilan,  the 
source  of  the  human  case  from  which  Nipah  virus  was  first  isolated.  Nipah  virus  is  one  of  several 
viruses  identified  by  WHO  as  a  likely  cause  of  a  future  epidemic  in  a  new  plan  developed  after  the 
Ebola  epidemic  for  urgent  research  and  development  before  and  during  an  epidemic  toward  new 
diagnostic  tests,  vaccines  and  medicines. 

The  outbreak  was  originally  mistaken  for  Japanese  encephalitis  (JE),  however,  physicians  in  the 
area  noted  that  persons  who  had  been  vaccinated  against  JE  were  not  protected,  and  the  number  of 
cases  among  adults  was  unusual.  Despite  the  fact  that  these  observations  were  recorded  in  the  first 
month  of  the  outbreak,  the  Ministry  of  Health  failed  to  react  accordingly,  and  instead  launched  a 
nationwide  campaign  to  educate  people  on  the  dangers  of  JE  and  its  vector,  Culex  mosquitoes. 

Symptoms  of  infection  from  the  Malaysian  outbreak  were  primarily  encephalitic  in  humans  and 
respiratory  in  pigs.  Later  outbreaks  have  caused  respiratory  illness  in  humans,  increasing  the 
likelihood  of  human-to-human  transmission  and  indicating  the  existence  of  more  dangerous  strains 

of  the  virus.  Based  on  seroprevalence  data  and  virus  isolations,  the  primary  reservoir  for  Nipah 
virus  was  identified  as  Pteropid  fruit  bats,  including  Pteropus  vampyrus  (Large  Flying  Fox),  and 
Pteropus  hypomelanus  (Small  flying  fox),  both  of  which  occur  in  Malaysia. 

The  transmission  of  Nipah  virus  from  flying  foxes  to  pigs  is  thought  to  be  due  to  an  increasing 
overlap  between  bat  habitats  and  piggeries  in  peninsular  Malaysia.  At  the  index  farm,  fruit  orchards 
were  in  close  proximity  to  the  piggery,  allowing  the  spillage  of  urine,  faeces  and  partially  eaten  fruit 
onto  the  pigs.  Retrospective  studies  demonstrate  that  viral  spillover  into  pigs  may  have  been 
occurring  in  Malaysia  since  1996  without  detection.  During  1998,  viral  spread  was  aided  by  the 
transfer  of  infected  pigs  to  other  farms,  where  new  outbreaks  occurred. 

2000  Walkerton  E.  coli 
outbreak 

The  water  supply,  drawn  from  groundwater,  became  contaminated  with  the  highly  dangerous 

0157:H7  strain  of  E.  coli  bacteria.  This  contamination  was  due  to  farm  runoff  into  an  adjacent 
water  well  that  had  been  known  for  years  to  be  vulnerable  to  groundwater  contamination.  The  five 
people  died  directly  from  drinking  the  E.  coli-contaminated  water  and  about  2,500  became  ill. 

200 1  United  Kingdom  foot- 
and-mouth  outbreak 

The  outbreak  of  foot-and-mouth  disease  in  the  United  Kingdom  in  2001  caused  a  crisis  in  British 
agriculture  and  tourism.  This  epizootic  saw  2,000  cases  of  the  disease  in  farms  across  most  of  the 
British  countryside.  Over  10  million  sheep  and  cattle  were  killed  in  an  eventually  successful  attempt 
to  halt  the  disease. 

2002-2003  SARS  outbreak 

A  SARS  outbreak  occurred  between  November  2002  and  July  2003.  SARS  is  a  relatively  rare 
disease,  with  8,273  cases  as  of  2003.  In  late  May  2003,  studies  from  samples  of  wild  animals  sold 
as  food  in  the  local  market  in  Guangdong,  China,  found  the  SARS  coronavirus  could  be  isolated 
from  masked  palm  civets  (Paguma  sp.),  but  the  animals  did  not  always  show  clinical  signs.  The 
preliminary  conclusion  was  the  SARS  virus  crossed  the  xenographic  barrier  from  palm  civet  to 
humans,  and  more  than  10,000  masked  palm  civets  were  killed  in  Guangdong  Province.  Virus  was 
also  later  found  in  raccoon  dogs  (Nyctereuteus  sp.),  ferret  badgers  (Melogale  spp.),  and  domestic 
cats.  In  2005,  two  studies  identified  a  number  of  SARS-like  coronaviruses  in  Chinese  bats. 
Phylogenetic  analysis  of  these  viruses  indicated  a  high  probability  that  SARS  coronavirus 
originated  in  bats  and  spread  to  humans  either  directly  or  through  animals  held  in  Chinese  markets. 

2003  U.S.  Midwest  monkeypox 
outbreak 

The  2003  Midwest  monkeypox  outbreak  marked  the  first  time  monkeypox  infection  has  appeared  in 
the  United  States,  and  the  first  time  in  the  Western  Hemisphere.  Beginning  in  May,  2003  a  total  of 

71  cases  of  human  monkeypox  were  found  in  five  Midwestern  states  including  Wisconsin  (39 
cases),  Indiana  (16),  Illinois  (12),  Kansas  (1),  Missouri  (2)  and  Ohio  (1).  The  cause  of  the  outbreak 
was  traced  to  Gambian  rats  imported  into  the  United  States  by  an  exotic  animal  importer  in  Texas. 

2003  H5N1  outbreak 

By  midyear  of  2003  outbreaks  of  poultry  disease  caused  by  H5N 1  occurred  in  Asia,  but  were  not 
recognized  as  such.  That  December  animals  in  a  Thai  zoo  died  after  eating  infected  chicken 
carcasses.  Later  that  month  H5N1  infection  was  detected  in  3  flocks  in  the  Republic  of  Korea. 

H5N 1  in  China  in  this  and  later  periods  is  less  than  frilly  reported.  Blogs  have  described  many 
discrepancies  between  official  China  government  announcements  concerning  H5N 1  and  what 
people  in  China  see  with  their  own  eyes.  Many  reports  of  total  H5N 1  cases  exclude  China  due  to 
widespread  disbelief  in  China's  official  numbers. 

2004  H5N1  outbreak 

In  January  2004  a  major  new  outbreak  of  H5N 1  surfaced  in  Vietnam  and  Thailand's  poultry 
industry,  and  within  weeks  spread  to  ten  countries  and  regions  in  Asia,  including  Indonesia,  South 
Korea,  Japan  and  China.  In  October  2004  researchers  discovered  H5N 1  is  far  more  dangerous  than 
previously  believed  because  waterfowl,  especially  ducks,  were  directly  spreading  the  highly 
pathogenic  strain  of  H5N1  to  chickens,  crows,  pigeons,  and  other  birds  and  that  it  was  increasing  its 
ability  to  infect  mammals  as  well.  From  this  point  on,  avian  influenza  experts  increasingly  refer  to 
containment  as  a  strategy  that  can  delay  but  not  prevent  a  future  avian  flu  pandemic. 

2005  South  Wales  E.  coli  0157 
outbreak 

It  was  the  largest  outbreak  of  E.  coli  0157  in  Wales  and  the  second  largest  in  the  UK.  157  cases 
were  identified  in  the  outbreak;  31  people  were  hospitalized,  and  one  child,  5-year  old  Mason  Jones, 
died.  Most  of  the  157  cases  identified  were  children,  attending  44  different  schools  across  four 
different  local  authorities  -  Bridgend,  Methry  Tydfil,  Caerphily  and  Rhondda  Cynon  Taf.  Of  those 
infected,  109  cases  were  identified  as  a  strain  of  E.  coli  0157  unique  to  this  outbreak.  The  cause 
was  a  vacuum  packing  machine  used  to  package  both  raw  meat  and  cooked  meat  without  being 
properly  cleaned  between  batches  resulting  in  cross-contamination. 

2005  H5N1  outbreak 

In  January  2005  an  outbreak  of  avian  influenza  affected  thirty  three  out  of  sixty  four  cities  and 
provinces  in  Vietnam,  leading  to  the  forced  killing  of  nearly  1 .2  million  poultry.  Up  to  140  million 
birds  are  believed  to  have  died  or  been  killed  because  of  the  outbreak.  In  April  2005  there  begins  an 
unprecedented  die-off  of  over  6,000  migratory  birds  at  Qinghai  Lake  in  central  China  over  three 
months.  This  strain  of  H5N 1  is  the  same  strain  as  is  spread  west  by  migratory  birds  over  at  least  the 
next  ten  months.  In  August  2005  H5N1  spread  to  Kazakhstan,  Mongolia  and  Russia.  On  September 
29,  2005,  David  Nabarro,  the  newly  appointed  Senior  United  Nations  System  Coordinator  for  Avian 
and  Human  Influenza,  warned  the  world  that  an  outbreak  of  avian  influenza  could  kill  5  to  150 
million  people.  David  Nabarro  later  stated  that  as  the  virus  had  spread  to  migratory  birds,  an 
outbreak  could  start  in  Africa  or  the  Middle  East.  Later  in  2005  H5N1  spread  to  Turkey,  Romania, 
Croatia  and  Kuwait. 

2006  H5N1  outbreak 

In  the  first  two  months  of  2006  H5N1  spread  to  other  Asian  countries  (such  as  India),  north  Africa, 
and  Europe  in  wild  bird  populations  possibly  signaling  the  beginning  of  H5N1  being  endemic  in 
wild  migratory  bird  populations  on  multiple  continents  for  decades,  permanently  changing  the  way 
poultry  are  farmed.  In  July  and  August  2006  significantly  increased  numbers  of  bird  deaths  due  to 
H5N1  were  recorded  in  Cambodia,  China,  Laos,  Nigeria,  and  Thailand  while  continuing  unabated  a 
rate  unparalleled  in  Indonesia.  In  June,  there  was  a  human  outbreak  in  Indonesia  when  8  members 
of  a  family  in  Sumatra  became  infected  and  7  died.  The  WHO  reported  that  this  may  have  been  the 
first  recorded  instance  of  human- to-human  transmission.  In  September,  Egypt  and  Sudan  joined  the 
list  of  nations  seeing  a  resurgence  of  bird  deaths  due  to  H5N 1 .  In  November  and  December,  South 
Korea  and  Vietnam  joined  the  list  of  nations  seeing  a  resurgence  of  bird  deaths  due  to  H5N 1 .  The 
first  reports  of  bird  flu  in  India  came  from  the  village  of  Navapur  in  the  Nandurbar  district  of 
Maharashtra  on  19  February  2006.  Villagers  reported  a  large  number  of  bird  deaths  in  the  village. 
Soon  after  the  presence  of  the  virus  was  confirmed  culling  operations  began.  253000  birds  and 

587000  eggs  were  destroyed  within  5  days. 

2006  North  American  E.  coli 
0157:H7  outbreak 

A  follow-up  report  by  the  CDC  and  a  joint  report  by  the  California  Department  of  Health  Services 
(CDHS)  and  U.S.  FDA  concluded  that  the  probable  source  of  the  outbreak  was  Paicines  Ranch,  an 
Angus  cattle  ranch  that  had  leased  land  to  spinach  grower  Mission  Organics.  The  report  found  26 
samples  of  E.  coli  “indistinguishable  from  the  outbreak  strain”  in  water  and  cattle  manure  on  the 

San  Benito  County  ranch,  some  within  a  mile  from  the  tainted  spinach  fields.  Although  officials 
could  not  definitively  say  how  the  spinach  became  contaminated,  both  reports  named  the  presence 
of  wild  pigs  on  the  ranch  and  the  proximity  of  surface  waterways  to  irrigation  wells  as  "potential 
environmental  risk  factors. 

2007  H5N1  outbreak 

In  January,  Japan,  Hungary,  Russia,  and  the  United  Kingdom  joined  the  list  of  nations  seeing  a 
resurgence  of  bird  deaths  due  to  H5N1.  In  February,  Pakistan,  Turkey,  Afghanistan,  and  Myamnar 
joined  the  list  and  Kuwait  saw  its  first  major  outbreak  of  H5N 1  avian  influenza.  In  March 

Bangladesh  and  Saudi  Arabia  each  saw  their  first  major  outbreak  of  H5N 1  avian  influenza  and 

Ghana  in  May.  As  H5N 1  continued  killing  many  birds  and  a  few  people  throughout  the  spring  in 
countries  where  it  is  now  endemic,  in  June  Malaysia  and  Germany  saw  a  resurgence  of  bird  deaths 
due  to  H5N 1 ,  while  the  Czech  Republic  and  Togo  experienced  their  first  major  outbreak  of  H5N 1 
avian  influenza.  In  July  France  and  India  also  saw  a  resurgence  of  bird  deaths  due  to  H5N1. 

2007  Central  Luzon  hog 
cholera  outbreak 

An  outbreak  of  classical  swine  fever  (hog  cholera)  in  the  Philippine  region  of  Central  Luzon, 
particularly  the  provinces  of  Pampanga  and  Bulacan  occurred  in  mid-2007,  the  Philippine 

Department  of  Agriculture  (DA)  confirmed.  The  outbreak  was  originally  confined  on  early  July  to 
backyard  farms  in  3  towns  but  expanded  to  43  barangays  in  12  municipalities  (of  21  municipalities 
and  3  cities)  in  Bulacan.  Commercial  fanns,  which  are  80%  of  the  farms,  were  unaffected, 
according  to  provincial  veterinarian  Felipe  Bartolome.  Bartolome  also  dismissed  the  cases  of  foot- 
and-mouth  disease  in  the  province,  and  the  hog  cholera  only  affected  about  3,000-5,000  sows. 

2008  H5N1  outbreak 

Hong  Kong  found  the  H5N1  bird  flu  virus  at  a  poultry  stall  in  Sham  Shui  Po.  2,700  birds  were 
ordered  to  be  killed  by  the  local  government.  A  new  regulation  requires  all  live  chickens  not  sold  by 
8pm  to  be  killed.  The  chairman  of  the  Hong  Kong  Poultry  Wholesalers  Association  said  the 
government's  decision  makes  it  very  difficult  for  their  business  to  continue.  Retailers  who  keep  live 
poultry  after  8pm  are  now  subject  to  a  fine  of  HK$50,000  and  six  months  imprisonment. 

2009  Flu  Pandemic  H1N1/09 
vims 

The  2009  flu  pandemic  or  swine  flu  was  an  influenza  pandemic,  and  the  second  of  the  two 
pandemics  involving  H1N1  influenza  virus  (the  first  of  them  being  the  1918  flu  pandemic),  albeit  in 
a  new  version.  However,  by  2012,  research  showed  that  as  many  as  579,000  people  could  have  been 
killed  by  the  disease,  as  only  those  fatalities  confirmed  by  laboratory  testing  were  included  in  the 
original  number,  and  meant  that  many  of  those  without  access  to  health  facilities  went  uncounted. 

The  majority  of  these  deaths  occurred  in  Africa  and  Southeast  Asia.  Experts,  including  the  WHO, 
have  agreed  that  an  estimated  284,500  people  were  killed  by  the  disease,  much  higher  than  the 
initial  death  toll.  On  June  23,  2009,  The  New  York  Times  reported  that  U.S.  federal  agriculture 
officials,  "contrary  to  the  popular  assumption  that  the  new  swine  flu  pandemic  arose  on  factory 
farms  in  Mexico,"  now  believe  that  it  "most  likely  emerged  in  pigs  in  Asia,  but  then  traveled  to 

North  America  in  a  human."  They  emphasized  that  there  was  no  way  to  prove  their  hypothesis,  but 
stated  that  there  is  no  evidence  that  this  new  virus,  which  combines  Eurasian  and  North  American 
genes,  has  ever  circulated  in  North  American  pigs,  "while  there  is  tantalizing  evidence  that  a  closely 
related  'sister  virus'  has  circulated  in  Asia." 

2009  H5N1  outbreak 

H5N1  hits  Nepal  for  first  time.  In  a  January  16  report  to  the  World  Organization  for  Animal  Health 
(OIE),  government  officials  in  Nepal  said  the  virus  struck  backyard  poultry  in  a  village  in  Jhapa 
district  in  the  southeastern  comer  of  Nepal.  Though  the  Nepal  Government  announced  that  bird  flu 
in  the  country's  Kankarbhitta  area  is  under  control,  avian  virus  surfaced  again  in  Sharanamati  of 

Jhapa  district.  Over  150  chickens  died  in  the  Indian  border  town,  35  km  southwest  of  Kankarbhitta. 
The  Ministry  of  Agriculture  and  Cooperatives  declared  the  area  surrounding  Sharanamati  a  "bird-flu 
affected  area"  and  increased  surveillance  along  the  border.  A  Rapid  Response  Team  (RRT)  was 
dispatched  to  control  the  virus.  The  government  also  banned  the  transportation  of  poultry  products 
throughout  the  country.  The  first  outbreak  was  confirmed  in  Kankarbhitta  on  January  16.  28,000 

chickens  were  killed  in  the  area  to  control  the  virus 

2010  Japan  foot-and-mouth 
outbreak 

The  Japan  foot-and-mouth  outbreak  was  a  foot-and-mouth  disease  (FMD)  outbreak  that  occurred  in 
2010,  in  Miyazaki  Prefecture,  affecting  cattle,  swine,  sheep  and  goats  and  taking  place  ten  years 
after  a  similar  outbreak  in  2000.  On  August  26,  Miyazaki  governor  Higashikokubaru  announced 
that  the  Foot-Mouth  disease  was  eradicated.  It  took  lives  of  about  290,000  cattle. 

2010-2012  South  Korea  foot- 
and-mouth  outbreak 

A  serious  outbreak  of  foot-and-mouth  disease  occurred  in  South  Korea  in  2010-2011,  leading  to  the 
culling  of  hundreds  of  thousands  of  pigs  (as  of  January  20 1 1 )  in  an  effort  to  contain  it.  The  outbreak 
began  in  November  2010  in  pig  farms  in  Andong,  Gyeongsangbuk-do,  and  has  since  spread  in  the 
country  rapidly.  More  than  100  cases  of  foot-and-mouth  disease  have  been  confirmed  in  the  country 
so  far,  and  South  Korean  officials  have  started  a  mass  cull  of  approximately  12  percent  of  the  entire 
domestic  pig  population  and  107,000  of  three  million  cattle  of  the  country  to  halt  the  outbreak.  As 
parts  of  the  culling  process,  it  was  reported  by  some  sections  of  the  English-language  media  that  the 
South  Korean  government  had  decided  to  bury  approximately  1 .4  million  pigs  alive,  which  drew 
complaints  from  animal  activists 

2013  Porcine  epidemic  diarrhea 
virus  outbreak 

Porcine  epidemic  diarrhea  virus  (PED  virus  or  PEDV)  is  a  coronavirus  that  infects  the  cells  lining 
the  small  intestine  of  a  pig,  causing  porcine  epidemic  diarrhoea,  a  condition  of  severe  diarrhea  and 
dehydration.  Older  hogs  mostly  get  sick  and  lose  weight  after  being  infected,  where  as  newborn 
piglets  usually  die  within  five  days  of  contracting  the  virus.  PEDV  cannot  be  transmitted  to  humans, 
nor  contaminate  the  human  food  supply. 

It  was  first  discovered  in  Europe,  but  has  become  increasingly  problematic  in  Asian  countries,  such 
as  Korea,  China,  Japan,  the  Philippines,  and  Thailand.  It  has  also  spread  to  North  America:  In  May 
2013,  the  virus  was  found  in  27  U.S.  states  and  eventually  killed  6,000,000  piglets  in  less  than  a 
year,  then  it  was  discovered  in  Canada  in  the  winter  of  2014.  In  January  2014,  a  new  variant  strain 
of  PEDV  with  three  deletions,  one  insertion,  and  several  mutations  in  S  (spike)  1  region  was 
identified  in  Ohio  by  the  Animal  Disease  Diagnostic  Lab  of  Ohio  Department  of  Agriculture. 

2012-2014  Middle  East 
respiratory  syndrome 
coronavirus  (MERS-CoV)  or 
EMC/2012  outbreak 

Over  1,600  cases  of  MERS  have  been  reported  by  2015  and  the  case  fatality  rate  is  >30%.  As  of 

July  2015,  MERS-CoV  cases  have  been  reported  in  over  21  countries,  including  Saudi  Arabia, 

Jordan,  Qatar,  Egypt,  the  United  Arab  Emirates,  Kuwait,  Turkey,  Oman,  Algeria,  Bangladesh, 
Indonesia  (none  were  confirmed),  Austria,  the  United  Kingdom,  South  Korea,  the  United  States, 
Mainland  China,  Thailand,  and  the  Philippines.  At  least  one  person  who  has  fallen  sick  with  MERS 
was  known  to  have  come  into  contact  with  camels  or  recently  drank  camel  milk.  Countries  like 

Saudi  Arabia  and  the  United  Arab  Emirates  produce  and  consume  large  amounts  of  camel  meat.  The 
possibility  exists  that  African  or  Australian  bats  harbor  the  virus  and  transmit  it  to  camels.  Imported 
camels  from  these  regions  might  have  carried  the  virus  to  the  Middle  East. 

2015  Indian  swine  flu  outbreak 

2015  Indian  swine  flu  outbreak  refers  to  an  outbreak  of  the  2009  pandemic  H1N1  virus  in  India, 
which  is  still  ongoing  as  of  March  2015.  The  states  of  Gujarat  and  Rajasthan  are  the  worst  affected. 
India  had  reported  937  cases  and  218  deaths  from  swine  flu  in  the  year  2014.  By  mid-February 

2015,  the  reported  cases  and  deaths  in  2015  had  surpassed  the  previous  numbers.  The  H1N1  virus 
outbreak  had  previously  occurred  India  during  the  2009  flu  pandemic.  The  virus  killed  981  people 
in  2009  and  1,763  in  2010.  The  mortality  decreased  in  2011  to  75.  It  claimed  405  lives  in  2012  and 
699  lives  in  2013.  In  2014,  a  total  of  218  people  died  from  the  H1N1  flu,  India  recorded  837 
laboratory  confirmed  cases  in  the  year.  Every  year,  there  was  a  rise  in  number  of  cases  and  deaths 
during  winter  as  temperature  affects  virus.  During  2014-15  winter,  there  was  a  spurt  in  cases  at  the 
end  2014.  In  2015,  the  outbreak  became  widespread  through  India.  On  12  February  2015,  Rajasthan 
declared  an  epidemic.  The  total  number  of  laboratory  confirmed  cases  crossed  33,000  mark  with 
death  of  more  than  2,000  people. 

2015  United  States  H5N2 
outbreak 

In  2015,  an  outbreak  of  avian  influenza  subtype  H5N2  was  identified  in  a  series  of  chicken  and 
turkey  farming  operations  in  the  Midwestern  region  of  the  United  States.  As  of  May  30,  more  than 
43,000,000  birds  in  15  states  had  been  destroyed  as  a  result  of  the  outbreak,  including  nearly 
30,000,000  in  Iowa  alone,  the  nation's  largest  egg  producer.  When  an  infection  is  confirmed,  all 
birds  at  the  affected  farm  are  destroyed  per  USD  A  guidelines.  The  birds  are  culled  by  pumping  an 
expanding  water-based  foam  into  the  barn  houses,  which  suffocates  them  within  minutes.  The  birds 
are  then  composted,  usually  at  the  location. 

2018  salmonella  egg  recall 

The  2018  US  egg  recall  was  a  product  recall  for  fresh  chicken  eggs  in  the  United  States  beginning 
on  April  13,  2018.  The  United  States  Department  of  Agriculture  recalled  more  than  200  million 
eggs  after  a  salmonella  outbreak  connected  to  Iowa  egg  farms,  including  Rose  Acre  Farms.  It  is  the 
largest  egg  recall  since  2010. 

SOURCE:  Wikipedia  (with  some  corrections,  additions,  and  other  edits) 

Over  the  last  100  years  new  bacteria  and  viruses  have  emerged  causing  a  host  of  new  diseases,  Rift  Valley  fever 
(early  1900s),  Chagas  disease  (1909),  West  Nile  virus  (1937),  Zika  virus  (1947),  Lassa  fever  (1950s), 
Chikungunya  virus  (1955),  H2N2  Asian  flu  (1957),  Monkeypox  (1958),  Usutu  virus  (1959),  Enterovirus  68 


(1962),  Marburg  virus  (1967),  H3N2  Hong  Kong  flu  (1968),  Norovirus,  (1972),  Ebola  virus  (1976),  AIDS  virus 
(1981),  BSE  bovine  spongiform  encephalopathy  aka  Mad  Cow  Disease  (1986),  H5N1  avian  flu  (1997),  Nipah 
virus  (1998),  SARS  coronavirus  (2003),  H10N7  virus  (2004),  H1N1  swine  flu  (2009),  MERS  virus  (2012), 
H7N9  virus  (2013),  and  others.  Viruses  can  only  survive  inside  a  living  host  unlike  bacteria  which  live  on  most 
all  surfaces.  This  means  that  these  viruses  have  most  likely  been  on  Earth  for  millions  of  years  in  other  fauna 
species  awaiting  exposure  to  Homo  sapiens.  Could  there  be  an  emergence  of  past  diseases  like  the  1576 
Cocoliztli  epidemic  which  killed  15,000,000  or  more?  Could  some  of  these  new  diseases  be  a  result  of 
anthropogenic  actions  like  deforestation,  which  disturb  remote  habitats  and  possibly  expose  these  never  before 
documented  pathogens?  Could  the  mass  consumption  of  livestock  or  other  flora  and  fauna  exploitation  act  as 
future  vectors  or  even  incubators  for  other  unknown  pathogens?  Some  of  these  pathogens  are  have  emerged  in 
pigs,  chickens,  cows,  or  other  livestock,  so  if  fauna  consumption  ended  would  these  types  of  pathogens  be  less 
likely  to  emerge?  Have  shorter  winters  resulting  from  global  warning  contribute  to  the  rapid  spreading  of  the 
invasive  Aedes  aegypti  mosquito,  and  thus  some  of  these  vector-bome  diseases?  (e.g.  West  Nile  virus,  zika  virus, 
and  chikungunya  virus  spreading  so  rapidly  and  infecting  so  many  in  the  United  States)  If  Pseudogymnoascus 
and  anthropogenic  activities  had  not  decimated  United  States  bat  populations,  would  the  Zika  virus  have  spread 
so  rapidly?  Previously  unknown  viruses  frozen  in  Siberia  for  more  than  30,000  years  have  been  successfully 
revived,  could  global  warming,  mining,  or  other  anthropogenic  activities  expose  other  ancient  pathogens  which 
lie  dormant  on  Earth?  (650)  Could  one  of  these  viruses  only  be  deadly  to  modem  day  Homo  sapiens,  whereas 
Homo  sapiens  thousands  of  years  ago  had  a  natural  immunity? 

Older  viruses  which  cause  diseases  like  malaria,  smallpox,  measles,  tuberculosis,  etc.  have  plagued  Homo 
sapiens  for  thousands  of  years,  but  appear  to  have  begun  flourishing  around  10,000  years  ago  when  Homo 
sapiens  began  practicing  agriculture  and  domesticating  faunae.  Kristin  Harper  and  George  Amielagos  remarked 
that, 


“If  malaria  was  contracted  by  humans  in  the  Pleistocene,  it  likely  would  have  been  in  isolated  incidences.  For  example,  recent 
genetic  analysis  of  the  glucose-6-phosphate  dehydrogenase  gene,  some  variants  of  which  confer  resistance  to  the  infection, 
confirmed  that  malaria  is  a  recent  selective  force  in  human  populations,  occurring  within  the  last  10,000  years.  Based  on  the 
mitochondrial  genome  of  the  parasite  itself,  Joy  et  al.  concluded  that  though  the  parasite  that  causes  falciparum  malaria 
originated  long  ago  (perhaps  50,000-100,000  YBP),  a  sudden  increase  in  the  population  size  of  the  parasite  did  not  occur 
until  around  10,000  years  ago  when  humans  began  to  practice  agriculture. 

The  disease-scape  changed  dramatically  after  the  adoption  of  agriculture.  New  proximity  to  domestic  animals  created  many 
opportunities  for  novel  pathogens  to  infect,  and  eventually  adapt,  to  humans.  It  has  long  been  thought  that  many  of  our  most 
feared  diseases  (anthrax,  tuberculosis,  Q  fever,  brucellosis,  smallpox,  measles,  etc.)  emerged  at  this  time,  evolving  from 
progenitors  contracted  from  goats,  sheep,  cattle,  pigs,  and  fowl.  Not  all  of  these  origin  stories  have  held  up  under  closer 
scrutiny.  For  example,  analysis  of  the  Mycobacterium  tuberculosis  genome  rules  out  linear  evolution  of  the  human  pathogen 
from  M.  bovis,  the  species  that  infects  cattle  and  suggests  that  the  former  pathogen  may  actually  have  appeared  prior  to  the 
latter,  and  not  vice-versa.  Nevertheless,  it  is  clear  that  many  important  human  infections  did  initially  arise  from  close  contact 
with  domestic  animals.  Peri-domestic  animals  such  as  rodents  and  sparrows,  which  developed  permanent  habitats  in  and 
around  human  dwellings,  could  also  represent  important  sources  of  disease,  such  as  the  bubonic  plague,  hantavirus,  typhus, 
Salmonella,  and  histoplasmosis. 

The  very  act  of  farming  may  have  resulted  in  exposure  to  novel  pathogens  as  well  as  increasing  the  risk  of  contracting 
familiar  infections.  The  cultivation  of  soil,  which  requires  the  breaking  up  of  sod,  may  have  exposed  farmers  to  the  chiggers 
that  carry  the  bacterium  Orientia  tsutsugamushi,  the  causative  agent  of  scrub  typhus.  Similarly,  Livingstone  argued  that  slash- 
and-burn  agriculture  in  West  Africa  would  have  exposed  populations  to  Anopheles  gambiae,  the  mosquito  that  serves  as  the 
vector  for  Plasmodium  falciparum,  the  cause  of  malaria.  Slash-and-bum  agriculture  resulted  in  sedentary  populations 
surrounded  by  the  pools  of  sunlit  water  required  for  propagation  of  the  Anophelese  mosquito.  Aedes  aegypti,  the  vector  that 
carries  yellow  and  dengue  fever,  breeds  in  artificial  containers;  frequent  contact  with  this  mosquito  is  also  likely  to  have 
begun  and  intensified  around  the  time  that  sedentary  settlements  became  common.  Finally,  agricultural  practices  such  as 
irrigation  and  the  use  of  human  feces  as  fertilizer  would  have  increased  exposure  to  pathogens  such  as  the  one  that  causes 
schistosomiasis. 

Changes  in  nutrition  and  food  handling  would  also  have  altered  disease  risk.  The  shift  to  agriculture  resulted  in  a  reduction  of 
the  dietary  niche,  which  would  have  predisposed  many  individuals  to  dietary  deficiencies  uncommon  in  the  Pleistocene.  For 
example,  porotic  hyperostosis,  a  skeletal  marker  indicative  of  anemia  (including  that  caused  by  iron-deficiency)  first  appears 
in  the  Upper  Paleolithic,  increasing  throughout  the  Neolithic.  Nutritional  deficiencies,  which  alone  were  sufficient  to  cause 
disease,  would  also  have  altered  host  immune  competence,  making  humans  in  this  time-period  more  susceptible  to  infection 
following  contact  with  a  pathogen.  Agriculture  also  resulted  in  regular  food  surpluses  that  had  to  be  stored  in  large  quantities 


and  widely  distributed,  which  probably  resulted  in  outbreaks  of  food  poisoning. 


In  sum,  Cohen  and  Armelagos  provide  a  number  of  case  studies  that  show  a  decline  in  health  following  the  Neolithic 
transformation,  suggesting  that  this  period  in  human  history  (a  period  with  different  start  and  end  points  in  different  areas) 
could  indeed  be  regarded  justifiably  as  an  age  of  pestilence  and  famine.  The  increasing  class  inequalities,  epidemic  diseases, 
and  dietary  insufficiencies  would  also  have  added  mental  stress  to  the  list  of  illnesses  that  plagued  agriculturalists.”  (401) 

Government  and  Corporate  Influence  -  ‘Whomever  Has  the  Gold  Makes  the  Rules’ 

Regardless  of  government  type,  since  the  invention  of  money  and  commerce  there  has  always  been  some  type  of 
a  financial  scandal,  price  gouging,  land  dispute,  outright  theft,  or  other  negative  influence  which  has  stolen  from 
society  as  a  whole.  Today,  there  is  a  ‘revolving  door  ’  in  nearly  every  sector  of  government  and  industry  from 
defense  to  agriculture,  and  it  has  resulted  in  the  United  States  becoming  a  sort  of  plutocracy  with  a  quid  pro  quo 
political  process  which  has  also  led  to  corporations,  religions,  and  foreign-connected  interests  having  vast 
influence  and  control  of  certain  sectors  of  government  through  the  use  of  SuperPACs  and  lobbyists.  As  of 
December  1 1,  2017,  there  were  1,692  groups  organized  as  super  PACs  which  reported  total  receipts  of 
$108,318,639  in  the  2018  cycle.  (623)  Regulatory  capture  has  become  common  in  many  industries  with  lobbyist 
spending  enormous  sums  of  money  to  promote  this  failure  of  government.  In  1998,  there  were  10,404  registered 
lobbyists  which  spent  $1,450,000,000  on  lobbying  Washington  D.C.  politicians  for  a  wide  range  of  business 
sectors,  social  causes,  and  other  various  self-interest  groups.  By  2016,  the  amount  of  money  more  than  doubled 
with  11,186  registered  lobbyists  spending  $3,150,000,000.  (294)  But  the  real  number  is  estimated  to  be  closer  to 
100,000  lobbyists  spending  $9,000,000,000  as  lobbying  has  now  gone  underground  and  out  of  the  spotlight 
making  it  less  noticeable  to  the  public  eye.  (293)  More  than  200  of  these  groups  are  affiliated  with  some  religion 
and  they  spent  $390,000,000  per  year  lobbying.  (295)  Is  this  not  a  serious  conflict  of  interest  regarding  the 
separation  of  church  and  state?  The  mind  maps  at  www.theyrule.net  show  just  how  connected  corporate  boards 
and  the  government  are. 

Lobbying  is  protected  under  the  First  Amendment  of  the  United  States  constitution,  but  should  it  not  be  more 
regulated  and  have  more  oversight  and  transparency  to  prevent  the  current  level  of  abuse,  obscurity,  and 
manipulation  of  government  regulations?  Should  not  lobbying  budgets  be  more  limited?  How  can  the 
government  function  reliably  for  the  citizens  if  corporations  are  allowed  to  spend  billions  of  dollars  on  lobbying 
and  campaign  contributions  unchecked,  which  allows  them  to  get  laws  passed  to  their  benefit  for  tax  breaks,  less 
regulations,  and  other  favors  from  politicians  and  government  regulators?  Why  isn’t  there  a  cooling-off  period  of 
36  months  or  more  to  prevent  the  door  from  revolving?  Should  not  foreign  nations  be  banned  from  hiring 
American  lobbyists  to  prevent  their  attempts  to  influence  the  foreign  policy  of  the  United  States?  (e.g.  In  2016 
Taiwanese  officials  hired  Bob  Dole  to  set  up  the  famous  controversial  phone  call  between  president-elect  Donald 
Trump  and  Taiwanese  President  Tsai  Ing-Wen)  How  can  individuals  like  Dick  Cheney,  Meredith  Attwell  Baker, 
Linda  Fisher,  and  so  many  others  be  allowed  to  serve  in  government  and  private  sector  jobs  which  have  such 
conflicts  of  interests?  Cannot  businesses  and  interested  individuals  simply  sit  down  with  politicians  and  discuss 
what  they  want  to  ameliorate,  instead  of  basing  reform  on  money  and  a  system  where  the  highest  bidder  wins 
even  with  the  most  negative  idea?  If  lobbying  with  money,  other  gifts,  and  other  loopholes  like  Super  PACs 
exist,  then  doesn’t  this  mean  that  government  will  always  be  for  sale  to  the  highest  bidder?  If  the  regulated  are 
allowed  to  become  the  regulators,  how  will  the  regulatory  system  ever  function  properly?  How  can  a  democracy 
work  with  so  much  commercial  lobbying  and  influence  that  leads  to  so  much  corruption  and  lawlessness?  How 
can  a  government  function  unbiasedly  when  government  regulators  are  former  coiporate  employees  with  active 
interests  in  that  business  sector?  How  can  a  government  function  when  it  becomes  dominated  by  the  coiporate 
industries  it  is  supposed  to  be  regulating? 

Perverse  subsidies  have  become  more  prolific  resulting  in  negative  environmental  impacts.  In  2005,  it  was 
estimated  that  governments  around  the  world  spent  $400,000,000,000  a  year  subsidizing  transportation,  fishing, 
energy,  agriculture,  and  water  related  industries.  (221)  Why  do  well  established  industries,  (e.g.  oil  and  gas, 
pharmaceutical,  agricultural,  etc.)  receive  so  many  subsidies,  while  new  and  struggling  industries  receive  little  or 
no  subsidies  at  all?  Would  these  perverse  subsidies  not  be  better  spent  on  environmental  clean-up,  education, 
conservation,  infrastructure,  healthcare,  or  other  direct  social  improvements? 


Rampant  conflicts  of  interest  have  also  occurred  in  recent  decades  between  government  regulatory  agencies  and 
corporations.  These  conflicts  of  interest  have  affected  all  sectors  of  industry,  but  can  be  seen  especially  in  the 
pharmaceutical,  food,  and  energy  industries.  This  influence  on  regulations,  which  are  supposed  to  keep 
industries  in  check  and  protect  consumers,  has  been  corrupted  and  led  to  consumer  health  and  safety  issues, 
while  also  monopolizing  industries  even  further.  How  can  politics  and  a  justice  system  ever  function  properly  if 
money,  greed,  corporate,  or  personal  interests  are  able  to  corrupt  these  systems?  Why  is  Scott  Pruitt,  a  lawyer 
with  no  scientific  background,  a  global  warming  denier,  and  someone  with  known  ties  to  the  fossil  fuel  industry 
who  has  fought  against  the  EPA  for  years  allowed  to  be  the  Administrator  of  the  Environmental  Protection 
Agency?  Why  are  politicians,  lawyers,  and  businesspersons  appointed  to  these  positions  when  clearly  someone 
with  a  scientific  background  would  be  more  beneficial?  Richard  Hofstadter  remarked  that, 

“The  Founding  Fathers  were  sages,  scientists,  men  of  broad  cultivation,  many  of  them  apt  in  classical  learning,  who  used 
their  wide  reading  in  history,  politics,  and  laws  to  solve  the  exigent  problems  of  their  time.  No  subsequent  era  in  our  history 
has  produced  so  many  men  of  knowledge  among  its  political  leaders  as  the  age  of  John  Adams,  John  Dickinson,  Benjamin 
Franklin,  Alexander  Hamilton,  Thomas  Jefferson,  James  Madison,  George  Mason,  James  Wilson,  and  George  Wythe.  One 
might  have  expected  that  such  men,  whose  political  achievements  were  part  of  the  very  fabric  of  the  nation,  would  have  stood 
as  permanent  and  overwhelming  testimonial  to  the  truth  that  men  of  learning  and  intellect  need  not  be  bootless  and 
impractical  as  political  leaders. 

It  is  ironic  that  the  United  States  should  have  been  founded  by  intellectuals;  for  throughout  most  of  our  political  history,  the 
intellectual  has  been  for  the  most  part  either  an  outsider,  a  servant,  or  a  scapegoat.”  (362) 

A  new  generation  of  politicians  are  about  to  come  forth  far  more  openminded,  educated,  and  concerned  about  the 
conservation  of  Earth  and  the  well-being  of  their  fellow  Homo  sapiens.  And  although  the  old  will  undoubtedly 
go  kicking  and  screaming  they  will  ultimately  be  replaced,  and  with  them  their  antiquated  ideas  and  systems 
which  did  so  much  destruction  to  Earth  and  suppressed  so  many  Homo  sapiens  will  also  be  no  more.  A 
psychiatric  review  of  biographical  sources  regarding  mental  illness  of  37  United  States  Presidents  between  1776 
and  1974  found  that  18  Presidents  met  criteria  suggesting  they  had  a  psychiatric  disorder,  the  most  common 
being  depression,  anxiety,  bipolar  disorder,  and  alcoholism.  In  1 0  of  the  instances,  a  psychiatric  disorder  was 
clearly  evident  during  the  timeframe  when  the  individual  held  presidential  office,  and  in  most  cases  probably 
impaired  their  job  performance.  (649)  If  one  examines  the  political  leaders  of  the  last  100  years  or  more,  they  will 
find  that  many  of  them  were  either  mentally  unstable,  greedy,  corrupt,  self-centered,  egotistical,  racists,  or  just 
plain  tyrannical  who  got  into  power  by  bullying,  lying,  cheating,  and  stealing.  They  were  not  true  leaders  and 
were  not  scientific  or  philosophically  minded  individuals.  Why  are  these  types  of  Homo  sapiens  elected  to  office 
and  allowed  to  corrupt  the  government  so  openly  and  with  no  real  consequences  for  their  actions?  What  does  this 
say  about  the  public  who  elects  them  or  allows  them  to  be  elected?  Are  they  ignorant?  Do  they  simply  not  care? 
Or  are  the  politicians  an  actual  reflection  of  the  voters?  One  can  imagine  how  brilliant  a  political  leader  would  be 
if  they  were  scientifically  minded  and  highly  educated  using  logical  thought  to  make  most  decisions.  If  more 
scientists  and  other  intellectuals  were  to  get  involved  in  politics  and  held  more  positions  within  the  government, 
how  would  this  change  the  world?  Perhaps  the  public  would  be  better  served  if  the  U.S.  Senate  Appointments 
Clause  also  required  candidates  to  take  an  IQ  test,  or  a  combination  of  other  psychological  testing  to  analyze 
how  intelligent  and  incompetent  they  truly  are,  what  their  moral  standards  are,  and  how  they  would  react 
towards  particular  situations  relating  to  the  job.  Albert  Einstein  wrote, 

“Private  capital  tends  to  become  concentrated  in  few  hands,  partly  because  of  competition  among  the  capitalists,  and  partly 
because  technological  development  and  the  increasing  division  of  labor  encourage  the  formation  of  larger  units  of  production 
at  the  expense  of  the  smaller  ones.  The  result  of  these  developments  is  an  oligarchy  of  private  capital  the  enormous  power  of 
which  cannot  be  effectively  checked  even  by  a  democratically  organized  political  society.  This  is  true  since  the  members  of 
legislative  bodies  are  selected  by  political  parties,  largely  financed  or  otherwise  influenced  by  private  capitalists  who,  for  all 
practical  purposes,  separate  the  electorate  from  the  legislature.  The  consequence  is  that  the  representatives  of  the  people  do 
not  in  fact  sufficiently  protect  the  interests  of  the  underprivileged  sections  of  the  population.  Moreover,  under  existing 
conditions,  private  capitalists  inevitably  control,  directly  or  indirectly,  the  main  sources  of  information  (press,  radio, 
education).  It  is  thus  extremely  difficult,  and  indeed  in  most  cases  quite  impossible,  for  the  individual  citizen  to  come  to 
objective  conclusions  and  to  make  intelligent  use  of  his  political  rights.”  (65) 


Avery  small  percentage  of  Americans  are  directly  involved  in  or  even  aware  of  their  government’s  activities, 


and  those  that  actually  do  vote  elect  a  candidate  during  an  election  usually  based  on  party  affiliation  never 
looking  into  their  government’s  activities  and  what  legislation  is  being  enacted  or  changed.  A  good  example  of 
this  can  be  seen  at  how  few  comments  there  are  on  https://www.regulations.gov/  many  of  the  proposals  have  0 
comments.  Another  example  can  be  seen  in  how  few  citizens  actually  attend  the  rare,  if  ever  held  at  all,  town  hall 
meetings.  The  United  States  presidential  voter  turnout  in  1890  was  80%,  by  1907  it  had  fallen  to  65%,  and  in  the 
2016  election  it  was  55.5%.  What  does  this  say  about  society  when  only  around  half  the  population  eligible  to 
vote  does  not  participate?  Why  do  so  few  take  part  in  the  democratic  political  process,  while  it  is  supposedly 
cherished  by  so  many?  Are  they  complacent  with  their  government,  or  do  they  simply  not  care?  Have  they  given 
up  as  it  seems  hopeless  and  they  see  no  point  knowing  that  their  vote  can  be  overridden  by  the  Electoral  College 
like  in  the  2000  and  2016  presidential  elections?  How  can  an  electoral  college  made  up  of  538  individuals 
override  the  choices  of  100,000,000  Homo  sapiens  as  they  did  in  the  2000  and  2016  elections?  Does  it  not  make 
it  easier  for  a  political  party  to  rig  an  election  when  the  those  who  make  up  the  electoral  college  are  nominated 
either  by  state  chapters  of  nationally  oriented  political  parties,  by  voters  in  primaries,  in  party  conventions,  by 
the  campaign  committee  of  each  candidate,  by  state  legislatures,  or  appointed  by  the  political  parties  themselves? 
How  can  an  electoral  college  be  considered  a  form  of  true  democracy?  How  can  such  an  injustice  like  this  take 
place  in  a  democracy?  What  good  are  electronic  voting  machines  if  they  can  be  hacked  and  manipulated  so 
easily? 

Homo  sapiens  as  a  whole  agree  on  the  basic  principles  of  democracy  and  freedom,  this  is  clearly  evident  in  how 
many  democratic  based  governments  have  existed  throughout  all  of  history  from  the  Greeks  to  present.  But 
today,  most  United  States  citizens  do  not  know  the  details  of  the  Constitution  nor  the  names  of  the  current 
Supreme  Court  Justices,  much  less  who  the  members  of  the  Presidential  cabinet  are,  in  fact  the  vast  majority  do 
not  even  know  who  their  Congressman,  Senator,  or  other  local  government  representatives  are.  The  lack  of 
citizen  involvement  in  government  can  also  be  seen  in  how  many  uncontested  elected  offices  there  are  in  each 
election.  During  the  November  2014  elections  in  46  states,  there  were  6,057  state  legislative  districts  with  a  seat 
up  for  election  and  1,797  of  the  candidates  faced  no  opposition  during  both  the  primary  and  general  election.  Out 
of  the  6,057  seats  up  for  election,  5,049  (83.4%)  of  the  incumbents  ran  for  re-election  with  1,724  (34.1%)  of 
them  advancing  through  the  2014  elections  without  any  opposition  whatsoever.  (171)  Many  other  smaller  local 
government  offices  also  go  uncontested  during  elections  and  are  easily  obtainable  by  one  candidate,  which  much 
of  time  has  no  experience  and  is  usually  unqualified  for  the  position.  A  study  in  2015  found  that  85%  of 
incumbent  prosecutors  in  the  United  States  run  unopposed,  and  interestingly  95%  percent  of  the  United  States 
elected  prosecutors  are  white  and  83%  percent  are  men.  (l  12)  There  seems  to  be  very  little  public  discourse  from 
the  lack  of  public  interest  in  political  issues  and  about  what  the  government  is  actually  doing.  Why  do  so  many 
constantly  complain  about  the  government  and  yet  never  make  any  effort  to  get  involved  to  change  the 
government  they  are  so  critical  of? 

Political  dynasties  have  also  had  a  great  influence  on  the  political  decisions  of  the  past,  families  like:  the 
Adamses,  Bushes,  Clintons,  Cuomos,  Kennedys,  Lees,  Longs,  Roosevelts,  Tafts,  Udalls,  and  Harrisons  have  all 
had  major  influence  and  control  over  the  United  States  government  during  their  reign.  Aren’t  these  political 
dynasties  contrary  to  democracy?  Why  has  this  been  so  accepted  in  a  country  of  democracy  which  was  founded 
on  the  exact  opposite  of  this?  Should  there  not  be  more  diversity  in  government?  When  members  of  the  Senate, 
Congress,  and  other  high  government  positions  remain  in  office  for  decades,  does  the  government  not  seem  more 
stagnant  and  less  democratic?  The  only  two  major  political  parties,  the  republicans  and  the  democrats,  have  been 
running  the  United  States  Government  for  the  last  188  years,  has  this  not  created  stagnation,  corruption, 
deadlocks,  and  favoritism?  How  can  self-interested  politicians  be  allowed  to  govern  the  redistricting  process  and 
gerrymander  the  system,  allowing  the  representative  to  choose  their  voters  and  not  the  voters  choosing  their 
representative?  How  can  so  many  gullible  Americans  allow  politicians  to  use  demagogue  like  tactics  to  fool 
them  with  fearmongering  and  with  such  a  negative  message  that  is  so  blatantly  negative,  biased,  and  racists  in 
nature?  Would  the  Russian  hacking,  manipulation  of  social  media,  or  fake  news  during  the  2016  election  have 
even  mattered  if  more  Americans  weren’t  so  gullible?  Why  are  there  age  of  candidacy  laws  for  the  Presidency, 
Vice  Presidency,  Senate,  House  of  Representatives,  and  some  other  elected  offices?  Is  this  not  age 
discrimination?  What  will  the  political  system  of  the  United  States  be  like  in  50  years  if  more  minorities  are 
elected  to  positions  in  the  local,  state,  and  federal  government?  The  number  of  presidential  news  conferences  has 


fallen  from  an  average  of  72  press  conferences  per  year  when  Calvin  Coolidge  was  in  office,  to  20  press 
conferences  per  year  during  the  Obama  administration.  (697)  How  can  a  president  which  is  supposed  to  represent 
a  government  of  the  people,  by  the  people,  and  for  the  people  be  so  isolated  from  the  people?  Why  is  there  a 
press  secretary,  shouldn’t  the  president  address  the  American  public  directly  on  a  daily  basis,  even  if  for  1 0 
minutes  to  briefly  discuss  what  his  daily  activities  consist  of?  How  can  the  words  of  politicians  be  taken  as 
honest  and  sincere  when  they  are  created  by  a  team  of  speech  writers  and  not  by  the  one  conveying  the  actual 
message? 

The  presidential  pardon  was  intended  to  correct  judicial  error  with  thousands  of  pardons  and  commutations 
having  been  issued  over  the  last  240  years,  but  has  since  become  a  political  tool  to  allow  criminals  to  escape 
justice.  Political  expediency  can  be  seen  in  the  pardons  of  Richard  Nixon,  Roger  Clinton,  1.  Lewis  Libby,  Marc 
Rich,  Caspar  Weinberger,  and  others.  Why  is  the  public  not  more  outraged  when  these  convicted  criminals 
receive  a  pardon  or  commutation?  What  point  does  it  serve  to  convict  a  high-profile  criminal  when  the  criminal 
can  get  a  pardon  or  commutation?  The  president  is  not  an  acting  attorney  or  judge,  and  might  also  have  very 
little  legal  experience,  what  right  does  a  president  have  to  pardon  or  commute  the  judicial  sentence  of  a 
convicted  criminal?  How  can  the  functioning  justice  system  of  a  democracy  be  overridden  by  one  individual  as 
if  it  were  an  autocracy?  Should  not  these  legal  cases  go  through  the  appeals  process  and  ultimately  to  the 
Supreme  Court  to  decide  if  need  be,  instead  of  being  decided  by  a  possibly  unqualified,  biased,  or  corrupt 
individual? 

Ever  since  the  Pentagon  Papers  were  exposed  in  1971  by  Daniel  Ellsberg,  it  has  been  widely  known  that  the 
United  States  government  operates  secretively  when  it  comes  to  some  international  and  even  domestic  issues. 
The  United  States  government  hides  information  and  facts  by  deeming  anything  they  want  kept  secret  as  ‘Top 
Secret  ’  or  ‘Classified  ’,  while  records  and  other  evidence  are  sometimes  destroyed  or  conveniently  lost.  And  even 
with  Executive  Order  13526  and  the  Freedom  of  Information  Act,  documents  and  other  reports  75  years  old 
along  with  the  truth  remain  hidden  from  the  American  public.  When  documents  are  released  through  the 
Freedom  of  Information  Act,  many  times  they  are  redacted  to  the  point  of  being  useless  and  making  the  release 
pointless.  Why  are  so  many  government  reports  and  government  committee  findings  marked  as  classified  and 
kept  secret  from  the  American  public?  (e.g.  the  Committee  Study  of  the  Central  Intelligence  Agency's  Detention 
and  Interrogation  Program,  a  report  compiled  by  the  United  States  Senate  Select  Committee  on  Intelligence 
(SSCI)  about  the  Central  Intelligence  Agency  (CIA)'s  Detention  and  Interrogation  Program  and  the  use  of 
various  forms  of  torture  on  detainees  between  2001  and  2006  during  the  War  on  Terror’.  Of  the  final  6,000  page 
report,  a  total  of  525  pages  have  been  released  to  the  public)  Fortunately,  for  the  world,  history,  and  those  who 
seek  the  truth  there  are  insiders  like  Edward  Snowden,  Bradley  Edward  Manning,  Barrett  Brown,  Russ  Tice, 
William  Binney,  Thomas  A.  Drake,  Mark  Klein,  Joel  Clement,  and  other  whistleblowers  along  with  the  some 
news  media  and  other  organizations  like  ExposeFacts,  OpenSecrets,  GlobalLeaks,  LiveLeak,  Wikileaks,  and 
others  which  help  to  expose  the  lies  and  spread  the  truth  with  factual  evidence  which  has  been  hidden  from  the 
world. 

There  must  be  1 00%  transparency  if  government  is  to  ever  truly  be  of  the  people,  by  the  people,  and  for  the 
people.  Although  there  is  far  more  transparency  and  accountability  now  than  in  years  past,  there  is  still  much 
secrecy.  Secret  meetings  like  that  of  the  Bilderberg  Group  with  the  political,  business,  and  academia  elite  from 
Europe  and  North  America  have  been  occurring  each  year  since  1954  and  have  always  lacked  transparency  and 
accountability.  Sometime  in  the  late  1980s  or  early  1990s  when  computers  and  printers  were  becoming 
mainstream,  United  States  government  agencies  in  cooperation  with  printer  manufacturers  and  a  consortium  of 
hanks  implemented  a  secret  printer  steganography  tracking  system  utilizing  hidden  codes  which  can  identify  the 
exact  printer  used  in  printing  any  paper.  This  hidden  technology  has  been  used  to  catch  counterfeiters, 
whistleblowers,  kidnappers,  and  other  criminals  but  was  only  recently  discovered  by  consumer  privacy 
advocates.  (374)  Why  are  the  government  and  coiporations  working  together  in  secret  to  have  the  ability  to  track 
any  piece  of  paper  ever  printed  in  the  world?  Would  consumers  have  willingly  accepted  this  tracking  if  they 
were  initially  informed  of  it?  Why  are  global  and  domestic  surveillance  programs  and  tools  like:  STORMBREW, 
MUSCULAR,  OAKSTAR,  ICREACH,  MARINA,  Dropmire,  TRAFFICTHIEF,  MonsterMind,  Fusion  centers, 
MAINWAY,  ECHELON,  Frenchelon,  Carnivore,  PINWALE,  Fairview,  MYSTIC,  DCSN,  Tempora,  PRISM, 


Boundless  Informant,  D1SHF1RE,  Stingray,  BULLRUN,  XKeyscore,  and  others  allowed  to  operate  with  so  little 
public  knowledge,  oversight,  and  in  such  secrecy?  Can  a  balance  of  security  and  privacy  be  achieved  with  global 
surveillance  programs  and  tools  if  there  is  more  transparency  and  oversight?  How  can  government  officials  like 
J.  Edgar  Hoover  be  allowed  to  amass  so  much  power  while  abusing  it  for  more  than  48  years?  How  could 
McCarthyism  last  for  so  long  ruining  the  lives  of  so  many  in  such  a  democratic  and  free  nation?  How  could  a 
government  agency  be  allowed  to  conduct  COINTELPRO  projects  against  its  own  citizens,  which  attempted  to 
surveil,  infiltrate,  discredit,  and  disrupt  the  Civil  Rights  Movement,  Black  Power  movement,  feminist 
organizations,  anti-Vietnam  War  organizers,  independence  movements,  other  New  Left  organizations,  or  anyone 
else  which  the  FBI  deemed  subversive? 

Many  Homo  sapiens  around  the  world  give  a  very  large  sum  of  their  earned  income  to  the  government  in  the 
form  of  taxes,  on  average  around  25%,  but  sometimes  as  high  as  40%.  (86)  In  most  parts  of  the  world  this  is  in 
addition  to  the  sales  tax  paid  on  nearly  every  item  purchased  and  consumed  including  food,  water,  medicine,  and 
other  commodities.  Furthermore,  many  pay  taxes  on  things  annually  that  they  have  already  paid  for  in  full  and 
already  paid  a  sales  tax  on  such  as  a  property  or  automobile,  and  if  one  inherits  money  they  must  again  pay  taxes 
on  money  that  has  already  been  taxed  and  collected  on.  With  so  many  taxes  it  leaves  very  little  left  of  the  actual 
income  to  the  one  earning  it.  Some  of  the  taxes  collected  are  wasted  on  useless  projects,  exorbitant  salaries,  or 
other  senseless  expenses  in  a  continuous  cycle  of  mismanagement  and  greed.  While  taxes  in  the  United  States 
have  remained  relatively  the  same  over  the  last  decade  the  spending  has  increased  dramatically.  In  2000,  there 
was  a  $236,000,000,000  surplus,  by  2009  it  turned  into  a  $1,400,000,000,000  deficit  with  outlays  more  than 
doubling  for  national  defense.  Medicare,  and  other  health  programs.  (87)  With  the  Iraq  and  Afghanistan  wars  and 
a  meat  consuming  population  which  has  a  healthcare  industry  based  on  profits,  is  there  any  wonder  as  to  why 
this  surplus  turned  into  a  deficit?  How  can  the  United  States  government,  the  wealthiest  country  in  the  world, 
have  government  shutdowns  due  to  failed  legislation?  Why  are  political  parties  allowed  to  stop  a  functioning 
government  and  hold  the  government  hostage  in  order  to  engage  in  their  constant  political  tug-of-war?  Shouldn’t 
the  ultimate  goal  of  every  politician  be  to  work  towards  the  progression  of  government  and  not  to  hinder  it? 

Poverty,  Money,  Greed,  and  Corporate  Responsibility 

There  is  in  fact  very  little  in  this  world  that  has  not  been  touched,  changed,  influenced,  or  corrupted  by  money, 
and  it  is  usually  is  in  the  form  of  nature.  There  is  nothing  wrong  with  many  of  the  ideas  and  systems  that  are 
already  in  place  which  organization  and  help  manage  society,  but  like  anything  it  can  be  beneficial  if  used 
properly,  or  detrimental  if  abused.  Take  money  for  example,  it  has  been  in  existence  since  the  dawn  of 
civilization  in  one  form  or  another,  be  it  seashells,  cocoa  beans,  gold,  paper,  or  data,  and  it  will  most  likely 
continue  to  exist  as  it  helps  to  facilitate  trade  and  organize  commerce  among  other  things.  But  again,  it  can  be 
used  in  a  beneficial  or  detrimental  way  and  the  decision  is  up  to  the  individual  who  possesses  it.  One  could  be 
like  the  wealthy  individuals  which  use  their  acquired  money  for  beneficial  things  that  help  many  unfortunate 
Homo  sapiens  by  promoting  education,  helping  to  cure  diseases,  helping  to  rebuild  devastated  areas,  etc.  Or  one 
can  be  the  total  opposite  and  live  like  a  fool  squandering  it  on  lavish  useless  things  or  hoarding  their  wealth  for  a 
lifetime  while  doing  nothing  with  it  to  change  the  world  in  a  positive  way.  Like  most  everything  else,  it  is  simply 
a  matter  of  morals  and  individual  choice  which  makes  money  bad,  and  only  when  those  abuse  it  with  greed  and 
ignorance.  If  necessities  in  life  like  food,  medicine,  and  government  are  based  mainly  on  money  and  profits,  and 
not  on  providing  nutrition,  medical  care,  and  service  to  citizens,  then  they  will  most  likely  always  be  of  poor 
quality,  over-priced,  and  corrupt.  Albert  Einstein  said, 

"I  am  absolutely  convinced  that  no  wealth  in  the  world  can  help  humanity  forward,  even  in  the  hands  of  the  most  devoted 
worker  in  this  cause.  The  example  of  great  and  pure  individuals  is  the  only  thing  that  can  lead  us  to  noble  thoughts  and  deeds. 
Money  only  appeals  to  selfishness  and  irresistibly  invites  abuse.”  (55) 

"However,  the  production  and  distribution  of  commodities  is  entirely  unorganized  so  that  everybody  must  live  in  fear  of  being 
eliminated  from  the  economic  cycle,  in  this  way  suffering  for  the  want  of  everything.  Furthermore,  people  living  in  different 
countries  kill  each  other  at  irregular  time  intervals,  so  that  also  for  this  reason  anyone  who  thinks  about  the  future  must  live  in 
fear  and  terror.  This  is  due  to  the  fact  that  the  intelligence  and  character  of  the  masses  are  incomparably  lower  than  the 
intelligence  and  character  of  the  few  who  produce  something  valuable  for  the  community.”  (57) 


“The  economic  anarchy  of  capitalist  society  as  it  exists  today  is,  in  my  opinion,  the  real  source  of  the  evil.  We  see  before  us  a 
huge  community  of  producers  the  members  of  which  are  unceasingly  striving  to  deprive  each  other  of  the  fruits  of  their 
collective  labor-not  by  force,  but  on  the  whole  in  faithful  compliance  with  legally  established  rules.”  (64) 

There  is  an  estimated  $80,900,000,000,000  cash  dollars  in  the  world  (167).  In  2015,  there  were  1,826  billionaires 
(166)  in  the  world  with  an  estimated  wealth  of  $7,100,000,000,000  and  an  estimated  15,360,000  millionaires  with 
an  estimated  wealth  of  $58,700,000,000,000.  (165)  If  this  rich  minority  took  out  their  worth  in  cash  that  would 
leave  $15,000,000,000,000  for  the  remaining  7,150,000,000  Homo  sapiens  on  Earth  or  around  $2,098  per 
person.  If  one  took  $0.01  and  doubled  it  every  day  for  30  days,  they  would  have  $10,737,418.  Is  money  that  easy 
to  make?  Does  it  really  truly  exist,  or  is  it  just  what  society  deems  it  to  be  and  really  nothing  more  than  a 
number?  Is  the  monetary  value  of  something  what  someone  declares  it  is  worth,  or  only  what  someone  will  pay 
for  it?  The  Giving  Pledge  has  158  pledges,  mostly  billionaires,  amounting  to  $365,000,000,000  dollars  which 
has  been  pledged  to  be  given  to  philanthropic  causes  during  their  lifetime  or  upon  the  pledges  death.  What  is  the 
point  of  pledging  something  and  waiting  so  long,  why  can't  a  billionaire  just  keep  enough  to  exist  for  the 
remainder  of  their  lifetime  and  give  the  rest  immediately  to  a  philanthropic  cause?  What  is  the  point  of  money  if 
it  is  just  sitting  invested  making  interest,  is  it  not  meant  to  be  spent?  Why  are  antiquated  monarchs  even 
recognized  with  the  descendants  of  kings  and  queens  still  given  a  thrown,  real  estate,  and  money?  Why  do  the 
decedents  of  the  king’s  once  subjects  still  honor  and  worship  these  antiquated  socialites  like  they  are  out  of  some 
fairy  tale?  Do  they  forget  how  their  ancestors  where  oppressed  under  the  rule  of  the  monarchy  for  hundreds  of 
years? 

Percentage  change  in  income  since  1979,  adjusted  for  inflation 

300 

250 

200 

150 

100 

50 


0 


-50 

1980  1985  1990  1995  2000  2005 

SOURCE:  Congressional  Budget  Office  -  CBO  finds  that,  between  1979  and  2007,  income  grew  by:  275  percent  for  the  top  1  percent  of 
households;  65  percent  for  the  next  19  percent;  just  under  40  percent  for  the  next  60  percent;  and  18  percent  for  the  bottom  20  percent.  - 
https://www.cbo.  gov/miblication/42729#section0 

In  the  United  States  there  were  38,900,000  cost-burdened  households  in  2015,  with  11,100,000  renter 
households  being  severely  cost  burdened  with  at  least  half  their  incomes  going  towards  housing,  a  3,700,000 
increase  from  2001.  (657)  As  of  December  2016,  the  total  United  States  household  indebtedness  was 
$12,580,000,000,000,  with  4.8%  of  outstanding  debt  being  in  some  stage  of  delinquency.  Of  the 
$607,000,000,000  of  debt  which  is  delinquent,  $412,000,000,000  is  seriously  delinquent  being  at  least  90  days 
late.  (470)  In  the  United  States  43,100,000  Homo  sapiens  live  in  poverty,  and  4,400,000  of  them  have  a  disability. 
(172)  How  can  43,100,000  Homo  sapiens  be  living  in  poverty  in  a  country  of  such  great  wealth  and  prosperity 


like  the  United  States?  Homo  sapiens  seem  to  be  not  only  addicted  to  money  but  to  the  fantasy  of  being  instantly 
wealthy.  In  2014,  Homo  sapiens  in  the  United  States  spent  $70,150,000,000  on  lottery  tickets,  (183)  in  spite  of 
them  only  having  a  1  in  258,890,850  chance  of  winning  a  Mega  Million  jackpot.  (184)  The  global  gambling 
market  in  2009  was  $335,000,000,000  which  included  lotteries,  casinos,  and  sports  betting.  (185)  Why  do  so 
many  spend  so  much  on  something  that  they  have  so  little  chance  of  winning  at?  By  comparison,  Americans 
spent  $14,600,000,000  on  books  that  same  year.  (183)  The  United  States  Congressional  Budget  Office  issued  a 
report  in  2016  which  stated, 

"In  2013,  families  in  the  top  10  percent  of  the  wealth  distribution  held  76  percent  of  all  family  wealth,  families  in  the  51st  to 
the  90th  percentiles  held  23  percent,  and  those  in  the  bottom  half  of  the  distribution  held  1  percent." 

"For  those  at  the  bottom  of  the  distribution  of  wealth  between  1989  and  2013,  but  especially  after  2007,  the  share  of  families 
that  had  more  debt  than  assets  increased,  as  did  their  average  indebtedness.  For  instance,  8  percent  of  families  had  more  debt 
than  assets  in  2007,  and  they  were,  on  average,  $20,000  in  debt.  By  2013,  12  percent  of  families  had  more  debt  than  assets, 
and  they  were,  on  average,  $32,000  in  debt." 

"The  distribution  of  wealth  was  more  unequal  in  2013  than  it  had  been  in  1989.  In  2013,  families  in  the  top  10  percent  held 
more  than  three-quarters  of  all  family  wealth,  whereas  in  1989,  their  counterparts  had  held  two-thirds  of  all  family  wealth. 

Over  the  period,  the  share  of  wealth  held  by  families  in  the  51st  to  the  90th  percentiles  declined  from  30  percent  to  23 
percent,  and  the  share  of  wealth  held  by  families  in  the  bottom  half  of  the  distribution  declined  from  3  percent  to  1  percent." 

"In  2013,  those  families  were  more  in  debt  than  their  counterparts  had  been  either  in  1989  or  in  2007.  For  instance,  8  percent 
of  families  were  in  debt  in  2007  and,  on  average,  their  debt  exceeded  their  assets  by  $20,000.  By  2013,  in  the  aftermath  of  the 
recession  of  2007  to  2009,  12  percent  of  families  were  in  debt  and,  on  average,  their  debt  exceeded  their  assets  by  $32,000. 

The  increase  in  average  indebtedness  between  2007  and  2013  for  families  in  debt  was  mainly  the  result  of  falling  home 
equity  and  rising  student  loan  balances.  In  2007,  3  percent  of  families  in  debt  had  negative  home  equity:  They  owed,  on 
average,  $16,000  more  than  their  homes  were  worth.  In  2013,  that  share  was  19  percent  of  families  in  debt,  and  they  owed,  on 
average,  $45,000  more  than  their  homes  were  worth.  The  share  of  families  in  debt  that  had  outstanding  student  debt  rose  from 
56  percent  in  2007  to  64  percent  in  2013,  and  the  average  amount  of  their  loan  balances  increased  from  $29,000  to  $41,000." 

(463) 


Figure  4. 

Number  in  Poverty  and  Poverty  Rate:  1959  to  2015 


Numbers  in  millions  Recession 


> — sr\ 

Number  in  poverty 

/  \ 

43.1  million 


1 3.5  percent 


1959  1965  1970  1975  1980  1985  1990  1995  2000  2005  2010  2015 


Note:  The  data  for  201  3  and  beyond  reflect  the  implementation  of  the  redesigned  income  questions.  The  data  points  are  placed  at 
the  midpoints  of  the  respective  years.  For  information  on  recessions,  see  Appendix  A.  For  information  on  confidentiality  protection, 
sampling  error,  nonsampling  error,  and  definitions,  see  <www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/cps/techdocs/cpsmarl  6. pdf>. 
Source:  U.S.  Census  Bureau,  Current  Population  Survey,  1 960  to  2016  Annual  Social  and  Economic  Supplements. 


In  2016,  the  United  Nations  Human  Settlements  Programme  estimated  there  were  881,000,000  urban  residents 


living  in  slums  throughout  the  world,  a  28%  increase  from  689,000,000  in  1990.  (292)  In  2005,  the  United 
Nations  estimated  that  there  were  100,000,000  Homo  sapiens  throughout  the  world  completely  homeless.  (301)  In 
addition  to  this,  UNESCO  also  estimates  there  are  up  to  150,000,000  ‘street  children  ’  currently  living  on  the 
streets  of  the  world,  scavenging  and  begging  as  a  result  of  being  forced  from  a  home  by  violence,  the  death  of  a 
parent,  family  breakdown,  war,  drug  and  alcohol  abuse,  socio-economic  collapse,  or  natural  disaster.  (299)  The 
2016  Annual  Homeless  Assessment  Report  (AHAR)  delivered  to  the  U.S.  Congress  by  the  U.S.  Department  of 
Housing  and  Urban  Development  reported  that  on  a  single  night  in  January  2016  in  the  United  States  549,928 
individuals  were  experiencing  homelessness,  a  15%  decline  from  647,258  in  2007.  Of  this  total,  373,571 
individuals  were  staying  in  emergency  shelters,  transitional  housing  programs,  or  safe  havens  while  the 
remaining  176,357  were  staying  in  unsheltered  locations  with  more  than  52,890  of  these  individuals  being 
chronically  homeless.  Of  those  individuals  that  experienced  homelessness  in  2016,  some  120,819  or  22%  were 
children,  and  9  in  1 0  children  experiencing  homelessness  were  either  staying  in  emergency  shelters  or 
transitional  housing  programs.  In  2016,  there  were  867,102  year-round  beds  available  in  United  States 
emergency  shelters,  transitional  housing,  permanent  housing,  safe  havens,  rapid  rehousing,  and  other  permanent 
supportive  housing.  (586)  In  the  United  States,  since  1987,  some  cities  have  simply  relocated  their  homeless  to 
other  mainland  cities  within  the  United  States  and  sometimes  even  relocated  them  internationally  passing  the 
burden  onto  other  cities  and  other  countries.  A  comprehensive  investigation  done  by  the  Guardian  in  2017 
tracked  21,400  homeless  bus  relocations  between  2011  and  20  1  7.  (651)  With  so  many  available  shelters  and 
programs,  why  are  so  many  in  unsheltered  locations?  Why  do  so  many  thousands  of  individuals  experience 
homelessness?  One  need  only  watch  ‘Homeless  Bound  L.A.  Skid  Row  ’  www.homelessboundla.com  to  see  the 
true  reality  of  homelessness  in  a  nation  which  has  so  many  resources  and  so  much  wealth  while  the  homeless 
population  has  been  ignored  by  most.  Why  are  millions  homeless  in  a  world  with  millions  of  vacant  houses, 
hotel  rooms,  and  government  buildings?  If  real  estate  is  primarily  based  on  monetary  factors  and  not  social  use, 
there  could  always  be  chronic  homelessness  in  a  world  of  vacant  buildings.  When  Philip  Alston,  the  U.N.'s 
Special  Rapporteur  on  extreme  poverty  and  human  rights,  visited  Alabama  he  saw  inadequate  sanitation  and 
residents  which  often  contract  E.  Coli  and  hookworm  as  a  result  and  remarked  that  the  sewage  disposal  crisis 
was  the  direst  he  had  seen  in  any  developed  country.  (621)  A  201 7  United  Nations  Human  Rights  report 
concluded  that, 

"International  and  domestic  financial  institutions  and  markets  are  created  and  sustained  by  Governments  and  must  be  made 
accountable  to  States  human  rights  obligations.  Millions  of  foreclosures,  evictions  and  displacements  and  more  than  a  billion 
people  living  in  grossly  inadequate  housing  conditions  and  homelessness  worldwide  signal,  among  other  things,  the  failure  of 
States  and  of  the  international  community  to  manage  the  interaction  between  financial  actors  and  housing  systems  in 
accordance  with  the  right  to  adequate  housing.  The  value  of  global  real  estate  is  about  US$  217  trillion,  nearly  60  per  cent  of 
the  value  of  all  global  assets,  with  residential  real  estate  comprising  75  per  cent  of  the  total.  In  the  course  of  one  year,  from 
mid-2013  to  mid-2014,  corporate  buying  of  larger  properties  in  the  top  100  recipient  global  cities  rose  from  US$  600  billion 
to  US$  1  trillion." 

"Elsewhere,  fmancialization  is  linked  to  expanded  credit  and  debt  taken  on  by  individual  households  made  vulnerable  to 
predatory  lending  practices  and  the  volatility  of  markets,  the  result  of  which  is  unprecedented  housing  precarity.  Financialized 
housing  markets  have  caused  displacement  and  evictions  at  an  unparalleled  scale:  in  the  United  States  of  America  over  the 
course  of  5  years,  over  13  million  foreclosures  resulted  in  more  than  9  million  households  being  evicted.  In  Spain,  more  than 
half  a  million  foreclosures  between  2008  and  2013  resulted  in  over  300,000  evictions.  There  were  almost  1  million 
foreclosures  between  2009  and  2012  in  Hungary." 

"The  2008  global  financial  crisis  revealed  the  fragility,  volatility  and  predatory  nature  of  financialized  housing  markets  and 
the  potential  for  catastrophic  outcomes  both  for  individual  households  and  for  the  global  economy.  In  the  United  States  of 
America,  there  were  an  average  of  10,000  foreclosures  per  day  in  2008,  and  as  many  as  35  million  individuals  were  affected 
by  evictions  over  a  five-year  period.  Not  only  had  people  lost  their  homes  but  they  faced  personal  financial  ruin." 

"Housing  prices  in  so-called  “hedge  cities”  like  Hong  Kong,  London,  Munich,  Stockholm,  Sydney  and  Vancouver  have  all 
increased  by  over  50  per  cent  since  2011,  creating  vast  amounts  of  increased  assets  for  the  wealthy  while  making  housing 
unaffordable  for  most  households  not  already  invested  in  the  market." 

A  significant  portion  of  investor-owned  homes  are  simply  left  empty.  In  Melbourne,  Australia,  for  example,  82,000  or  one 
fifth  of  investor-owned  units  lie  empty.  In  the  affluent  boroughs  of  Chelsea  and  Kensington  in  the  city  of  London,  prime 
locations  for  wealthy  foreign  investors,  the  number  of  vacant  units  increased  by  40  per  cent  between  2013  and  2014.  In  such 
markets,  the  value  of  housing  is  no  longer  based  on  its  social  use.  The  housing  is  as  valuable  whether  it  is  vacant  or  occupied, 
lived  in  or  devoid  of  life.  Homes  sit  empty  while  homeless  populations  burgeon." 


"Corporate  finance  does  not  only  profit  from  inflated  prices  in  hedge  cities,  it  also  profits  from  housing  crises.  The  global 
financial  crisis  created  unprecedented  opportunities  for  buying  distressed  housing  and  real  estate  debt,  which  was  sold  off  at 
fire  sale  prices  in  countries  such  as  Ireland,  Spain,  the  United  Kingdom  of  Great  Britain  and  Northern  Ireland  and  the  United 
States  of  America.  The  Blackstone  Group,  the  world’s  largest  real  estate  private  equity  firm,  managing  $102  billion  worth  of 
property,  spent  $10  billion  to  purchase  repossessed  properties  in  the  United  States  of  America  at  courthouses  and  in  online 
auctions  following  the  2008  financial  crisis,  emerging  as  the  largest  rental  landlord  in  the  country.  Other  major  institutional 
players  invested  $20  billion  to  purchase  approximately  200,000  single-family  homes  in  the  United  States  between  2012  and 
mid-2013." 

"Many  corporate  owners  of  housing  are  nameless.  In  the  first  fiscal  quarter  of  2015,  58  per  cent  of  all  property  purchases  over 
$3  million  in  the  United  States  were  made  by  limited  liability  companies  rather  than  named  people,  and  the  majority  of  those 
purchases  were  in  cash,  creating  a  greater  level  of  anonymity."  (300) 

In  2015  and  2017,  some  24,900,000  documents  were  leaked  dubbed  the  ‘Panama  Papers  ’  and  Paradise 
Papers  ’,  which  detail  the  secretive  offshore  financial  world  involving  governments,  businesses,  and  the  wealthy 
elite  while  also  implicating  politicians,  public  officials,  and  their  close  associates.  Some  of  the  shell  corporations 
were  used  for  illegal  activities  like  fraud,  tax  evasion,  and  to  evade  international  sanctions.  In  2011,  60  major 
U.S.  coiporations  funneled  $166,000,000,000  to  offshore  locations  allowing  them  to  avoid  taxes  on  more  than 
40%  of  their  annual  profits.  (191)  Arecent  study  in  2017  of  258  Fortune  500  companies  that  were  consistently 
profitable  in  each  year  between  2008  and  2015  found  that  many  of  the  coiporations  payed  far  less  than  the  35% 
federal  income  tax  rate  for  profitable  corporations  and  some  paid  nothing  at  all  because  of  numerous  tax 
loopholes  and  special  breaks  they  receive.  The  study  found  that, 

"As  a  group,  the  258  corporations  paid  an  effective  federal  income  tax  rate  of  2 1 .2  percent  over  the  eight-year  period,  slightly 
over  half  the  statutory  35  percent  tax  rate.  Eighteen  of  the  corporations,  including  General  Electric,  International  Paper, 
Priceline.com  and  PG&E,  paid  no  federal  income  tax  at  all  over  the  eight-year  period.  A  fifth  of  the  corporations  (48)  paid  an 
effective  tax  rate  of  less  than  10  percent  over  that  period.  Of  those  corporations  in  our  sample  with  significant  offshore 
profits,  more  than  half  paid  higher  corporate  tax  rates  to  foreign  governments  where  they  operate  than  they  paid  in  the  United 
States  on  their  U.S.  profits. 

One  hundred  of  the  258  companies  (39  percent  of  them)  paid  zero  or  less  in  federal  income  taxes  in  at  least  one  year  from 
2008  to  2015.  The  sectors  with  the  lowest  effective  corporate  tax  rates  over  the  eight-year  period  were  Utilities,  Gas  and 
Electric  (3 . 1  percent),  Industrial  Machinery  (1 1 .4  percent),  Telecommunications  (11.5  percent),  Oil,  Gas,  and  Pipelines  (1 1 .6 
percent),  and  Internet  Services  and  Retailing  (15.6  percent).  Each  of  these  industries  paid,  as  a  group,  less  than  half  the 
statutory  35  percent  tax  rate  over  this  eight-year  period.  The  tax  breaks  claimed  by  these  companies  are  highly  concentrated 
in  the  hands  of  a  few  very  large  corporations.  Just  25  companies  claimed  $286  billion  in  tax  breaks  over  the  eight  years 
between  2008  and  2015.  That’s  more  than  half  the  $527  billion  in  tax  subsidies  claimed  by  all  of  the  258  companies  in  our 
sample.  Five  companies  —  AT&T,  Wells  Fargo,  J.P.  Morgan  Chase,  Verizon,  and  IBM  —  enjoyed  more  than  $130  billion  in 
tax  breaks  during  the  eight-year  period."  (241 ) 

Global  saving  glut  or  cash  hoarding  by  the  minority  of  wealthy  individuals  and  more  especially  by  coiporations 
has  increased  dramatically.  Moody's  reported  that  the  amount  of  cash  which  was  held  by  non- financial 
companies  in  the  United  States  was  $1,840,000,000,000  in  2016,  a  9.2%  increase  from  the  $1,680,000,000,000 
hoarded  away  in  2015.  (589)  If  laws  were  enacted  and  enforced  to  help  prevent  this  hoarding  and  hiding  of 
money,  how  much  lower  would  individual  taxes  be?  How  many  positive  things  like  education,  medicine, 
conservation,  etc.  could  this  money  have  been  spent  on? 

Society’s  prevailing  ignorance  is  as  apparent  as  it  always  has  been  throughout  history  in  that  negative  things, 
(e.g.  cigarettes,  alcohol,  guns,  etc.)  are  legal  and  even  encouraged  and  thus  used  even  though  it  is  known  that 
they  have  a  negative  impact  and  can  even  cause  death.  This  ignorance  is  often  masked  under  the  term  ‘Freedom  ’ 
or  ‘A  God  Given  Right  Societies  have  laws  and  attempt  to  prevented  things  like  murder  and  other  activities 
which  are  deemed  as  crimes,  so  why  is  it  that  other  negative  things  like  cigarettes  and  guns  are  legal  and  often 
even  encouraged?  The  government  has  many  laws  to  protect  citizens,  so  why  are  the  tobacco,  alcohol,  meat  and 
dairy,  asbestos,  oil,  plastic,  chemical,  and  other  similar  industries  allowed  to  make  money  off  a  product  that  the 
government  knows  has  killed  millions  of  Homo  sapiens  or  destroys  Earth  and  continues  to  every  day?  Why  does 
the  government  stop  some  harmful  things,  yet  when  it  comes  others  which  are  based  around  money  and  profits  it 
is  ok  to  kill  Homo  sapiens ?  Where  is  the  justice  for  the  millions  of  Homo  sapiens  which  have  died  as  a  result  of 
some  companies  knowingly  and  willingly  selling  deadly  products  and  services  to  consumers  they  know  could  be 


potentially  harmful  to  their  health?  What  good  is  a  scientific  study  for  human  health  or  environmental  protection 
if  it  is  done  by  the  corporations  themselves  and  not  an  independent  scientifically  accredited  unbiased  source? 
Many  corporations  have  been  irresponsible  towards  Earth  and  society  all  in  the  name  of  money  and  profit,  they 
have  lied  and  mislead  the  public  through  propaganda  campaigns  aimed  at  debunking  scientific  evidence  and 
ultimately  attempted  to  hide  their  true  actions  and  the  negative  consequences  which  result  from  using  their 
products.  Most  product  packaging  far  out  lasts  the  product  which  is  contained  within  that  product  packaging,  this 
is  especially  true  for  food  products.  Where  is  the  corporate  responsibility  for  the  littering  of  trillions  of  pieces  of 
product  packaging  that  is  now  trash  and  pollutes  the  Earth?  Shouldn't  the  company  be  held  accountable  to  clean 
up  the  mess  it  created  all  in  the  name  of  profits? 

Modem  society  basing  nearly  everything  around  money  and  profits  with  little  or  no  regard  if  it  damages  other 
Homo  sapiens  or  the  Earth,  is  a  true  ‘tragedy  of  the  commons  If  governments  and  corporations  continue  to  push 
for  solutions  with  technology  based  around  profits,  and  not  solutions  based  on  coexistence,  conservation, 
sustainability,  and  moderation,  will  the  environmental  issues  continue  to  occur  and  perhaps  get  even  worse?  If 
environmental  issues  occur  and  the  pseudo  solution  is  only  further  destruction,  and  not  logically  analyzing  and 
solving  the  cause  of  the  issue,  how  can  the  issues  ever  truly  be  solved?  Why  do  Homo  sapiens  continuously 
attempt  to  solve  avoidable  issues  with  technology  instead  of  coexisting  on  Earth  by  practicing  conservation  and 
using  the  precious  limited  resources  cautiously?  If  manufacturers  have  the  ability  to  make  eco-friendly  products 
and  don’t  want  to  willingly  work  towards  conservation,  then  shouldn’t  the  government  create  more  legislation 
which  requires  them  to  do  so?  If  energy  efficient  appliances  and  electronics  are  available  and  have  been  for  some 
time,  why  is  there  even  a  choice,  why  not  a  law  requiring  that  all  appliances  and  electronics  be  designed  so  they 
are  energy  efficient?  If  front-load  washing  machines  are  more  efficient  than  top-load  washing  machines  using 
half  the  amount  of  water,  why  then  not  enact  a  law  requiring  all  washer  machines  be  made  in  the  front -style 
manner?  Why  are  there  not  more  environmental  laws  requiring  commercial  companies  to  make  all  their  products 
eco-friendly,  energy  efficient,  biodegradable,  and  more  durable  for  a  longer  lifespan  to  use  the  product?  Products 
in  the  past  were  made  far  more  durable,  and  this  was  what  companies  often  took  pride  in  and  what  eliminated 
their  competition.  Most  companies  today  base  product  manufacturing  not  on  quality  and  lifespan  use,  but  how 
many  they  can  make,  and  how  many  they  can  get  a  consumer  to  purchase  during  their  lifetime.  Martin  Luther 
King  Jr.  wrote, 

“The  stability  of  the  large  world  house  which  is  ours  will  involve  a  revolution  of  values  to  accompany  the  scientific  and 
freedom  revolutions  engulfing  the  earth.  We  must  rapidly  begin  the  shift  from  a  “thing”-oriented  society  to  a  “person”- 
oriented  society.  When  machines  and  computers  profit  motives  and  property  rights  are  considered  more  important  than 
people,  the  giant  triplets  of  racism,  materialism,  and  militarism  are  incapable  of  being  conquered.  A  civilization  can  flounder 
as  readily  in  the  face  of  moral  and  spiritual  bankruptcy  as  it  can  through  financial  bankruptcy. 

This  revolution  of  values  must  go  beyond  traditional  capitalism  and  Communism.  We  must  honestly  admit  that  capitalism  has 
often  left  a  gulf  between  superfluous  wealth  and  abject  poverty,  has  created  conditions  pennitting  necessities  to  be  taken  from 
the  many  to  give  luxuries  to  the  few  and  has  encouraged  smallhearted  men  to  become  cold  and  conscienceless  so  that,  like 
Dives  before  Lazarus,  they  are  unmoved  by  suffering,  poverty-stricken  humanity.  The  profit  motive,  when  it  is  the  sole  basis 
of  an  economic  system,  encourage  a  cutthroat  competition  and  selfish  ambition  that  inspire  men  to  be  more  I-centered  than 
thou-centered.”  (665) 

In  the  1970s  Americans  were  exposed  to  around  500  ads  per  day,  in  2003  this  number  increased  to  5,000  ads  per 
day.  (557)  Today  native  advertising  is  replacing  traditional  advertising,  and  many  times  consumers  are  fooled  into 
thinking  that  an  advertisement  is  an  actual  news  story  or  requested  Internet  content,  with  the  mini  words  ‘ad’ 
often  camouflaged  which  makes  it  nearly  unnoticeable.  If  there  were  no  commercial  advertising  and  consumers 
simply  sought  out  a  product  or  service  when  they  needed  it,  how  much  less  consumption  would  there  be?  The 
PBS  Frontline  reports:  ‘The  Persuaders  ’  November  9,  2004,  ‘The  Merchants  of  Cool  ’  February  27,  200 1 ,  and 
‘Generation  Like  ’  February  18,  2004  all  detail  how  corporations  utilize  marketing,  and  how  through  new 
technologies  they  are  marketing  and  influencing  a  new  generation  of  consumers.  In  addition,  the  BBC 
documentary  ‘The  Century  of  the  Self  by  Adam  Curtis  2002,  explains  how  Edward  Bemays  used  propaganda  to 
help  corporations  influence  consumer  decisions.  In  Bemays  1928  book  ‘Propaganda  ’  he  said. 


"The  conscious  and  intelligent  manipulation  of  the  organized  habits  and  opinions  of  the  masses  is  an  important  element  in 
democratic  society.  Those  who  manipulate  this  unseen  mechanism  of  society  constitute  an  invisible  government  which  is  the 


true  ruling  power  of  our  country. 


We  are  governed,  our  minds  are  molded,  our  tastes  formed,  our  ideas  suggested,  largely  by  men  we  have  never  heard  of.  This 
is  a  logical  result  of  the  way  in  which  our  democratic  society  is  organized.  Vast  numbers  of  human  beings  must  cooperate  in 
this  manner  if  they  are  to  live  together  as  a  smoothly  functioning  society. 

In  almost  every  act  of  our  daily  lives,  whether  in  the  sphere  of  politics  or  business,  in  our  social  conduct  or  our  ethical 
thinking,  we  are  dominated  by  the  relatively  small  number  of  persons. ..who  understand  the  mental  processes  and  social 
patterns  of  the  masses.  It  is  they  who  pull  the  wires  which  control  the  public  mind.”  (33) 

Most  current  business  models  in  today's  society  are  based  mainly  on  greed  and  profits  through  how  many 
products  can  be  sold,  and  it  has  ultimately  led  to  the  'throw  away  and  buy  a  new  product'  consumer  habits  and 
attitudes.  This  mentality  was  invented  by  corporations  to  bolster  product  consumption  and  increase  profits,  and  it 
began  being  encouraged  around  60  years  ago  by  corporations  through  advertisements  and  even  the  mainstream 
news  media  with  stories  like  the  August  1955  LIFE  magazine  article  titled  ‘Throwaway  Living’.  Some  products 
have  built-in  obsolescence  to  ensure  that  the  product  will  become  obsolete  or  unfashionable  very  soon  after 
purchase,  and  thus  force  the  consumer  to  buy  the  newer  version.  Many  products  are  manufactured  so  cheaply 
that  one  piece  of  the  product  will  fail,  (e.g.  a  wheel,  handle,  zipper,  battery,  etc.)  making  the  product  useless, 
replacement  parts  are  rarely  if  ever  available,  or  are  often  more  expensive  than  to  buy  a  new  one,  so  consumers 
have  no  choice  but  to  discard  the  nearly  usable  product  and  buy  a  new  one.  Why  are  business  models  based  on 
profits  and  not  creating  a  good  quality  product?  Shouldn’t  businesses  create  products  based  on  the  following 
criteria:  1.  How  eco-friendly  the  product  is,  2.  How  well  the  product  functions,  and  3.  How  long  the  product  can 
be  used?  What  if  competition  of  commercial  products  was  based  on  quality  and  environmentally  friendliness 
versus  advertising  and  pseudo  information?  To  think  of  how  some  Homo  sapiens  running  these  corporations  are 
acting  towards  not  only  the  Earth,  but  to  fellow  Homo  sapiens  is  beyond  imagination.  How  can  anyone  take 
advantage  of  something  solely  for  the  profit  of  money,  while  killing  nature  and  Homo  sapiens  alike 
indiscriminately  and  willingly? 

Perhaps  at  some  point  Homo  sapiens  will  see  the  reality  and  want  something  different,  and  maybe  then  they  will 
also  see  that  the  system  is  what  needs  fixing,  old  methods  changed,  and  that  those  running  it  need  replacing. 
Commercial  companies,  purely  for  profits  are  creating  mass  produced  products  and  influencing  consumers  to 
think  they  want  or  need  these  products,  when  in  fact  they  do  not  truly  want  or  need  them  at  all.  If  products  are 
invented  and  manufactured  based  around  consumption  and  money  versus  actual  need  and  use,  then  there  will  be 
most  likely  be  a  continuous  stream  of  mass  produced  junk  serving  no  real  purpose  other  than  to  pollute  Earth  and 
give  consumers  pseudo  satisfaction.  If  this  continues  the  mass  consumption  will  continue,  and  the  cycle  of  waste 
will  perhaps  never  end  and  become  even  worse.  If  consumers  can  stop  being  so  easily  persuaded  into  purchasing 
needless  products  based  on  the  propaganda  of  commercial  companies,  this  will  eliminate  much  of  the  mass 
consumption  and  waste.  Will  consumers  ever  wise  up  to  corporate  marketing  tactics  and  see  the  reality  that  the 
corporations  are  engaged  in  to  make  the  almighty  dollar?  Perhaps  Homo  sapiens  will  one  day  recognize  they  are 
being  used  and  manipulated  by  corporations  into  living  their  current  consumption-based  lifestyles,  and  how  they 
have  allowed  some  coiporations  to  rule  their  lives  and  push  unhealthy  and  environmentally  destructive  products 
and  services  on  them  for  the  last  100  years.  Perhaps  citizens  will  demand  the  government  enact  stricter 
conservation  laws  and  force  commercial  companies  to  move  towards  more  environmentally  friendly  practices 
like  it  has  already  begun  to  do,  and  thus  the  consumer  will  have  no  choice  but  to  buy  green  products  as  that  will 
be  all  that  is  available  for  consumption.  Homo  sapiens  can  be  forced  towards  conservation  by  laws  and  no  other 
option,  but  society  would  move  far  more  willingly  and  rapidly  if  shown  through  education  and  by  example  the 
correct  way  of  doing  things. 

If  things  are  to  change  either  consumers  will  demand  natural  alternatives  and  change  with  their  lifestyle  choices, 
commercial  companies  will  see  the  wrong  of  their  actions,  or  commercial  companies  and  citizens  will  be  forced 
into  change  by  the  government  through  regulations  enacted  to  help  safeguard  the  environment  and  consumer 
health.  Commercial  companies  very  easily  could  use  their  current  marketing  techniques  and  make  the 
mainstream  choices  for  consumption  more  natural  while  still  making  money  and  profits,  consumers  will  always 
be  consuming,  it  is  simply  a  matter  of  what  is  available  to  consume.  Shouldn’t  commercial  companies  who  make 
the  products  available  for  consumption  be  responsible  for  not  only  making  the  product  safe  for  consumers,  but 


also  making  an  environmentally  friendly  product  by  making  it  healthy,  non-toxic,  natural,  and  bio-degradable?  It 
is  a  matter  of  the  company  either  not  caring  about  the  side-effects  and  the  negative  consequences  of  their  actions, 
or  they  do  not  see  the  wrong  in  their  ways  and  are  delusional  to  the  point  of  thinking  they  are  actually  helping 
Homo  sapiens,  when  in  fact  they  are  doing  just  the  opposite.  Paul  Hawken  wrote, 

"The  ultimate  purpose  of  business  is  not,  or  should  not  be,  simply  to  make  money.  Nor  is  it  merely  a  system  of  making  and 
selling  things.  The  promise  of  business  is  to  increase  the  general  well-being  of  humankind  through  service,  a  creative 
invention  and  ethical  philosophy.  Making  money  is,  on  its  own  terms,  totally  meaningless,  an  insufficient  pursuit  for  the 
complex  and  decaying  world  we  live  in.  We  have  reached  an  unsettling  and  portentous  turning  point  in  industrial 
civilization."  (662) 

As  a  result  of  consolidations,  acquisitions,  mergers,  forced  bankruptcies,  and  other  takeover  methods  many 
business  sectors  today  are  now  oligopolies,  and  it  has  also  created  a  monopoly  in  some  industries  affecting 
supply  and  demand,  and  ultimately  allowed  some  corporations  to  practice  price  fixing  while  also  exercising  vast 
influence  and  control  over  consumer  choices.  This  has  also  led  to  less  quality,  innovation,  and  over  pricing  in 
some  industries  and  services,  while  also  limiting  consumer  access  to  basic  things  like  Internet  access,  medical 
services,  education,  etc.  Profit  margins  are  exorbitant  on  many  necessities  like  food,  medical  care,  funeral 
services,  automobile  repair,  legal  representation,  etc.  There  seems  to  be  no  limit  on  how  much  profit  an 
individual  or  companies  are  willing  to  make,  leading  to  further  greed  and  resulting  in  even  more  unfortunate 
victims  of  the  greed.  The  exorbitant  prices  on  many  things  is  appalling,  charging  consumers  $400  for  an  item 
that  only  cost  $25  to  manufacture,  and  even  worse  these  vast  profits  go  mostly  to  a  few  individuals  and  not  those 
who  actual  invent,  manufacture,  transport,  and  sell  the  product.  How  can  businesses  practice  price  gouging 
during  natural  disasters  or  public  gatherings?  How  can  it  be  legal  to  charge  $5  or  more  for  a  small  bottle  of  water 
which  is  something  that  is  a  vital  necessity  to  live?  Why  are  there  not  more  price  ceilings  enacted  by  the 
government  on  commodities  to  prevent  such  price  gouging? 

Some  businesses  now  force  customers  to  purchase  unnecessary  and  unwanted  things,  and  some  even  charging 
for  things  that  were  previously  free.  (e.g.  many  restaurants  are  now  forcing  customers  to  buy  bottled  water  and 
refusing  to  serve  tap  water)  While  other  businesses  make  vast  profits  by  charging  for  what  they  call  a 
‘convenience  fee  or  ser\’ice  charge  ’,  one  cannot  even  access  their  money  without  sometimes  being  charged  an 
outlandish  fee  by  their  own  and  other  banks.  JP  Morgan  Chase,  Rank  of  America,  and  Wells  Fargo  combined 
made  $6,000,000,000  from  ATM  and  overdraft  fees  in  2015.  (227)  Americans  have  around  $750,000,000,000  in 
credit  card  debt,  and  with  no  legal  limits  on  the  amount  of  interest  or  fees  that  a  credit  card  company  can  charge 
a  consumer,  it  has  helped  to  make  credit  cards  one  of  the  most  profitable  sectors  for  the  banking  industry.  The 
November  2004  PBS  Frontline  program,  ‘The  Secret  History  of  the  Credit  Card’  gives  a  detailed  perspective  and 
history  on  the  credit  card  industry. 

The  2007  and  2008  world  food  price  crises  as  well  as  the  2011  and  2012  world  food  price  increases  were  blamed 
on  oil  prices,  drought,  overpopulation,  low  food  surpluses,  and  other  economic  factors.  After  the  food  price 
increases  in  the  United  States,  food  prices  rose,  and  many  food  companies  in  response  made  the  product  size  less 
while  maintaining  the  increased  price  point,  a  business  practice  called  shrinkflation.  In  the  United  Kingdom, 
between  2012  and  2017,  there  were  2,529  retail  products,  2,006  of  which  were  food  items,  that  decreased  in  size 
while  the  price  of  most  products  remained  the  same.  (462)  Could  the  increased  food  prices  be  in  part  caused  by 
corporate  greed?  Five  main  exporters  provide  around  90%  of  maize,  80%  of  rice,  and  70%  of  wheat  to  the  world. 
If  the  world's  main  foods  were  more  varied  and  not  restricted  to  maize,  rice,  and  wheat,  could  possible  future 
food  crises  be  avoided? 

Financial  institution  failures  have  become  more  commonplace  recently.  Between  1935  and  1942  there  were  381 
financial  institutions  which  completely  failed,  between  1980  and  1994  there  were  2,354  financial  institutions 
which  failed  completely,  and  570  additional  ones  which  received  a  government  bailout  to  sustain  operations. 
Between  2008  and  2014  there  were  504  financial  institutions  which  failed  completely  and  13  which  required  a 
government  bailout  to  sustain  operations.  During  the  other  years  in  between  these  financial  crises  there  were  on 
average  less  than  10  per  year.  (556)  Perhaps  this  is  a  sign  that  capitalism  in  its  current  form  can  only  go  for  so 
long  with  corruption  and  greed  taking  its  toll  until  eventually  the  system  has  been  plundered  and  must  be  reset 


with  bailouts,  the  government  must  step  in  and  change  interest  rates,  and  enact  new  laws  to  help  prevent  future 
manipulation  and  crashes.  But  as  history  has  shown  with  corrupt  financial  systems  that  are  constantly  being 
manipulated  negatively,  the  only  thing  that  truly  eliminates  all  greed  and  corruption  is  strict  laws  and  most 
important,  the  refusal  to  take  part  in  it. 


Some  Major  Financial  Fiascos 

Tulip  Mania 

Tulip  mania  was  a  period  in  the  Dutch  Golden  Age  during  which  contract  prices  for  bulbs  of  the  recently 
introduced  tulip  reached  extraordinarily  high  levels  and  then  suddenly  collapsed.  At  the  peak  of  tulip 
mania,  in  March  1637,  some  single  tulip  bulbs  sold  for  more  than  10  times  the  annual  income  of  a 
skilled  craftsman.  It  is  generally  considered  the  first  recorded  speculative  bubble  (or  economic  bubble), 
although  some  researchers  have  noted  that  the  Kipper-  und  Wipperzeit  episode  in  1619-22,  a  Europe¬ 
wide  chain  of  debasement  of  the  metal  content  of  coins  to  fund  warfare,  featured  mania-like  similarities 
to  a  bubble.  Nearly  a  century  later,  during  the  crash  of  the  Mississippi  Company  and  the  South  Sea 
Company  in  about  1720,  tulip  mania  appeared  in  satires  of  these  manias.  When  Johann  Beckmann  first 
described  tulip  mania  in  the  1780s,  he  compared  it  to  the  failing  lotteries  of  the  time.  In  Goldgar's  view, 
even  many  modern  popular  works  about  financial  markets,  such  as  Burton  Malkiel's  A  Random  Walk 
Down  Wall  Street  (1973)  and  John  Kenneth  Galbraith's  A  Short  History  of  Financial  Euphoria  (1990; 
written  soon  after  the  crash  of  1987),  used  the  tulip  mania  as  a  lesson  in  morality.  Tulip  mania  again 
became  a  popular  reference  during  the  dot-com  bubble  of  1995-2001. 

Black  Tuesday 

The  Wall  Street  Crash  of  1929,  began  on  October  24,  1929  ("Black  Tuesday"),  and  was  the  most 
devastating  stock  market  crash  in  the  history  of  the  United  States,  when  taking  into  consideration  the  full 
extent  and  duration  of  its  after  effects.  The  crash,  which  followed  the  London  Stock  Exchange's  crash  of 
September,  signaled  the  beginning  of  the  12-year  Great  Depression  that  affected  all  Western 
industrialized  countries. 

The  Brothers 

The  Brothers  was  a  large  investment  operation  in  Costa  Rica,  from  the  late  1980s  until  2002,  eventually 
exposed  as  a  Ponzi  scheme.  The  fund  was  operated  by  brothers  Luis  Enrique  and  Osvaldo  Villalobos. 
Investigators  determined  that  the  scam  took  in  at  least  $400  million.  Most  of  the  clientele  were  American 
and  Canadian  retirees  but  some  Costa  Ricans  also  invested  the  minimum  $10,000.  About  6,300 
individuals  ultimately  were  involved.  Interest  rates  were  3%  per  month,  usually  paid  in  cash,  or  2.8% 
compounded.  The  ability  to  pay  such  high  interest  was  attributed  to  Luis  Enrique  Villalobos'  existing 
agricultural  aviation  business,  investment  in  unspecified  European  high  yield  funds,  and  loans  to  Coca 
Cola,  among  others.  Osvaldo  Villalobos'  role  was  primarily  to  move  money  around  a  large  number  of 
shell  companies  and  then  pay  investors.  In  May  2007,  Osvaldo  Villalobos  was  sentenced  to  18  years  in 
prison  for  fraud  and  illegal  banking,  while  Luis  Enrique  Villalobos  remains  a  fugitive. 

Jean  Pierre  Van  Rossem 

In  the  1980"s,  Jean  Pierre  Van  Rossem  ran  a  stock  market  investment  company  called  "Moneytron"  in 
Belgium.  The  company  was  revealed  to  have  been  a  scheme,  Van  Rossem  had  developed  a  so  called 
model  that  could  predict  the  stock  market  and  beat  the  capitalist  system,  he  invested  for  the  very  wealthy 
in  the  world  and  gatherd  around  860  million  dollars  (34.692.321.673  Belgian  Franc).  Due  to  belief  in  the 
Moneytron  system  and  also  his  sense  of  show  and  publicity  he  made  large  sums  of  money.  He  also 
traded  duplicated  stocks.  In  1991,  he  was  sentenced  to  5  years  in  jail  for  scams;  according  to  him,  it  was 
"Away  to  flick  the  system". 

MMM  Ponzi  Scheme 

MMM  was  a  Russian  company  that  perpetrated  one  of  the  world's  largest  Ponzi  schemes  of  all  time.  By 
different  estimates  from  5  to  40  million  people  lost  up  to  $10  billion.  The  company  started  attracting 
money  from  private  investors,  promising  annual  returns  of  up  to  1000%.  It  is  unclear  whether  a  Ponzi 
scheme  was  the  initial  intention,  as  such  extravagant  returns  might  have  been  possible  during  the 

Russian  hyperinflation  in  such  commerce  as  import -export. 

Black  Monday 

In  finance,  Black  Monday  refers  to  Monday,  October  19,  1987,  when  stock  markets  around  the  world 
crashed,  shedding  a  huge  value  in  a  very  short  time.  The  crash  began  in  Hong  Kong  and  spread  west  to 
Europe,  hitting  the  United  States  after  other  markets  had  already  declined  by  a  significant  margin.  The 
Dow  Jones  Industrial  Average  (DJIA)  fell  exactly  508  points  to  1,738.74  (22.61%). 

Savings  and  Loan  Crisis 

The  savings  and  loan  crisis  of  the  1980s  and  1990s  was  the  failure  of  1,043  out  of  the  3,234  savings  and 
loan  associations  in  the  United  States  from  1986  to  1995.  A  savings  and  loan  or  "thrift"  is  a  financial 
institution  that  accepts  savings  deposits  and  makes  mortgage,  car  and  other  personal  loans  to  individual 
members  (a  cooperative  venture  known  in  the  United  Kingdom  as  a  building  society).  By  1995,  the  RTC 
had  closed  747  failed  institutions  nationwide,  worth  a  total  possible  book  value  of  between  $402  and 
$407  billion.  In  1996,  the  General  Accounting  Office  estimated  the  total  cost  to  be  $160  billion, 
including  $132.1  billion  taken  from  taxpayers.  The  market  share  of  S&Ls  for  single  family  mortgage 
loans  went  from  53%  in  1975  to  30%  in  1990.  U.S.  General  Accounting  Office  estimated  cost  of  the 
crisis  to  around  $160.1  billion,  about  $124.6  billion  of  which  was  directly  paid  for  by  the  U.S. 
government  from  1986  to  1996.  That  figure  does  not  include  thrift  insurance  funds  used  before  1986  or 
after  1996.  It  also  does  not  include  state  run  thrift  insurance  funds  or  state  bailouts.  The  federal 
government  ultimately  appropriated  $105  billion  to  resolve  the  crisis.  After  banks  repaid  loans  through 
various  procedures,  there  was  a  net  loss  to  taxpayers  of  approximately  $124-132.1  billion  by  the  end  of 
1999.  Keating's  Lincoln  Savings  failed  in  1989,  costing  the  federal  government  over  $3  billion  and 

leaving  23,000  customers  with  worthless  bonds.  In  the  early  1990s,  Keating  was  convicted  in  both 
federal  and  state  courts  of  many  counts  of  fraud,  racketeering  and  conspiracy.  He  served  four  and  a  half 
years  in  prison  before  those  convictions  were  overturned  in  1996.  In  1999,  he  pleaded  guilty  to  a  more 
limited  set  of  wire  fraud  and  bankruptcy  fraud  counts,  and  sentenced  to  the  time  he  had  already  served. 
Neil  Bush,  the  son  of  then  Vice  President  of  the  United  States  George  H.  W.  Bush,  was  on  the  Board  of 
Directors  of  Silverado  at  the  time.  Neil  Bush  paid  a  $50,000  fine,  paid  for  him  by  Republican  supporters, 
and  was  banned  from  banking  activities  for  his  role  in  taking  down  Silverado,  which  cost  taxpayers  $1.3 
billion.  An  RTC  suit  against  Bush  and  other  Silverado  officers  was  settled  in  1991  for  $26.5  million. 

Romanian  Ponzi  Scheme 

In  Romania,  between  1991  and  1994,  the  Caritas  scheme  run  by  the  "Caritas"  company  of  Cluj-Napoca, 
owned  by  loan  Stoica  promised  eight  times  the  money  invested  in  six  months.  It  attracted  400,000 
depositors  from  all  over  the  country  who  invested  1,257  billion  lei  (about  US$1  billion)  before  it  finally 
went  bankrupt  on  August  14,  1994,  having  a  debt  of  US$450  million.  The  owner,  loan  Stoica,  was 
sentenced  in  1995  by  the  Cluj  Court  to  a  total  of  seven  years  in  prison  for  fraud,  but  he  appealed  and  it 
was  reduced  to  two  years;  then  he  went  on  to  the  Supreme  Court  of  Justice  and  the  sentence  was  finally 
reduced  to  one  year  and  a  half. 

Towers  Investors 

Towers  Investors,  a  bill  collection  agency,  collapsed  in  1993;  in  1995,  chairman  Steven  Hoffenberg 
pleaded  guilty  to  bilking  investors  out  of  $475  million.  Judge  Robert  W.  Sweet  sentenced  him  to  20 
years  in  prison,  plus  a  $1  million  fine  and  $463  million  in  restitution.  He  settled  a  civil  suit  with  the  U.S. 
Securities  and  Exchange  Commission  for  $60  million.  He  briefly  was  the  owner  of  the  New  York  Post. 

At  the  time  the  SEC  considered  the  fraud  to  be  "one  of  the  largest  Ponzi  schemes  in  history." 

European  Kings  Club 
Scheme 

In  late  1994,  the  European  Kings  Club  collapsed,  with  ensuing  losses  of  about  $1.1  billion.  This  scam 
was  led  by  Damara  Bertges  and  Hans  Gunther  Spachtholz.  In  the  Swiss  canton  of  Uri  and  Glarus,  it  was 
estimated  that  about  one  adult  in  ten  invested  into  the  EKC.  The  scam  involved  buying  "letters"  valued 
at  1,400  Swiss  francs  that  entitled  buyers  to  receive  12  monthly  payments  of  200  Swiss  francs.  The 
organisation  was  based  in  Gelnhausen,  Germany. 

Bre-X  Gold  Scheme 

Bre-X  was  a  group  of  companies  in  Canada.  Bre-X  Minerals  Ltd.,  a  major  part  of  Bre-X  based  in 

Calgary,  was  involved  in  a  major  gold  mining  scandal  when  it  reported  it  was  sitting  on  an  enormous 
gold  deposit  at  Busang,  Indonesia  (in  Borneo).  Bre-X  bought  the  Busang  site  in  March  1993  and  in 
October  1995  announced  significant  amounts  of  gold  had  been  discovered,  sending  its  stock  price 
soaring.  Originally  a  penny  stock,  its  stock  price  reached  a  peak  at  CAD  $286.50  (split  adjusted)  in  May 
1996  on  the  Toronto  Stock  Exchange  (TSE),  with  a  total  capitalization  of  over  CAD  $6  billion.  Bre-X 
Minerals  collapsed  in  1997  after  the  gold  samples  were  found  to  be  a  fraud.  By  May,  Bre-X  faced  a 
number  of  lawsuits  and  angry  investors  who  had  lost  billions.  Among  the  major  losers  were  three 

Canadian  public  sector  organizations:  The  Ontario  Municipal  Employees  Retirement  Board  (loss  of  $45 
million),  the  Caisse  de  depot  et  placement  du  Quebec,  the  Quebec  Public  Sector  Pension  fluid  ($70 
million),  and  the  Ontario  Teachers  Pension  Plan  ($100  million).  In  1999  the  Royal  Canadian  Mounted 
Police  (RCMP)  announced  it  was  ending  its  investigation  without  laying  criminal  charges  against 
anyone. 

David  Walsh  founded  Bre-X  Minerals  Ltd.  in  1989  as  a  subsidiary  of  Bresea  Resources  Ltd.  The 
company  did  not  make  a  significant  profit  before  1993,  when  Walsh  followed  the  advice  of  geologist 

John  Felderhof  and  bought  a  property  in  the  middle  of  a  jungle  near  the  Busang  River  in  Kalimantan, 
Indonesia.  The  first  estimate  of  the  site  by  its  project  manager  (Filipino  geologist  Michael  de  Guzman) 
was  approximately  2  million  Troy  ounces.  The  fraud  began  to  unravel  rapidly  on  March  19,  1997,  when 
Filipino  Bre-X  geologist  Michael  de  Guzman  reportedly  committed  suicide  by  jumping  from  a 
helicopter  in  Busang,  Indonesia.]  A  body  was  found  four  days  later  in  the  jungle,  missing  the  hands  and 
feet,  and  with  the  penis  "surgically  removed".  On  the  other  hand  the  body  was  reportedly  mostly  eaten 
by  animals  and  identified  from  molars  and  a  thumbprint.  (According  to  journalist  John  McBeth,  a  body 
had  gone  missing  from  the  morgue  of  the  town  from  which  the  helicopter  flew.  The  remains  of  "de 
Guzman"  were  found  only  400  metres  from  a  logging  road.  No  one  saw  the  body  except  another  Filipino 
geologist  who  claimed  it  was  de  Guzman.  And  one  of  the  five  women  who  considered  themselves  his 
wife  was  receiving  monetary  payments  from  somebody  long  after  the  supposed  death  of  de  Guzman. 

Walsh  moved  to  the  Bahamas  in  1998,  still  professing  his  innocence.  Two  masked  gunmen  broke  into 
his  home  in  Nassau,  tying  him  up,  and  threatened  to  shoot  him  unless  he  turned  over  all  his  money.  The 
incident  ended  peacefully  but  three  weeks  later,  on  June  4,  1998,  Walsh  died  of  a  brain  aneurysm. 

Greater  Ministries  Scheme 

From  1993  until  1997,  a  church  named  Greater  Ministries  International  in  Tampa,  Florida,  headed  by 
Gerald  Payne  bilked  over  18,000  people  out  of  $500  million.  Payne  and  other  church  elders  promised 
the  church  members  double  their  money  back,  citing  Biblical  scripture.  However,  nearly  all  the  money 
was  lost  or  hidden  away.  Church  leaders  received  prison  sentences  ranging  from  13  to  27  years. 

Albanian  Ponzi  Scheme 

In  the  mid-1990s,  Albania  was  transitioning  into  a  liberalized  market  economy  after  years  under  a  State- 
controlled  economy  reinforced  by  the  cult  of  personality  involving  longtime  Communist  leader  Enver 
Hoxha;  the  rudimentary  financial  system  became  dominated  by  pyramid  schemes,  and  government 
officials  tacitly  endorsed  a  series  of  pyramid  investment  funds.  Many  Albanians,  approximately  two- 
thirds  of  the  population,  invested  in  them.  In  1997,  Albanians,  who  had  lost  $1.2  billion,  took  their 
protest  to  the  streets  where  uncontainable  rioting  and  attacks  on  government  infrastructure  led  to  the 

toppling  of  the  government  and  the  temporary  existence  of  a  stateless  society.  Although  technically  a 

Ponzi  Scheme,  the  Albanian  scams  were  commonly  referred  to  as  pyramid  schemes  both  popularly  and 
by  the  International  Monetary  Fund. 

National  Heritage  Life 
Insurance  Company 

Scheme 

Sholam  Weiss  (also  spelled  Shalom  Weiss;  bom  April  1,  1954)  is  an  American  former  businessman  and 
convicted  felon.  In  2000,  he  was  convicted  of  multiple  fraud  and  money  laundering  counts  and 
sentenced  to  845  years  in  prison  for  looting  the  National  Heritage  Life  Insurance  Company  of  over  $450 
million.  It  was  believed  to  be  the  largest  insurance  failure  in  history  at  the  time.The  sentence  imposed  on 
Weiss  is  believed  to  be  the  longest  known  to  have  ever  been  imposed  for  a  white-collar  crime.  It  is  also 
believed  to  be  the  longest  criminal  sentence  ever  imposed  at  the  federal  level  in  American  history.  Weiss 
was  convicted  of  78  counts  including  racketeering,  wire  fraud,  and  money  laundering  and  ordered  to  pay 
$125  million  in  restitution  and  $123  million  in  penalties.  About  a  dozen  individuals  were  convicted  for 
involvement  in  the  collapse;  another  defendant,  Keith  Pound,  received  a  750-year  sentence,  and  $139 
million  in  restitution.  Pound  died  in  prison  in  2004  at  age  51. 

Slatkin  Ponzi  Scheme 

From  1986  to  2001,  Slatkin  raised  approximately  $593  million  from  about  800  wealthy  investors.  Using 
the  funds  from  later  investors,  he  paid  one  group  of  early  investors  $279M  on  their  original  $128M 
investment,  citing  investment  success  without  actually  making  most  of  the  claimed  investments.  He  also 
distributed  millions  in  fees  to  associates  as  "consultants".  He  successfully  sustained  the  scheme  until 

2001,  when  it  was  shut  down  by  an  investigation  by  the  U.S.  Securities  and  Exchange  Commission 
(SEC).  Slatkin  pleaded  guilty  to  mail  fraud,  wire  fraud,  money  laundering,  and  obstruction  of  justice  and 
on  September  2,  2003,  he  was  sentenced  to  fourteen  years  in  federal  prison. 

Dot-com  Bubble 

The  dot-com  bubble  was  a  historic  speculative  bubble  covering  roughly  1995-2001  during  which  stock 
markets  in  industrialized  nations  saw  their  equity  value  rise  rapidly  from  growth  in  the  Internet  sector 
and  related  fields.  While  the  latter  part  was  a  boom  and  bust  cycle,  the  Internet  boom  is  sometimes 
meant  to  refer  to  the  steady  commercial  growth  of  the  Internet  with  the  advent  of  the  World  Wide  Web, 
as  exemplified  by  the  first  release  of  the  Mosaic  web  browser  in  1993,  and  continuing  through  the 

1990s.  On  March  10,  2000  the  NASDAQ  peaked  at  5,132.52  intraday  before  closing  at  5,048.62. 
Afterwards,  the  NASDAQ  fell  as  much  as  78%.  The  stock  market  crash  of  2000-2002  caused  the  loss  of 
$5  trillion  in  the  market  value  of  companies  from  March  2000  to  October  2002,As  of  September  24, 

2002,  the  Dow  Jones  Industrial  Average  had  lost  27%  of  the  value  it  held  on  January  1 ,  200 1 :  a  total  loss 
of  5  trillion  dollars.  The  Dow  Jones  had  already  lost  9%  of  its  peak  value  at  the  start  of  2001,  while  the 
Nasdaq  had  lost  44%.  At  the  March  2000  top,  the  sum  in  valuation  of  all  NYSE-listed  companies  stood 
at  $12.9  trillion,  and  the  valuation  sum  of  all  NASDAQ-listed  companies  stood  at  $5.4  trillion,  for  a  total 
market  value  of  $18.3  trillion.  The  NASDAQ  subsequently  lost  nearly  80%  and  the  S&P  500  lost  50%  to 
reach  the  October  2002  lows.  The  total  market  value  of  NYSE  (7.2)  and  NASDAQ  ( 1 .8)  companies  at 
that  time  was  only  $9  trillion,  for  an  overall  market  loss  of  $9.3  trillion. 

Haitian  Ponzi  Scheme 

In  2001,  the  Haitian  population  fell  prey  to  Ponzi  schemers  offering  rates  up  to  15%.  The  outfits,  called 
"cooperatives",  appeared  to  be  implicitly  backed  by  the  government  and  became  wildly  popular  in  the 
population  at  large,  who  felt  safe  since  the  co-ops  were  openly  advertising  in  the  radio  and  TV  ads  using 
Haitian  pop  stars  as  spokespeople.  It  is  estimated  that  more  than  $240  million  was  swindled  from 
investors,  equivalent  to  60%  of  the  country's  government  budget. 

Enron  Scandal 

The  Enron  scandal,  publicized  in  October  2001,  eventually  led  to  the  bankruptcy  of  the  Enron 

Corporation,  an  American  energy  company  based  in  Houston,  Texas,  and  the  de  facto  dissolution  of 

Arthur  Andersen,  which  was  one  of  the  five  largest  audit  and  accountancy  partnerships  in  the  world.  In 
addition  to  being  the  largest  bankruptcy  reorganization  in  American  history  at  that  time,  Enron  was  cited 
as  the  biggest  audit  failure.  Enron's  shareholders  lost  $74  billion  in  the  four  years  before  the  company's 
bankruptcy  ($40  to  $45  billion  was  attributed  to  fraud).  As  Enron  had  nearly  $67  billion  that  it  owed 
creditors,  employees  and  shareholders  received  limited,  if  any,  assistance  aside  from  severance  from 
Enron.  To  pay  its  creditors,  Enron  held  auctions  to  sell  assets  including  art,  photographs,  logo  signs,  and 
its  pipelines.  In  May  2004,  more  than  20,000  of  Enron's  former  employees  won  a  suit  of  $85  million  for 
compensation  of  $2  billion  that  was  lost  from  their  pensions.  From  the  settlement,  the  employees  each 
received  about  $3,100.  The  next  year,  investors  received  another  settlement  from  several  banks  of  $4.2 
billion.  In  September  2008,  a  $7.2-billion  settlement  from  a  $40-billion  lawsuit,  was  reached  on  behalf 
of  the  shareholders.  The  settlement  was  distributed  among  the  main  plaintiff,  University  of  California 
(UC),  and  1.5  million  individuals  and  groups.  UC's  law  firm  Coughlin  Stoia  Geller  Rudman  and 

Robbins,  received  $688  million  in  fees,  the  highest  in  a  U.S.  securities  fraud  case.  Kenneth  Lee  Lay  was 
the  CEO  and  chairman  of  Enron  Corporation.  Lay  was  indicted  by  a  grand  jury  and  was  found  guilty  of 

10  counts  of  securities  fraud.  Lay  died  while  vacationing,  three  months  before  his  October  23 
sentencing.  A  preliminary  autopsy  reported  Lay  had  died  of  a  heart  attack  caused  by  coronary  artery 
disease  and  his  conviction  was  vacated.  Chase  paid  out  over  $2  billion  in  fines  and  legal  settlements  for 
their  role  in  financing  Enron  Corporation  with  aiding  and  abetting  Enron  Corp.'s  securities  fraud,  which 
collapsed  amid  a  financial  scandal  in  200 1 .  In  2003,  Chase  paid  $  1 60  million  in  fines  and  penalties  to 
settle  claims  by  the  Securities  and  Exchange  Commission  and  the  Manhattan  district  attorney's  office.  In 
2005,  Chase  paid  $2.2  billion  to  settle  a  lawsuit  filed  by  investors  in  Enron. 

WorldCom  Scandal 

Beginning  modestly  during  mid- 1999  and  continuing  at  an  accelerated  pace  through  May  2002,  the 
company — directed  by  Ebbers  (as  CEO),  Scott  Sullivan  (CFO),  David  Myers  (Controller),  and  Buford 

"Buddy"  Yates  (Director  of  General  Accounting) — used  fraudulent  accounting  methods  to  disguise  its 
decreasing  earnings  to  maintain  the  price  of  WorldCom’s  stock.  In  2002,  a  small  team  of  internal 
auditors  at  WorldCom  worked  together,  often  at  night  and  secretly,  to  investigate  and  reveal  $3.8  billion 
worth  of  fraud.  Soon  thereafter,  the  company’s  audit  committee  and  board  of  directors  were  notified  of 
the  fraud  and  acted  swiftly:  Sullivan  was  dismissed,  Myers  resigned,  Arthur  Andersen  withdrew  its  audit 
opinion  for  2001,  and  the  U.S.  Securities  and  Exchange  Commission  (SEC)  began  an  investigation  into 
these  matters  on  June  26,  2002  (see  accounting  scandal).  By  the  end  of  2003,  it  was  estimated  that  the 
company's  total  assets  had  been  inflated  by  about  $11  billion.  This  made  the  WorldCom  scandal  the 
largest  accounting  fraud  in  American  history  until  the  exposure  of  Bernard  Madoff  s  $64  billion  Ponzi 
scheme  in  2008.  On  March  15,  2005,  Bernard  Ebbers  was  found  guilty  of  all  charges  and  convicted  of 
fraud,  conspiracy  and  filing  false  documents  with  regulators  —  all  related  to  the  $11  billion  accounting 
scandal.  On  July  13,  2005,  Bernard  Ebbers  received  a  sentence  that  would  keep  him  imprisoned  for  25 
years.  At  time  of  sentencing,  Ebbers  was  63  years  old. 

HcalthSouth  Accounting 
Scandal 

The  first  of  HealthSouth's  accounting  problems  surfaced  in  late  2002  after  CEO  Richard  M.  Scrushy 
sold  $75  million  in  stock  several  days  before  the  company  posted  a  large  loss.  HcalthSouth  was  accused 
by  the  U.S.  Securities  and  Exchange  Commission  (SEC)  of  an  accounting  scandal  where  the  company's 
earnings  were  falsely  inflated  by  $1.4  billion.  In  1996,  Scrushy  allegedly  instructed  the  company's  senior 
officers  and  accountants  to  falsify  company  earnings  reports  in  order  to  meet  investor  expectations  and 
control  the  price  of  the  company's  stock.  The  fraud  continued  for  seven  years.  In  certain  fiscal  years,  the 
company's  income  was  overstated  by  as  much  as  4700%.  The  $1.4  billion  represents  more  than  10%  of 
the  company's  total  assets.  At  one  point,  the  company's  corporate  taxes — based  on  its  fraudulent 
earnings — were  higher  than  its  actual  earnings.  In  1998,  HcalthSouth  was  accused  of  violation  of  the 
Securities  Exchange  Act  by  failing  to  disclose  negative  trends  and  misrepresenting  company's  financial 
information. 

In  March  2003,  HealthSouth's  CEO  Richard  M.  Scrushy  was  charged  with  the  accounting  fraud  and  the 
SEC  announced  it  was  investigating  whether  Scrushy's  stock  sell  was  related  to  HcalthSouth  posting  a 
large  loss.  HcalthSouth  hired  an  outside  law  firm  to  review  Scrushy's  stock  sale,  with  the  firm 
concluding  that  the  sale  and  profit  loss  were  not  related,  although  this  did  not  take  the  company  off  the 
SEC's  radar.  On  the  evening  of  March  18,  2003  FBI  agents  executed  search  warrants  at  the  company's 
headquarters  after  the  company's  Chief  Financial  Officer  William  Owens  agreed  to  wear  a  wire  in  a 
failed  attempt  to  get  Scrushy  to  talk  about  the  fraud.  In  June  2005,  Scrushy  was  acquitted  on  all  36  of  the 
accounting  fraud  counts  against  him,  most  notably  one  count  in  violation  of  the  Sarbanes-Oxley  Act. 
However,  four  years  later,  he  was  sued  for  fraud  by  HealthSouth  investors  and  ordered  to  repay  his 
company  $2.8  billion. 

Bre-X  Gold  Scheme 

Bre-X  was  a  group  of  companies  in  Canada.  Bre-X  Minerals  Ltd.,  a  major  part  of  Bre-X  based  in 

Calgary,  was  involved  in  a  major  gold  mining  scandal  when  it  reported  it  was  sitting  on  an  enormous 
gold  deposit  at  Busang,  Indonesia  (in  Borneo).  Bre-X  bought  the  Busang  site  in  March  1993  and  in 
October  1995  announced  significant  amounts  of  gold  had  been  discovered,  sending  its  stock  price 
soaring.  Originally  a  penny  stock,  its  stock  price  reached  a  peak  at  CAD  $286.50  (split  adjusted)  in  May 
1996  on  the  Toronto  Stock  Exchange  (TSE),  with  a  total  capitalization  of  over  CAD  $6  billion.  Bre-X 
Minerals  collapsed  in  1997  after  the  gold  samples  were  found  to  be  a  fraud. 

By  May,  Bre-X  faced  a  number  of  lawsuits  and  angry  investors  who  had  lost  billions.  Among  the  major 
losers  were  three  Canadian  public  sector  organizations:  The  Ontario  Municipal  Employees  Retirement 
Board  (loss  of  $45  million),  the  Caisse  de  depot  et  placement  du  Quebec,  the  Quebec  Public  Sector 
Pension  fund  ($70  million),  and  the  Ontario  Teachers  Pension  Plan  ($100  million).  There  was  fallout  in 
the  Canadian  financial  sector  also;  the  fraud  proved  a  major  embarrassment  for  Peter  Munk,  the  head  of 
Barrick  Gold,  as  well  as  for  the  then-head  of  the  Toronto  Stock  Exchange  (resulting  in  his  ousting  by 
1999),  and  began  a  tumultuous  realignment  of  the  Canadian  stock  exchanges. 

Walsh  moved  to  the  Bahamas  in  1998,  still  professing  his  innocence.  Two  masked  gunmen  broke  into 
his  home  in  Nassau,  tying  him  up,  and  threatened  to  shoot  him  unless  he  turned  over  all  his  money.  The 
incident  ended  peacefully  but  three  weeks  later,  on  June  4,  1998,  Walsh  died  of  a  brain  aneurysm.  In 

1999  the  Royal  Canadian  Mounted  Police  (RCMP)  announced  it  was  ending  its  investigation  without 
laying  criminal  charges  against  anyone.  Critics  charged  that  the  RCMP  was  underfunded  and 
understaffed  to  handle  complex  criminal  fraud  cases,  and  also  charged  that  Canadian  laws  in  this  area 
were  inadequate.  However,  despite  the  dropping  of  criminal  charges,  civil  class  action  suits  against  Bre- 
X  directors,  advising  financial  firms  and  Kilbom  continued.  Bre-X  went  bankrupt  November  5,  1997 
although  some  of  its  subsidiaries  like  Bro-X  continued  until  2003.  In  May  1999,  the  Ontario  Securities 
Commission  charged  Felderhof  with  insider  trading.  No  other  member  of  Bre-X's  board  of  directors,  or 
others  associated  with  the  Busang  project,  were  charged  by  the  OSC.  The  OSC  admitted  that  there  is  no 
evidence  that  Felderhof  was  either  involved  in  the  fraud  or  was  aware  of  the  fraud. 

Mutual  Benefit  Life 
Insurance  Company  Ponzi 

From  1994  to  May  2004,  Mutual  Benefit  Life  Insurance  Company  purchased  life  insurance  policies 
from  the  elderly  and  persons  suffering  from  AIDS  and  other  chronic  illnesses  which  they  then  sold 

Scheme 

fractionalized  interests  in  insurance  policy  death  benefits,  known  as  “viatical  settlements,”  to  30,000 
investors  scamming  more  than  $837  million.  Mastermind  lawyer  Anthony  Livoti  was  sentenced  to  10 
years  in  prison  and  ordered  to  pay  over  $800  million  in  restitution  to  victims. 

2000s  Energy  Crisis 

From  the  mid-1980s  to  September  2003,  the  inflation-adjusted  price  of  a  barrel  of  crude  oil  on  NYMEX 
was  generally  under  US$25/barrel.  During  2003,  the  price  rose  above  $30,  reached  $60  by  1 1  August 

2005,  and  peaked  at  $147.30  in  July  2008.  During  this  timeframe  in  2005,  ExxonMobil  surpassed  Wal- 
Mart  as  the  world's  largest  publicly  held  corporation  when  measured  by  revenue,  although  Wal-Mart 
remained  the  largest  by  number  of  employees.  ExxonMobil's  $340  billion  revenues  in  2005  were  a  25.5 
percent  increase  over  their  2004  revenues.  In  2006,  Wal-Mart  recaptured  the  lead  with  revenues  of 
$348.7  billion  against  ExxonMobil's  $335.1.  ExxonMobil  continued  to  lead  the  world  in  both  profits 
($39.5  billion  in  2006)  and  market  value  ($460.43  billion).  In  2007,  ExxonMobil  had  a  record  net 
income  of  $40.61  billion  on  $404,552  billion  of  revenue,  an  increase  largely  due  to  escalating  oil  prices 
as  their  actual  BOE  production  decreased  by  1  percent,  in  part  due  to  expropriation  of  their  Venezuelan 
assets  by  the  Chavez  government.  As  of  December  2013,  ExxonMobil  occupied  five  out  of  ten  slots  for 
Largest  Corporate  Annual  Earnings  of  All  Time  and  two  out  of  ten  on  Largest  Corporate  Quarterly 
Earnings. 

James  Paul  Lewis  Jr. 

In  May  2006,  James  Paul  Lewis,  Jr.  was  sentenced  to  30  years  in  federal  prison  for  running  a  $311 
million  Ponzi  scheme  over  a  20-year  period.  He  operated  under  the  name  Financial  Advisory 

Consultants  from  Lake  Forest,  California. 

Chinese  Ant  Fanns 

Scheme 

More  than  1  million  Chinese  people  lost  over  $1.2  billion  in  a  scheme  involving  ant  farming.  The 

Yilishen  Tianxi  Group  was  a  Chinese  company  established  in  1999  which  sold  traditional  Chinese 
medicine  products  made  from  ants.  People  invested  money  in  the  company,  purchasing  and  raising 
boxes  of  ants  with  the  promise  that  they  could  sell  the  ants  back  for  a  profit,  before  it  was  exposed  as  a 
ponzi  scheme  in  2007.  In  February  2008,  another  man  was  sentenced  to  death  in  the  same  province  of 
China  after  defrauding  investors  of  three  billion  yuan  (US$417  million)  in  a  similar  ant-breeding 
scheme. 

Lou  Pearlman 

On  June  27,  2007,  former  boy  band  mogul  Lou  Pearlman  was  indicted  by  a  grand  jury  on  several  counts 
of  fraud  and  money  laundering  which  for  running  a  $500  million  Ponzi  scheme  over  20  years;  he 
pleaded  guilty  and  was  sentenced  to  25  years  imprisonment.  Pearlman  died  while  still  in  custody  at  the 
Federal  Correctional  Institution  in  Miami,  Florida,  on  August  19,  2016  from  cardiac  arrest;  he  was  62 
years  old. 

The  Financial  Crisis  of 
2007-2008 

The  financial  crisis  of  2007-2008,  also  known  as  the  global  financial  crisis  and  the  2008  financial  crisis, 
is  considered  by  many  economists  to  have  been  the  worst  financial  crisis  since  the  Great  Depression  of 
the  1930s.  It  began  in  2007  with  a  crisis  in  the  subprime  mortgage  market  in  the  USA,  and  developed 
into  a  full-blown  international  banking  crisis  with  the  collapse  of  the  investment  bank  Lehman  Brothers 
on  September  15,  2008.  Excessive  risk  taking  by  banks  such  as  Lehman  Brothers  helped  to  magnify  the 
financial  impact  globally.  Massive  bail-outs  of  financial  institutions  and  other  palliative  monetary  and 
fiscal  policies  were  employed  to  prevent  a  possible  collapse  of  the  world's  financial  system.  The  crisis 
was  nonetheless  followed  by  a  global  economic  downturn,  the  Great  Recession.  The  European  debt 
crisis,  a  crisis  in  the  banking  system  of  the  European  countries  using  the  euro,  followed  later.  The  US 
Senate's  Levin-Coburn  Report  concluded  that  the  crisis  was  the  result  of  "high  risk,  complex  financial 
products;  undisclosed  conflicts  of  interest;  the  failure  of  regulators,  the  credit  rating  agencies,  and  the 
market  itself  to  rein  in  the  excesses  of  Wall  Street."  There  is  a  direct  relationship  between  declines  in 
wealth  and  declines  in  consumption  and  business  investment,  which  along  with  government  spending, 
represent  the  economic  engine.  Between  June  2007  and  November  2008,  Americans  lost  an  estimated 
average  of  more  than  a  quarter  of  their  collective  net  worth.  By  early  November  2008,  a  broad  US  stock 
index  the  S&P  500,  was  down  45%  from  its  2007  high.  Housing  prices  had  dropped  20%  from  their 

2006  peak,  with  futures  markets  signaling  a  30-35%  potential  drop.  Total  home  equity  in  the  United 

States,  which  was  valued  at  $13  trillion  at  its  peak  in  2006,  had  dropped  to  $8.8  trillion  by  mid-2008  and 
was  still  falling  in  late  2008.  Total  retirement  assets,  Americans'  second-largest  household  asset,  dropped 
by  22%,  from  $10.3  trillion  in  2006  to  $8  trillion  in  mid-2008.  During  the  same  period,  savings  and 
investment  assets  (apart  from  retirement  savings)  lost  $1.2  trillion  and  pension  assets  lost  $1.3  trillion. 
Taken  together,  these  losses  total  a  staggering  $8.3  trillion.  Since  peaking  in  the  second  quarter  of  2007, 
household  wealth  is  down  $14  trillion.  Further,  US  homeowners  had  extracted  significant  equity  in  their 
homes  in  the  years  leading  up  to  the  crisis,  which  they  could  no  longer  do  once  housing  prices  collapsed. 
Free  cash  used  by  consumers  from  home  equity  extraction  doubled  from  $627  billion  in  200 1  to  $1,428 
billion  in  2005  as  the  housing  bubble  built,  a  total  of  nearly  $5  trillion  over  the  period.  US  home 
mortgage  debt  relative  to  GDP  increased  from  an  average  of  46%  during  the  1990s  to  73%  during  2008, 
reaching  $10.5  trillion.  On  February  9,  2012,  it  was  announced  that  the  five  largest  mortgage  servicers 
(Ally/GMAC,  Bank  of  America,  Citi,  JPMorgan  Chase,  and  Wells  Fargo)  agreed  to  a  historic  settlement 
with  the  federal  government  and  49  states.  The  settlement,  known  as  the  National  Mortgage  Settlement 
(NMS),  required  the  servicers  to  provide  about  $26  billion  in  relief  to  distressed  homeowners  and  in 
direct  payments  to  the  states  and  federal  government.  This  settlement  amount  makes  the  NMS  the 
second  largest  civil  settlement  in  U.S.  history,  only  trailing  the  Tobacco  Master  Settlement  Agreement. 

The  five  banks  were  also  required  to  comply  with  305  new  mortgage  servicing  standards.  Oklahoma 

held  out  and  agreed  to  settle  with  the  banks  separately.  During  the  2007  subprime  mortgage  crisis, 
Goldman  was  able  to  profit  from  the  collapse  in  subprime  mortgage  bonds  in  the  summer  of  2007  by 
short-selling  subprime  mortgage-backed  securities.  Two  Goldman  traders,  Michael  Swenson  and  Josh 
Birnbaum,  are  credited  with  being  responsible  for  the  firm's  large  profits  during  the  crisis.  The  pair, 
members  of  Goldman's  structured  products  group  in  New  York,  made  a  profit  of  $4  billion  by  "betting" 
on  a  collapse  in  the  sub-prime  market,  and  shorting  mortgage-related  securities.  By  summer  2007,  they 
persuaded  colleagues  to  see  their  point  of  view  and  convinced  skeptical  risk  management  executives. 

The  firm  initially  avoided  large  subprime  writedowns,  and  achieved  a  net  profit  due  to  significant  losses 
on  non-prime  securitized  loans  being  offset  by  gains  on  short  mortgage  positions.  The  firm's  viability 
was  later  called  into  question  as  the  crisis  intensified  in  September  2008.  Gary  D.  Cohn  who  was 

President  and  Co-Chief  Operating  Officer  and  director  of  Goldman  Sachs  at  he  time  went  on  to  become 
the  chief  economic  advisor  to  President  Donald  Trump  and  Director  of  the  National  Economic  Council. 

Washington  Mutual  Inc. 

Washington  Mutual,  Inc.,  abbreviated  to  WaMu,  was  a  savings  bank  holding  company  and  the  fonner 
owner  of  Washington  Mutual  Bank,  which  was  the  United  States'  largest  savings  and  loan  association 
until  its  collapse  in  2008.  All  assets  but  only  some  liabilities  (including  deposits,  covered  bonds,  and 
other  secured  debt)  of  Washington  Mutual  Bank  were  assumed  by  JP Morgan  Chase.  Under  the  deal, 

JP Morgan  Chase  acquired  all  the  banking  operations  of  WaMu,  including  $307  billion  in  assets  and 
$188  billion  in  deposits,  for  a  price  of  $1.9  billion  plus  debt  assumptions. 

Tom  Petters 

On  December  1,  2008,  in  Saint  Cloud,  Minnesota,  celebrity  businessman  Tom  Petters  was  charged  by 
the  Federal  government  as  the  mastermind  behind  a  $3.65  billion  Ponzi  scheme  that  bilked  investors 
over  a  13-year  period.  Petters  lived  an  extravagant  lifestyle  supported  by  his  Ponzi  scheme.  Petters  faced 
20  counts  of  wire  and  mail  fraud,  conspiracy,  and  money  laundering  for  the  alleged  investment  scheme 
that  ran  from  1995  through  September  2008.  He  is  expected  to  plead  not  guilty,  but  his  co-conspirators 
in  the  Ponzi  scheme,  Deanna  Coleman,  Robert  White,  Michael  Catain,  and  Larry  Reynolds,  have  all 
pleaded  guilty.  The  Petters  Ponzi  scheme  came  to  an  end  when  Petters'  top  co-conspirator  Deanna 

Coleman  turned  government  informant  and  wore  a  wire.  Petters  and  the  others  were  planning  to  flee  to 
countries  without  extradition  agreements  with  the  U.S.  Deanna  Coleman  and  Michael  Catain  had 
properties  in  Costa  Rica.  On  December  2,  2009,  Tom  Petters  was  found  guilty  in  the  U.S.  District  Court 
in  St.  Paul,  Minnesota  on  20  counts  of  wire  and  mail  fraud.  The  US  federal  government  is  now  seeking 
forfeiture  of  all  Petters'  assets.  He  later  was  convicted  for  turning  Petters  Group  Worldwide  into  a  $3.65 
billion  Ponzi  scheme  and  was  sentenced  to  50  years  in  federal  prison.  Reporters  from  the  Minneapolis 

Star  Tribune  stated  that  it  is  extremely  unlikely  that  Petters  will  ever  again  live  as  a  free  citizen. 

Stanford  Ponzi  Scheme 

Robert  Allen  Stanford  is  an  American  former  financier  and  sponsor  of  professional  sports  who  is  serving 
a  110-year  federal  prison  sentence,  having  been  convicted  of  charges  that  his  investment  company  was  a 
massive  Ponzi  scheme  and  fraud.  Stanford  was  the  chairman  of  the  now  defunct  Stanford  Financial 

Group  of  Companies.  A  fifth-generation  Texan  who  once  resided  in  Saint  Croix,  U.S.  Virgin  Islands,  he 
holds  dual  citizenship,  being  a  citizen  of  Antigua  and  Barbuda  and  the  United  States.  He  contributed 
millions  of  dollars  to  politicians  in  both  Antigua  and  the  United  States  amongst  other  countries. 

In  early  2009,  Stanford  became  the  subject  of  several  fraud  investigations,  and  on  February  17,  2009, 
was  charged  by  the  U.S.  Securities  and  Exchange  Commission  (SEC)  with  fraud  and  multiple  violations 
of  U.S.  securities  laws  for  alleged  "massive  ongoing  fraud"  involving  $7  billion  in  certificates  of 
deposits.  The  Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation  (FBI)  raided  Stanford's  offices  in  Houston,  Texas; 

Memphis,  Tennessee;  and  Tupelo,  Mississippi.  On  February  27,  2009,  the  SEC  amended  its  complaint  to 
describe  the  alleged  fraud  as  a  "massive  Ponzi  scheme".  He  "voluntarily  surrendered"  to  authorities  on 
June  18,  2009.  On  March  6,  2012,  Stanford  was  convicted  on  all  charges  except  a  single  count  of  wire 
fraud.  He  is  serving  his  110-year  sentence  at  United  States  Penitentiary,  Coleman  in  Coleman,  Florida. 

In  September  2014,  Stanford  appealed  his  conviction;  however,  the  appeals  court  rejected  the  appeal  in 
October  2015. 

Madoff  Ponzi  Scheme 

Bernard  Lawrence  "Bernie"  Madoff  is  an  American  fraudster  and  a  former  stockbroker,  investment 
advisor,  and  financier.  He  is  the  former  non-executive  chairman  of  the  NASDAQ  stock  market,  and  the 
admitted  operator  of  a  Ponzi  scheme  that  is  considered  the  largest  financial  fraud  in  U.S.  history.  He 
employed  at  the  firm  his  brother  Peter,  as  senior  managing  director  and  chief  compliance  officer;  Peter's 
daughter  Shana  Madoff,  as  the  firm's  rules  and  compliance  officer  and  attorney;  and  his  sons  Andrew 
and  Mark.  Peter  has  since  been  sentenced  to  10  years  in  prison  and  Mark  committed  suicide  by  hanging 
exactly  two  years  after  his  father's  arrest.  Andrew  died  of  lymphoma  on  September  3,  2014.  The  Madoff 
investment  scandal  defrauded  thousands  of  investors  of  billions  of  dollars.  Madoff  said  he  began  the 

Ponzi  scheme  in  the  early  1990s.  However,  federal  investigators  believe  the  fraud  began  as  early  as  the 
mid-1980s  and  may  have  begun  as  far  back  as  the  1970s.  Those  charged  with  recovering  the  missing 
money  believe  the  investment  operation  may  never  have  been  legitimate.  The  amount  missing  from 
client  accounts,  including  fabricated  gains,  was  almost  $65  billion.  The  Securities  Investor  Protection 
Corporation  (SIPC)  trustee  estimated  actual  losses  to  investors  of  $18  billion.  On  June  29,  2009,  Madoff 
was  sentenced  to  150  years  in  prison,  the  maximum  allowed.  Madoff  s  right-hand  man  and  financial 
chief,  Frank  DiPascali,  pleaded  guilty  to  10  federal  charges  in  2009  and  (like  Friehling)  testified  for  the 
government  at  the  trial  of  five  former  colleagues,  all  of  whom  were  convicted.  DiPascali  faced  a 

sentence  of  up  to  125  years,  but  he  died  of  lung  cancer  in  May  2015,  before  he  could  be  sentenced.  In 
the  fall  of  2013,  JPMorgan  began  talks  with  prosecutors  and  regulators  regarding  compliance  with  anti¬ 
money-laundering  and  know-your-customer  banking  regulations  in  connection  with  Madoff.  On  January 

7,  2014,  JPMorgan  agreed  to  pay  a  total  of  $2.05  billion  in  fines  and  penalties  to  settle  civil  and  criminal 
charges  related  to  its  role  in  the  Madoff  scandal.  The  government  filed  a  two-count  criminal  infonnation 
charging  JPMorgan  with  Bank  Secrecy  Act  violations,  but  the  charges  will  be  dismissed  within  two 
years  provided  that  JPMorgan  refonns  its  anti -money  laundering  procedures  and  cooperates  with  the 
government  in  its  investigation.  The  bank  agreed  to  forfeit  $1.7  billion.  The  lawsuit,  which  was  filed  on 
behalf  of  shareholders  against  Chief  Executive  Jamie  Dimon  and  other  high-ranking  JPMorgan 
employees,  used  statements  made  by  Bemie  Madoff  during  interviews  conducted  while  in  prison  in 

Butner,  North  Carolina  claiming  that  JPMorgan  officials  knew  of  the  fraud.  The  lawsuit  stated  that, 
"JPMorgan  was  uniquely  positioned  for  20  years  to  see  Madoffs  crimes  and  put  a  stop  to  them  ...  But 
faced  with  the  prospect  of  shutting  down  Madoffs  account  and  losing  lucrative  profits,  JPMorgan  -  at  its 
highest  level  -  chose  to  turn  a  blind  eye."  JPMorgan  also  agreed  to  pay  a  $350  million  fine  to  the  Office 
of  the  Comptroller  of  the  Currency  and  settle  the  suit  filed  against  it  by  Picard  for  $543  million. 

Nicholas  Cosmo 

On  January  26,  2009,  Nicholas  Cosmo,  founder  of  Agape  World,  surrendered  to  federal  authorities  in 
connection  with  a  suspected  $380  million  Ponzi  scheme.  Previously  convicted  of  fraud  in  1999,  Cosmo 
surrendered  at  the  Long  Island  Railroad  train  station  in  Hicksville,  N.Y.  and  was  sentenced  to  50  years 
imprisonment.  In  March  2009,  a  lawsuit  was  filed  in  New  York  against  Bank  of  America,  one  of  the 
largest  banks  in  the  United  States,  that  claimed  that  Bank  of  America  "established,  equipped  and  staffed" 
a  branch  office  in  the  headquarters  of  Mr.  Cosmo's  firm,  Agape  Merchant  Advance.  As  a  result,  the 
lawsuit  contends  that  the  bank  knowingly  "assisted,  facilitated  and  furthered"  Mr.  Cosmo's  fraudulent 
scheme. 

Dreier,  LLP  Ponzi  Scheme 

Marc  Stuart  Dreier  is  a  fonner  American  lawyer  who  was  sentenced  to  20  years  in  federal  prison  in  2009 
for  committing  investment  fraud  using  a  Ponzi  scheme.  He  is  scheduled  to  be  released  from  FCI 

Sandstone  on  October  26,  2026.  On  May  11,  2009,  he  pleaded  guilty  in  the  United  States  District  Court 
for  the  Southern  District  of  New  York  to  eight  charges  of  fraud,  which  included  one  count  of  conspiracy 
to  commit  securities  fraud  and  wire  fraud,  one  count  of  money  laundering,  one  count  of  securities  fraud, 
and  five  counts  of  wire  fraud  in  a  scheme  to  sell  $700  million  in  fictitious  promissory  notes.  Civil 
charges,  filed  in  December  2008  by  the  U.S.  Securities  and  Exchange  Commission,  are  pending. 

Troy  Wragg  and  Amanda 
Knorr 

On  November  16,  2009,  the  SEC  charged  four  individuals  and  two  companies  for  perpetrating  a  Ponzi 
scheme  to  defraud  over  300  investors  of  $30  million.  Pennsylvania-based  Mantria  Corporation,  run  by 
executives  Troy  Wragg  and  Amanda  Knorr,  supposedly  focused  on  green  initiatives  such  as  a  "carbon 
negative"  housing  community  in  Tennessee  and  an  organic  waste-derived  "biochar"  charcoal  substitute 
production  plant.  Between  September  2007  through  November  2009,  Mantria  Corporation  raised  funds 
through  Denver-based  Speed  of  Wealth  LLC,  run  by  Wayde  and  Donna  McKelvy.  The  SEC  alleged  that 
Mantria  and  Speed  of  Wealth  exaggerated  the  scope  and  success  of  Mantria's  operations.  Subsequent 
charges  estimate  Mantria  and  Speed  of  Wealth  raised  $54  million,  of  which  they  paid  $17.5  million  to 
investors,  using  investors'  own  funds  to  pay  those  returns. 

Scott  W.  Rothstein 

Scott  W.  Rothstein,  a  disbarred  lawyer  and  the  former  managing  shareholder,  chairman,  and  chief 
executive  officer  of  the  now-defunct  Rothstein  Rosenfeldt  Adler  law  firm  was  accused  of  funding  his 
philanthropy,  political  contributions,  law  firm  salaries,  and  an  extravagant  lifestyle  with  a  massive  $1.4 
billion  Ponzi  scheme.  Scott  Rothstein  turned  himself  in  to  federal  authorities  and  was  subsequently 
arrested  on  charges  related  to  the  Racketeer  Influenced  and  Corrupt  Organizations  Act  (RICO). 

Rothstein  was  denied  bond  by  U.S.  Magistrate  Judge  Robin  Rosenbaum,  who  ruled  that  due  to  his 
ability  to  forge  documents,  he  was  considered  a  flight  risk.  Although  his  arraignment  plea  was  not  guilty, 
Rothstein  cooperated  with  the  Government  and  reversed  his  plea  to  guilty  of  five  federal  crimes  on 

January  27,  2010.  He  was  sentenced  to  50  years,  despite  the  prosecution  asking  for  40  years. 

Nevin  Shapiro 

On  September  15,  2010,  Nevin  Shapiro  pleaded  guilty  to  a  2005-2009  Ponzi  scheme  in  a  Newark,  New 
Jersey  court.  The  scheme  brought  in  approximately  $880  million.  Headquartered  in  Miami,  the  scheme 
was  based  on  an  import/export  grocery  business  but  was  diverting  investments  to  attract  new  investors. 
Among  the  items  seized  as  a  result  of  his  plea  were  a  $5  million  Miami  mansion  and  a  yacht.  He  was 
known  as  "Lil  Luke"  because  of  his  relationship  with  the  Miami  Hurricanes  football  team.  This  was  a 
tribute  to  Luther  Campbell,  a  famous  fonner  Hurricanes  booster.  On  August  16,  2011,  in  a  story  broken 
by  Yahoo!  Sports,  Shapiro  stated  that  his  support  of  the  team  included  cash,  entertainment,  prostitutes, 
and  gifts,  all  against  NCAA  mles. 

Zeek  Rewards 

On  August  17,  2012,  the  SEC  filed  a  federal  case  against  defendants  Paul  Burks  and  Zeek  Rewards, 
based  out  of  North  Carolina.  Paul  Burks  ran  the  entity  of  Zeek  Rewards,  a  fraudulent  investment 
opportunity  that  promised  investors  returns  as  high  as  1 .5%  per  day  by  sharing  in  the  profits  of  Zeekler, 
a  penny  auction.  Investors  were  encouraged  to  recruit  new  members  to  increase  their  returns.  New 
investors  had  to  pay  a  monthly  "subscription"  of  up  to  $99/month  and  an  initial  investment  of  up  to 
$10,000.  The  higher  the  initial  investment,  the  higher  the  returns  appeared.  The  Zeekler  entity  was  an 
online  penny  auction  that  served  as  a  front  for  the  Zeek  Rewards  entity.  Investors  in  the  Zeek  Rewards 
scheme  were  promised  payouts  from  the  profits  made  on  Zeekler  by  recruiting  new  members  and  giving 
out  "bids"  that  customers  would  use  on  the  penny  auction.  While  the  Zeekler  website  did  bring  in 

revenue,  it  was  only  about  1%  of  what  investors  believed  was  being  brought  into  the  Zeek  Rewards 
company.  The  vast  majority  of  dispersed  funds  were  paid  out  from  newly  recruited  investors.  It  is 
believed  that  the  Ponzi  scheme  was  a  $600,000,000  enterprise  and  the  number  of  affected  investors  was 
1,000,000  when  the  SEC  filed  suit.  This  made  Zeek  Rewards  the  largest  ponzi  scheme  in  history  by 
number  of  affected  investors,  even  though  numerous  other  ponzi  schemes  have  had  larger  enterprise 
values.  Paul  Burks  paid  $4M  to  the  SEC  and  agreed  to  cooperate.  It  remains  unknown  how  much,  if  any, 
of  the  funds  lost  in  the  scheme  will  be  returned  to  affected  investors,  as  of  August  2012. 

2015-16  stock  market 
selloff 

The  Dow  Jones  fell  888  points  during  a  two-day  period,  1300  points  from  August  18-21.  On  Monday, 
August  24,  world  stock  markets  were  down  substantially,  wiping  out  all  gains  made  in  2015,  with 
interlinked  drops  in  commodities  such  as  oil,  which  hit  a  six-year  price  low,  copper,  and  most  of  Asian 
currencies,  but  the  Japanese  yen,  losing  value  against  the  United  States  dollar.  With  this  plunge,  an 
estimated  ten  trillion  dollars  had  been  wiped  off  the  books  on  global  markets  since  June. 

Aftennath  of  the  United 
Kingdom  European  Union 
membership  referendum, 
2016 

World  Markets  tumble  after  the  United  Kingdom  voted  to  leave  the  European  Union.  Investors  lost  more 
than  the  equivalent  of  2  trillion  United  States  dollars  on  24  June  2016,  making  this  day  the  worst  single 
day  drop  in  history,  in  absolute  terms,  according  to  data  from  S&P  Global.  The  losses  were  extended  to  a 
combined  total  of  the  equivalent  of  3  trillion  dollars  by  additional  selling  on  27  June  2016  according  to 
data  from  S&P  Global. 

|  SOURCE:  Wikipedia  (with  some  corrections,  additions,  and  other  edits)  | 

Where  did  all  the  money  from  these  financial  fiascos  go,  the  trillions  of  dollars  stolen  from  millions  of  hard¬ 
working  victims  who  were  sold  lies?  How  many  billions  of  dollars  has  been  stolen  by  others  who  misled 
investors  in  similar  legal  pyramid,  get-rich-quick,  or  other  Ponzi  type  schemes?  Why  do  so  few  of  those  actually 
responsible  get  prosecuted  for  their  blatant  criminal  actions  towards  so  many?  Why  do  so  many  corporate 
wrongdoers  get  massive  multi-million-dollar  payouts  and  severance  packages  when  they  commit  unethical  and 
criminal  acts,  while  also  usually  avoiding  any  prosecution  by  the  law  or  receive  an  extremely  light  sentence  for 
their  acts?  How  many  of  those  responsible  are  still  spending  the  money  they  stole?  Why  are  corporations  and  the 
corrupt  individuals  running  them,  which  have  a  known  history  of  fraud,  allowed  to  simply  pay  a  fine  and/or 
settle  a  lawsuit  and  then  continue  doing  business  as  usual  only  to  repeat  a  similar  criminal  action  later?  Why  has 
America  had  a  continuous  economic  boom  and  bust  history  since  1 929?  How  can  a  few  be  allowed  to  so  easily 
rob  nearly  the  whole  society  and  get  away  with  it?  The  PBS  frontline  reports:  ‘Inside  the  Meltdown  ’  February 
17,  2009,  ‘Ten  Trillion  and  Counting’  March  24,  2009,  'Breaking  the  Bank  ’  June  16,  2009,  ‘Money,  Power  and 
Wall  Street’  April  24,  2012,  ‘The  Untouchables  ’  January  22,  2013,  and  ‘Black  Money  ’  April  7,  2009  all  focus  on 
the  recent  financial  fiascos  which  were  caused  by  corporate  greed  combined  with  lax  oversight  and  regulations. 
And  Mark  Archbar's  2003  documentary  'The  Corporation'  gives  a  detailed  history  of  corporations. 

These  financial  fiascos  are  constant  reminders  that  the  capitalist  monetary  system  can  be  manipulated  by  the 
greedy,  and  that  it  will  always  need  strict  government  regulations  and  oversight,  not  less,  if  it  is  to  ever  be  a 
successful  system.  Between  the  financial  crises  and  the  rising  global  food  prices  it  shows  how  easily 
manipulated  the  monetary  system  is  by  the  few  while  controlling  the  basic  necessities  in  life  of  the  majority. 

Why  are  exorbitant  profits  allowed  to  be  made  on  things  which  are  vital  to  life  and  a  functioning  society  like 
medicine,  food,  water,  shelter,  electricity,  Internet,  waste  removal,  etc.?  When  coiporations  begin  charging  so 
much  for  the  necessities  in  life,  and  Homo  sapiens  and  the  Earth  itself  is  suffering  as  a  result,  shouldn’t  the 
government  intervene  to  protect  citizens  and  the  environment?  If  corporations  don’t  want  to  offer  these  basic 
services  to  citizens  for  a  reasonable  amount  of  money,  then  why  can’t  the  government  offer  them  instead  as  it 
has  in  the  past  before  it  began  outsourcing  nearly  everything  to  independent  contractors,  often  times  with  little  to 
no  oversight?  How  can  food  speculation  be  allowed  in  financial  markets  when  it  could  cause  price  swings  in 
staple  foods  like  wheat,  maize,  and  soy?  How  much  better  would  the  world  function  without  a  focus  on  money 
and  profits?  Couldn’t  all  consumers  have  the  same  products  and  quality  services  which  are  only  available  to  the 
few?  The  same  quality  housing?  Is  this  Utopian  future  even  remotely  possible?  Perhaps  it  would  look  something 
like  a  science-fiction  movie,  all  the  Homo  sapiens  are  dressed  nearly  identical,  they  live  in  nearly  identical 
skyscrapers,  food,  medicine,  and  shelter  are  freely  available  to  all  Homo  sapiens,  with  almost  all  tasks  being 
automated  and  done  by  robots  allowing  Homo  sapiens  to  devote  their  work  hours  towards  fields  they  have  a 
talent  or  interest  in,  and  they  are  motivated  by  knowledge  and  discovery,  not  money  and  profit.  Perhaps  Homo 
sapiens  will  revert  back  to  a  barter  system  which  is  prevalent  in  many  traditional  societies  even  today  and  has 
found  renewed  use  on  the  Internet.  What  would  happen  if  consumers  stopped  consuming  as  much,  would  the 
world  economy  collapse  or  just  shrink?  Would  the  world  just  have  a  surplus  of  products  like  many  Western 


countries  have  now?  What  would  happen  if  businesses  simply  broke  even,  instead  of  making  exorbitant  profits 
from  marking  up  the  cost  of  commodities  and  other  goods  that  only  cost  a  small  fraction  of  the  profits  to 
manufacture?  Why  can't  a  business  break  even  and  make  no  profit,  every  employee  being  paid  a  good  salary 
based  on  performance,  and  not  a  pay  scale  based  on  irrelevant  education,  seniority,  gender,  or  other  favoritism? 

Warmongers 

Society  has  experienced  peace  and  war  transitioning  from  one  to  the  other  throughout  the  history  of  civilization, 
and  in  nearly  every  society  during  one  time  or  another  there  have  always  been  warmongers  who  cause  this 
instability  in  their  attempts  to  suppress,  manipulate,  and  rule  the  world.  Until  the  establishment  of  true 
democracy  in  modem  times,  the  entire  history  of  major  large  civilizations  has  been  mainly  based  on  aristocracy, 
monarchy,  oligarchy,  theocracy,  communism,  or  fascism  type  system  of  rule,  be  it  the  Mayan,  Aztec,  Asian, 
Egyptian,  Greek,  Hun,  Roman,  USSR,  Nazi,  or  other.  And  no  matter  the  title  be  it  an  emperor,  czar,  king, 
dictator,  sultan,  or  puppet  government,  the  few  and  powerful  with  the  largest  military  have  always  attempted  to 
rule  the  world  by  sovereign  means,  many  of  them  while  under  the  delusion  of  being  in  power  as  an  instrument  of 
God.  And  as  history  has  shown  they  have  done  nothing  but  destroy  the  civilized  world  with  their  actions, 
ultimately  hindering  the  progress  of  Homo  sapiens  as  a  whole,  because  to  a  despot  human  life  is  cheap.  War 
never  stops  if  madmen  have  power  and  are  in  control,  it  only  pauses  to  wait  for  new  victims.  Stop  giving  the 
madmen  power  and  the  tools  with  which  to  wage  war,  and  wars  will  end.  Albert  Einstein  made  the  following 
remarks  about  war, 

“For  force  always  attracts  men  of  low  morality,  and  I  believe  it  to  be  an  invariable  rule  that  tyrants  of  genius  are  succeeded  by 
scoundrels.” 

“This  topic  brings  me  to  that  worst  outcrop  of  herd  life,  the  military  system,  which  I  abhor.  That  a  man  can  take  pleasure  in 
marching  in  fours  to  the  strains  of  a  band  is  enough  to  make  me  despise  him.  He  has  only  been  given  his  big  brain  by  mistake; 
unprotected  spinal  marrow  was  all  he  needed.  This  plaguespot  of  civilization  ought  to  be  abolished  with  all  possible  speed. 

Heroism  on  command,  senseless  violence,  and  all  the  loathsome  nonsense  that  goes  by  the  name  of  patriotism-how 
passionately  I  hate  them!  How  vile  and  despicable  seems  war  to  me!  I  would  rather  be  hacked  in  pieces  than  take  part  in  such 
an  abominable  business.  My  opinion  of  the  human  race  is  high  enough  that  I  believe  this  bogey  would  have  disappeared  long 
ago,  had  the  sound  sense  of  the  peoples  not  been  systematically  corrupted  by  commercial  and  political  interests  acting  through 
the  schools  and  the  Press.”  (52) 

"In  two  weeks  the  sheep  like  masses  of  any  country  can  be  worked  up  by  the  newspapers  into  such  a  state  of  excited  fury  that 
men  are  prepared  to  put  on  unifonns  and  kill  and  be  killed,  for  the  sake  of  the  sordid  ends  of  a  few  interested  parties. 

Compulsory  military  service  seems  to  me  the  most  disgraceful  symptom  of  that  deficiency  in  personal  dignity  from  which 
civilized  mankind  is  suffering  today.”  (56) 

"One  has  to  realize  that  the  powerful  industrial  groups  concerned  in  the  manufacture  of  arms  are  doing  their  best  in  all 
countries  to  prevent  the  peaceful  settlement  of  international  disputes,  and  that  rulers  can  only  achieve  this  great  end  if  they  are 
sure  of  the  vigorous  support  of  the  majority  of  their  people." 

"The  armament  industry  is  indeed  one  of  the  greatest  dangers  that  beset  mankind.  It  is  the  hidden  evil  power  behind  the 
nationalism  which  is  rampant  everywhere..." 

"And  those  who  have  an  interest  in  keeping  the  machinery  of  war  going  are  a  very  powerful  body;  they  will  stop  at  nothing  to 
make  public  opinion  subservient  to  their  murderous  ends.”  (62) 

Homo  sapiens  have  had  a  history  of  either  wanting  to  assimilate,  change,  or  obliterate  things  it  does  not  frilly 
understand.  Based  on  2010  data  from  the  Political  Instability  Task  Force,  there  have  been  at  least  43  genocides 
since  1956  which  resulted  in  the  deaths  of  at  least  50,000,000  Homo  sapiens.  One  can  still  see  the  scars  left 
behind  by  the  meaningless  conquests  of  the  few  greedy  tyrants  for  power  over  the  world  which  would  never 
fully  submit.  How  many  millions  of  ignorant  Homo  sapiens  were  led  to  their  deaths  having  followed  war 
mongering  idiots  who  convinced  them  to  fight  for  a  futile  senseless  cause,  be  it  a  pseudo  religion,  political 
views,  hate,  greed,  revenge,  or  other  worthless  purpose?  Why  do  the  modern-day  politicians  and  military  leaders 
who  declare  war  never  actually  fight  during  the  war,  they  only  lead  others  to  their  death?  How  could  a  war  be 
fought  if  everyone  refused  to  fight  and  no  one  took  part  in  any  battles?  What  does  it  say  when  a  government 
must  enact  a  policy  of  conscription  in  order  to  obtain  soldiers  to  wage  its  war?  Each  day  1 8  to  22  American 


veterans  commit  suicide,  what  does  this  say  about  the  mental  consequences  of  war  on  the  soldiers  who  fight  in 
these  wars?  (182) 

One  could  argue  that  Americans  have  always  had  a  military  mentality  from  the  conquering  and  assimilation  of 
the  indigenous,  to  the  controversial  claims  made  on  the  western  states  with  Mexico.  But  the  true  modern-day 
American  military  mentality  came  as  a  result  of  World  War  11,  and  it  has  persisted  and  grown  even  more 
powerful  over  time  into  the  Korean,  Vietnam,  Iraq,  and  Afghanistan  wars,  while  continually  being  justified  as  an 
act  done  to  preserve  America’s  freedom,  and  labeling  it  a  ‘a  cold  war’,  ‘ the  war  against  communism  or  ‘the 
war  on  terrorism  Albert  Einstein  described  the  American  military  mentality  in  saying, 

"The  tendencies  we  have  mentioned  are  something  new  for  America.  They  arose  when,  under  the  influence  of  the  two  World 
Wars  and  the  consequent  concentration  of  all  forces  on  a  military  goal,  a  predominantly  military  mentality  developed,  which 
with  the  almost  sudden  victory  became  even  more  accentuated.  The  characteristic  feature  of  this  mentality  is  that  people  place 
the  importance  of  what  Bertrand  Russell  so  tellingly  terms  "naked  power"  far  above  all  other  factors  which  affect  the  relations 
between  peoples.  The  Germans,  misled  by  Bismarck's  successes  in  particular,  underwent  just  such  a  transformation  of  their 
mentality-in  consequence  of  which  they  were  entirely  ruined  in  less  than  a  hundred  years." 

“Instead,  the  military  mentality  raises  "naked  power"  as  a  goal  in  itself  one  of  the  strangest  illusions  to  which  men  can 
succumb.”  (63) 


2017  United  States  Military  Spending  Compared  with  other  Agencies 

Dept,  of  Defense  and  Dept  of  Veterans  Affairs 

$302,622,745,563 

Dept,  of  Agriculture 

$37,255,552,970 

Dept,  of  Education 

$60,762,568,254 

Dept,  of  Housing  and  Urban  Development 

$34,018,548,449 

Dept,  of  Energy 

$23,477,536,922 

National  Aeronautics  and  Space  Administration 

$14,641,116,354 

U.S.  Agency  for  International  Development 

$9,842,873,524 

Department  of  Labor 

$7,737,949,101 

Dept,  of  the  Interior 

$5,196,135,916 

National  Science  Foundation 

$3,208,405,889 

Environmental  Protection  Agency 

$1,557,851,075 

Millennium  Challenge  Corporation 

$768,570,743 

National  Foundation  on  the  Arts  and  the  Humanities 

$518,981,004 

Smithsonian  Institution 

$140,373,370 

SOURCE:  www.USAsnendina.gov 

In  2016,  the  total  world  military  expenditures  were  $1,686,000,000,000  with  the  top  5  countries  spending  2/3  of 
the  total,  and  the  United  States  alone  spending  1/3  of  the  total  at  $611,000,000,000.  The  remaining  4  countries 
were:  China  $215,000,000,000  -  Russia  $69,200,000,000  -  Saudi  Arabia  $63,700,000,000  -  and  India 
$55,900,000,000.  (432)  Would  it  not  be  more  logical  to  spend  this  money  on  education,  environmental  protection, 
science,  and  humanitarian  assistance  instead  of  war,  destruction,  and  excessive  unnecessary  preparedness?  If  the 
United  States  spent  even  half  of  what  it  does  for  defense  and  war  on  international  development  and  humanitarian 
assistance  instead,  would  it  not  be  viewed  as  more  of  a  compassionate  nation  instead  of  a  warmongering  and 
destructive  one  who  polices  the  world?  Martin  Luther  King  Jr.  wrote, 

“One  day  we  must  come  to  see  that  peace  is  not  merely  a  distant  goal  that  we  seek  but  a  means  by  which  we  arrive  at  that 
goal.  We  must  pursue  peaceful  ends  through  peaceful  means.  How  much  longer  must  we  play  at  deadly  war  games  before  we 
heed  the  plaintive  please  of  the  unnumbered  dead  and  maimed  of  past  wars?. ..Wisdom  bom  out  of  experience  should  tell  us 
that  war  is  obsolete.” 


“Therefore  I  suggest  that  the  philosophy  and  strategy  of  nonviolence  become  immediately  a  subject  for  study  and  for  serious 
experimentation  in  every  field  of  human  conflict,  by  no  means  excluding  the  relations  between  nations.  It  is,  after  all,  nation¬ 
states  which  make  war,  which  have  produced  the  weapons  that  threaten  the  survival  of  mankind  and  which  are  both  genocidal 
and  suicidal  in  character.” 

“It  is  not  enough  to  say,  “We  must  not  wage  war.”  It  is  necessary  to  love  peace  and  sacrifice  for  it.  We  must  concentrate  not 
merely  on  the  eradication  of  war  but  on  the  affirmation  of  peace.”  (230) 

From  Ahimsa  to  Martin  Luther  King  Jr.,  the  anti-war  and  anti-violence  message  has  existed  for  thousands  of 
years,  but  it  is  perhaps  more  prevalent  and  popular  now  than  at  any  other  point  during  history.  And  while  wars 
and  violent  conflicts  are  fewer  than  in  centuries  past,  the  many  antiwar  and  protest  songs  that  Phil  Ochs  wrote 
and  sang  50  years  ago  are  still  very  relevant  today,  along  with  similar  antiwar  messages  reiterated  in  other  songs 
like:  John  Lennon’s  ‘Imagine’,  The  Plastic  Ono  Band's  'Give Peace  a  Chance',  Edwin  Star’s  ‘War’,  Rage 
Against  the  Machine's  'Bulls  on  Parade',  'Zombie'  by:  The  Cranberries,  Paul  McCartney's  'Pipes  of  Peace',  Black 
Sabbath’s  ‘War  Pigs’,  Marvin  Gaye's  'What’s  Going  On',  Bob  Dylan's  'Masters  of  War',  Metallica’s  ‘One’,  Pink 
Floyd's  'The  Dogs  of  War1,  several  songs  by  The  Clash,  Bob  Marley's  'No  More  Trouble',  Peace  Train '  by:  Cat 
Stevens,  and  a  few  hundred  others.  There  are  numerous  antiwar  literary  works  from  early  Greek  works  like 
Aristophanes's  comedy  'Lysistrata',  to  Emery  Reves's  1945  book  'The  Anatomy  of  Peace'  and  Smedley  Butler's 
1935  war  profiteering  expose  'War  is  a  Racket’.  There  are  even  thousands  of  movies  and  other  media  promoting 
peace  and  love,  but  it  is  too  often  overshadowed  by  the  overwhelming  amount  of  media  which  encourages  war 
and  violence.  War  is  promoted,  glamorized,  and  glorified  in  movies,  games,  and  other  entertainment,  children’s 
toys  represent  the  tools  of  war  while  children  are  encouraged  from  an  early  age  to  accept  war  as  just  another  part 
of  life  and  something  to  have  fun  with.  Entertainment  and  even  the  mainstream  news  media  very  rarely,  if  at  all, 
show  the  actual  reality  or  the  consequences  of  war,  the  dead  bodies,  injured  civilians,  the  chaos,  and  destruction. 
Instead  war  is  often  shown  as  a  glamorous  explosion  or  a  bloody  fight  in  which  no  one  is  injured,  and  everything 
is  alright  in  the  end,  and  if  someone  does  die  it  is  usually  the  bad  guy  who  deserved  it  or  the  hero  who  died 
trying  to  save  the  world,  and  to  whom  everyone  should  now  look  up  to  and  try  to  be  more  like.  The  mainstream 
news  media  too  often  shows  the  acts  of  war  from  afar  on  a  point  of  view  camera  attached  to  the  bomb  itself  or 
from  a  camera  attached  to  the  aircraft  dropping  the  bomb,  but  rarely  if  ever  is  the  real  aftermath  shown  up  close 
and  in  detail.  The  United  States  Armed  Forces  award  various  medals,  service  ribbons,  and  badges  for  a  wide 
range  of  things,  but  it  is  in  effect  an  award  system  based  in  part  on  violence,  destruction,  and  death.  Yearly 
holidays  remind  the  world  of  the  past  wars,  and  war  is  memorialized  with  monuments  and  in  museums  showing 
the  tools  of  war  as  amazing,  awe-inspiring,  and  something  to  be  cherished.  Why  are  there  so  many  monuments 
memorializing  war,  violence,  and  destruction  while  so  few  are  dedicated  to  peace,  non-violence,  and  love?  Ina 
Corrine  Brown  wrote, 

“We  award  metals  to  the  men  who  are  most  successful  in  killing  enemies  in  wartime  and  we  honor  the  dead  who  lose  their 
own  lives  in  an  effort  to  take  the  lives  of  their  adversaries.  Thus  in  one  set  of  circumstances,  the  man  who  takes  a  life  is  a 
criminal  but  in  a  different  set  of  circumstances  he  is  a  hero.  There  are  many  peoples  in  the  world  to  whom  these  particular 
distinctions  are  utterly  meaningless.  Some  Eskimos,  who  readily  justified  one  man's  killing  another  in  a  quarrel  and  who 
considered  it  a  duty  to  end  the  lives  of  one's  aged  and  infirm  parents,  found  it  impossible  to  conceive  of  wars  between  villages 
and  tribes.  When  a  European  tried  to  explain  to  a  Melanesian  cannibal  the  large  number  of  causalities  in  World  War  I,  the 
cannibal  was  completely  bewildered  to  learn  that  the  annies  fought  to  kill  but  that  neither  side  ate  the  victims-to  him,  it  was 
both  immoral  and  stupidly  wasteful  to  kill  more  people  than  you  could  or  would  eat.”  (25) 

It  isn't  considered  a  war  crime  when  a  civilian  is  killed  as  a  result  of  war,  it  is  considered  by  those  waging  the 
war  as  just  collateral  damage.  Incidents  like  the  infamous  ‘2007  Collateral  Murder’  are  considered  by  the 
military  to  be  nothing  more  than  accidental  mistakes  of  war  and  just  an  inevitable  part  of  war,  while  justice  is 
never  served  in  incidents  like  the  ‘Mai  Lai  Massacre  ’.  Since  recorded  history,  an  estimated  3 15,232,919  to 
754,733,827  Homo  sapiens  have  died  as  a  result  of  all  the  wars  ever  fought.  (130)  UNICEF  reports  that  tens  of 
thousands  of  children  are  recruited  and  used  as  soldiers  in  armed  conflicts  around  the  world,  some  of  them  as 
young  as  8  years  old.  (265)  How  many  millions  of  children  through  either  brainwashing  or  use  of  force,  have 
fought  and  died  in  all  the  wars  over  the  last  5,000  years?  Wars  are  now  fought  on  a  much  smaller  scale  than  in 
the  past  which  involved  military  supeipowers  marching  millions  of  soldiers  to  their  deaths.  Today’s  military  uses 
technological  weapons  to  kill  their  enemies  in  silence  from  afar  without  any  warning,  and  like  all  weapons  of 


war  do,  with  no  regard  if  the  final  target  also  includes  innocent  civilians.  Since  World  War  II,  most  military 
conflicts  have  been  called  ‘police  actions  ’,  and  with  no  formal  declaration  of  war  proxy  wars  have  also  become 
far  more  common  and  are  sometimes  fought  for  decades.  These  new  wars  are  funded  by  world  supeipowers 
which  use  other  nations  like  the  chessboard  in  which  to  play  their  deadly  and  destructive  game  of  war.  Between 
1991  and  2017  the  United  States  and  British  military  forces  launched  2,217  Tomahawk  cruise  missiles,  all 
without  warning  and  with  little  regard  for  innocent  civilians. 

By  operating  more  than  100  black  site  prisons  in  28  countries  since  the  War  on  Terror  began  in  2001,  the  United 
States  has  circumvented  the  Geneva  Conventions  of  1949,  War  Crimes  Act  of  1996,  the  1984  UN  Convention 
against  Torture,  and  other  international  laws  regarding  torture  and  how  prisoners  of  war  are  treated.  The  Central 
Intelligence  Agency  (CIA),  the  Defense  Intelligence  Agency  (DIA),  and  various  divisions  of  the  U.S.  Armed 
Forces  engaged  in  a  program  of  systematic  torture  called  ‘Enhanced  Interrogation  Techniques  ’.  Methods  of 
interrogation  included:  beating,  binding  in  contorted  stress  positions,  hooding,  subjection  to  deafening  noise, 
sleep  deprivation  to  the  point  of  hallucination,  deprivation  of  food  and  drink,  withholding  medical  care  for 
wounds,  waterboarding,  walling,  sexual  humiliation,  subjection  to  extreme  heat  or  extreme  cold,  confinement  in 
small  coffin-like  boxes,  and  repeated  slapping.  In  2010,  it  was  estimated  there  were  26,000  prisoners  being  held 
at  black  site  prisons,  with  most  of  the  terrorist,  or  enemy  combatants  as  they  are  labeled,  being  detained 
indefinitely  without  due  process.  Since  2002,  Guantanamo  Bay  Detention  Camp  has  served  as  a  primary 
detention  facility,  or  military  prison,  where  prisoners  of  the  War  on  Terror  have  been  severely  tortured  while  a 
world  is  forced  to  watch  from  afar.  The  Obama  administration  reduced  the  number  of  inmates  at  Guantanamo 
Bay  to  41  as  of  January  2017,  but  the  prison  still  remains  in  operation.  (359)  How  has  a  prison  and  torture  facility 
with  no  regard  for  human  rights  been  allowed  to  operate  for  so  long,  especially  after  so  many  known  human 
rights  violations  and  incidents  of  torture  have  occurred? 

After  World  War  II,  the  United  States  launched  ‘Operation  Paperclip  ’  to  gain  a  military  advantage  by  recruiting 
and  bringing  more  than  1 ,600  German  scientists,  engineers,  and  technicians,  many  of  which  were  former 
registered  members  of  the  Nazi  Party,  some  of  which  also  had  leadership  roles  in  the  Nazi  Party.  Similarly, 
Russia  launched  ‘Operation  Osoaviakhim  ’  recruiting  more  than  2,000  German  specialists.  How  could  so  many 
war  criminals  be  simply  ignored  and  allowed  to  escape  justice?  Was  the  knowledge  really  worth  the  price  of 
letting  known  war  criminals  go  free  and  having  a  prosperous  life  in  the  United  States? 

The  2003  Iraq  war  was  unjustified  and  based  on  lies.  How  can  a  United  States  president  and  his  administration 
lie  to  the  world  about  a  country  possessing  chemical  weapons  and  being  a  threat,  invade  that  country,  and  then 
admit  that  it  was  all  based  on  bad  intelligence?  Why  have  none  of  these  officials  who  are  responsible  ever  been 
charged  with  war  crimes?  The  October  2003  PBS  Frontline  program,  ‘Truth,  War,  and  Consequences  ’  explains 
exactly  how  the  Bush  administration  pulled  off  one  of  the  greatest  lies  ever  told  to  Americans  with  no 
consequences  whatsoever.  There  are  also  two  documentaries  by  Errol  Morris,  ‘The  Fog  of  War:  Eleven  Lessons 
from  the  Life  of  Robert  S.  McNamara  ’,  2003  and  ‘The  Unknown  Known  ’,2013  which  offer  a  rare  glimpse  inside 
the  minds  of  former  United  States  Defense  secretaries  Donald  Rumsfeld  and  Robert  S.  McNamara.  Another 
excellent  perspective  on  war  is  the  2017  documentary  ‘The  Vietnam  War  ’by:  Ken  Bums  and  Lynn  Novick. 


|  List  of  Recent  Major  Military  Conflicts  Involving  the  United  States  j 

War/Conflict 

Estimated  Total  Tons  of  Bombs  Dropped 

World  War  II 

3,500,000  tons 

Korean  War 

635,000  tons 

Vietnam  War 

7,662,000  tons 

1991  Iraq  War 

88,500  tons 

2001 -present  War  on  Terror  Afghanistan 

No  official  statistics.  But  the  Bureau  of  Investigative  Journalism  (BOIJ)  estimates 
1,542  drone  strikes  from  2015  -  early  2017  with  between  2,538  -  3270  casualties. 

(243) 

2002-present  War  on  Terror  Yemen 

No  official  statistics.  But  BOIJ  estimates  146  drone  strikes  from  2002  -  early  2017 
with  between  603  -  873  casualties.  (243) 

2003-2011  Iraq  War 

No  official  or  estimated  statistics  on  the  number  of  bombs  dropped  or  the  total 
tons  of  bombs  dropped,  but  Seymour  Hersh  of  the  New  Yorker  stated,  “Oh,  my 

God,  it's  the  total  X  factor.  There's  been  no  public  discussion  by  this 
administration  of  airpower  in  terms  of  how  many  missions,  how  much  tonnage. 

During  the  Vietnam  War— I'm  long  of  tooth,  and  I  remember  that— we  used  to  get  a 
daily  account  of  how  many  sorties— That's  one  flight,  by  one  bomber— how  many 
sorties,  how  much  tonnage,  and  one  could  get  a  sense  of  what— how— where— the 
air  war  was  very  intense  then.  And  here  only  you  get  anecdotal  stuff.  The  one 
statistic  we  found  is  really  quite  amazing.  A  Marine  Air  Wing,  which  is 
responsible  for  close  air  support  of  the  Marines  in  the  field,  reported  that  between 
fall  of '03  and  late  fall  of '04,  about  15  months,  it  expended  500,000  tons  of 
ordnance,  and  that  is  two  million,  500-pound  bombs— two  million,  500-pound 
bombs— one  Marine  Air  Wing.  We  have  many  more  Air  Wings  that  are  being  flown 
by  the  Air  Force  and  by  the  Navy.”  (128) 

2004-present  War  on  Terror  Northwest  Pakistan 

No  official  statistics  but  BOIJ  estimates  425  drone  strikes  from  2004  -  early  2017 
with  between  2,501  -  4,003  casualties.  It  should  also  be  noted  that  under  George 
Bush  there  were  5 1  drone  strikes  compared  with  373  drone  strikes  under  Barack 
Obama,  a  631%  increase.  (243) 

20 1 1  -present  Syrian  Civil  War  AKA  War  on  ISIS 

No  official  or  estimated  statistics  but  the  US  has  fired  off  more  than  20,000 
missiles  and  bombs  and  General  Mark  Welsh  stated  they  were,  “expending 
munitions  faster  than  we  can  replenish  them. . .  B- 1  s  have  dropped  bombs  in  record 
numbers.”  (129)  A  November  16,  2017  New  York  Times  article  stated  that  the 
coalition  has  conducted  more  than  27,500  air  strikes  to  date  in  Iraq  and  Syria 
against  ISIS,  with  a  variety  of  air  power  from  Predator  drones  to  B-52s.  (596) 

2011  -present  War  on  Terror  Somalia 

No  official  statistics.  But  BOIJ  estimates  32  drone  strikes  from  201 1  -  early  2017 
with  between  242  -  418  casualties.  (243) 

TOTAL:  11,885,500  tons  ofbombs  or  2,377,100  Elephants 

SOURCE:  Wikipedia  (with  some  corrections,  additions,  and  other  edits)  NOTE:  Elephant  comparison  is  based  on  a  5-ton  average 
weight. 

Less  than  20  nations,  mainly  the  United  States,  Russia,  Syria,  Iran,  Iraq,  Libya,  India,  China,  Japan,  Germany, 
North  Korea,  and  United  Kingdom  have  either  developed  and  tested,  stockpiled,  sold,  or  used  chemical  and/  or 
biological  weapons.  Chemical  weapons  over  the  last  105  years  have  killed,  injured,  or  permanently  disabled 
millions  of  Homo  sapiens.  The  United  States  military  alone  dropped  about  388,000  tons  of  napalm  bombs  in 
Indochina  between  1963  and  1973,  during  the  Korean  War  32,357  tons,  and  16,500  tons  on  Japan  during  World 
War  II.  (576)  After  World  War  II  the  United  States,  United  Kingdom,  and  Russia  disposed  of  many  chemical 
weapons  by  dumping  them  in  the  ocean,  an  estimated  1,000,000  metric  tons  of  chemical  weapons  still  lie  on  the 
ocean  floor.  (25 1 )  How  can  chemical  weapons  like  tear  gas  still  be  used  by  local  law  enforcement  for  riot  control, 
and  yet  these  lachrymatory  agents  are  prohibited  during  wartime  by  international  treaties  for  chemical  weapons? 

In  2017,  there  were  an  estimated  1 10,000,000  million  landmines  which  were  left  from  previous  wars  and 
conflicts  in  Egypt,  Iran,  Afghanistan,  Angola,  China,  Vietnam,  Iraq,  Cambodia,  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina,  and 
Kuwait.  Since  1975  more  than  1,000,000  Homo  sapiens  have  died  and  millions  of  other  have  been  maimed  as  a 
result  of  these  mines  exploding  without  warning,  and  every  month  an  estimated  800  more  die  and  hundreds  of 
others  are  maimed.  (264)  In  the  United  States  and  at  overseas  U.S.  facilities,  there  are  1,400  locations  covering 
10,000,000  acres  which  contain  unexploded  munitions  dating  back  to  World  War  I.  (263)  Thousands  of 
unexploded  munitions  are  also  discovered  each  year  during  construction  projects  worldwide,  but  more  especially 
in  Europe  as  a  result  of  the  munitions  dropped  during  World  War  II.  How  many  thousands  of  bombs  and  other 
similar  unexploded  munitions  are  there  left  waiting  to  be  discovered  and  possibly  explode  killing  or  maiming 
even  more  Homo  sapiens ?  How  many  unexploded  munitions  lie  at  the  bottom  of  the  Ocean  with  old  Navy  ships 
sunk  during  wartime? 

An  often-overlooked  consequence  of  war  is  the  affect  it  has  on  the  Earth’s  landscapes  and  also  the  large  number 
of  florae  and  faunae  which  are  destroyed  by  using  scorched-Earth  tactics,  from  the  bombs  being  dropped,  the 
tanks  and  other  vehicles  traveling  through  ecosystems,  and  even  the  thousands  of  troops  marching  to  their 
deaths.  Direct  and  intentional  environmental  destruction  has  also  been  used  as  a  war  tactic.  Agent  Orange  was 
used  by  the  British  military  in  Malaya  during  the  Malayan  Emergency  and  by  the  United  States  during  the 
Vietnam  War  to  deforest  large  areas.  Military  training  exercises  and  weapons  testing  can  also  be  destructive  to 
the  environment,  sometimes  more  so  than  actual  war  as  an  area  of  nature  is  constantly  being  impacted.  The 
environmental  effects  of  the  military  and  war  are  an  issue  which  has  received  little  attention,  as  the  subjects  are 
surrounded  by  much  secrecy,  few  regulations,  and  no  real  accountability.  From  the  early  wars  fought  on  horses 


to  modern-day  wars  fought  with  technology,  there  has  always  been  destruction  to  nature  resulting  from  the  chaos 
of  war. 


As  of  2017,  there  are  still  dozens  of  abandoned  military  bases  around  the  world,  most  of  which  have  left  a  toxic 
legacy  like  Bluie  East  Two  and  Camp  Century  in  Greenland.  (176)  This  easily  preventable  environmental 
destruction  is  a  result  of  the  United  States  military  having  left  all  the  trash  and  other  waste  which  accumulated 
during  operations.  Camp  Century  is  one  of  the  worst.  It  was  part  of  project  leeworm,  an  elaborate  secret  military 
plan  to  build  an  underground  military  complex  in  Greenland  covering  an  area  of  52,000  square  miles  to  house 
600  nuclear  missiles.  The  project  eventually  failed,  and  Camp  Century  was  abandoned  along  with  the  biological, 
chemical,  and  radioactive  waste  based  on  the  assumption  that  peipetual  snowfall  would  bury  the  waste  forever. 
Global  warming  and  the  melting  of  the  ice  sheets  is  now  threatening  to  expose  the  toxic  waste.  Depleted  uranium 
has  been  used  to  manufacture  some  ammunition  since  the  first  Gulf  War,  1 ,200  tonnes  of  depleted  uranium  was 
dropped  on  Iraq  between  1991  and  2003,  and  an  enormous  amount  of  depleted  uranium  has  no  doubt  also  been 
used  during  the  Afghanistan  War  as  well.  A  20 1 3  study  concluded  that, 

“Iraq  is  suffering  from  depleted  uranium  (DU)  pollution  in  many  regions  and  the  effects  of  this  may  hann  public  health 
through  poisoning  and  increased  incidence  of  various  cancers  and  birth  defects.  DU  is  a  known  carcinogenic  agent.  About 
1200  tonnes  of  ammunition  were  dropped  on  Iraq  during  the  Gulf  Wars  of  1991  and  2003.  As  a  result,  contamination  occurred 
in  more  than  350  sites  in  Iraq.  Currently,  Iraqis  are  facing  about  140,000  cases  of  cancer,  with  7000  to  8000  new  ones 
registered  each  year.  In  Baghdad  cancer  incidences  per  100,000  population  have  increased,  just  as  they  have  also  increased  in 
Basra.  The  overall  incidence  of  breast  and  lung  cancer.  Leukaemia  and  Lymphoma,  has  doubled  even  tripled.  The  situation  in 
Mosul  city  is  similar  to  other  regions.  Before  the  Gulf  Wars  Mosul  had  a  higher  rate  of  cancer,  but  the  rate  of  cancer  has 
further  increased  since  the  Gulf  Wars.”  (177) 

During  the  first  Gulf  War  in  1991,  the  Iraqi  military  forces  engaged  in  a  scorched  Earth  policy  and  started  the 
Kuwait  oil  fires  and  the  Gulf  War  oil  spill  releasing  an  estimated  42,000,000,000  to  63,000,000,000  gallons  of 
oil  into  the  environment.  During  World  War  11  allied  forces  conducted  623  air  raids  on  Nazi  Germany  oil 
refineries  and  storage  facilities  in  what  is  known  as  the  ‘Oil  Campaign  of  World  War  II  How  many  millions  of 
gallons  of  oil  burned  during  these  targeted  air  raids?  During  the  last  5,000  years,  how  many  millions  of  florae 
and  faunae  have  perished  as  a  result  of  all  the  wars,  military  exercises,  and  other  clandestine  operations?  What  if 
the  military  forces  of  the  world  took  all  their  money  and  resources  for  war,  and  instead  of  destroying  the  planet 
they  became  an  environmental  protection  force?  Could  not  the  great  world  military  powers  of  the  U.S.,  China, 
Russia,  U.K,  France,  India,  Pakistan,  Korea,  Australia,  and  others  unite  to  help  combat  global  environmental 
threats  instead  of  preparing  to  fight  each  other?  What  about  an  international  Navy  to  patrol  and  protect  the 
oceans  and  other  hydrosphere  resources  from  Homo  sapiens  depredations? 


SOURCE:  National  Museum  of  the  US  Air  Force  -  Images  taken  during  World  War  II  while  conducting  ‘Operation  Tidal  Wave  a 
strategic  bombing  mission  and  part  of  the  ‘oil  campaign  ’  to  deny  petroleum-based  fuel  to  the  Axis. 


SOURCE:  U.S.  Navy  and  U.S.  Air  Force  -  Although  the  weapons  have  become  more  advanced,  these  photos  of  United  States  war  planes 
flying  over  burning  oil  fields  in  Kuwait  during  the  Gulf  War  are  an  eerie  reminder  of  a  not  too  distant  past. 

The  environmental  impacts  of  war  and  terrorism  can  be  felt  long  after  the  actual  battle  or  attack  has  taken  place. 
As  a  result  of  the  September  1 1  terrorist  attacks,  there  are  still  the  lingering  health  issues  which  currently  affect 
37,000  Homo  sapiens  and  have  killed  more  than  1,000.  These  rescue  workers  and  others  who  were  at  ground 
zero  now  have  a  wide  range  of  health  issues  resulting  from  the  inhalation  and  skin  exposure  to  the  toxic  ash  and 
dust.  They  were  even  assured  by  Christine  Todd  Whitman,  the  then  head  of  the  Environmental  Protection 
Agency  (EPA),  that  the  air  was  safe.  She  has  since  said  she  was  mistaken.  (218) 

Based  on  data  from  the  International  Institute  for  Strategic  Studies  (IISS),  in  2017  the  militaries  of  the  world 
consisted  of:  104,476  main  battle  tanks,  29,730  military  aircraft  and  attack  helicopters,  511  nuclear  and  non¬ 
nuclear  submarines,  and  976  other  water  vessels  (aircraft  carriers,  amphibious  warfare  ships,  cruisers,  destroyers, 
frigates,  corvettes,  etc.)  How  much  environmental  damage  do  all  of  these  weapons  of  war  unleash  each  day  just 
preparing  and  waiting  for  war?  A  2014  Guardian  news  report  on  the  impact  of  modem  war  by  Karl  Mathiesen 
stated, 

“The  US  Department  of  Defence  is  the  country’s  largest  consumer  of  fossil  fuels.  Research  from  2007  showed  the  military 
used  20.9bn  litres  of  fuel  each  year.  This  results  in  similar  CO2  emissions  to  a  mid-sized  European  country  such  as  Denmark. 

And  that’s  before  they  go  to  war.  The  carbon  footprint  of  a  deployed  modern  army  is  typically  enormous.  One  report 
suggested  the  US  military,  with  its  tanks  and  Bradley  fighting  vehicles,  used  190.8m  litres  of  oil  every  month  during  the 
invasion  of  Iraq.  An  estimated  two  thirds  of  this  fuel  is  used  delivering  more  fuel  to  the  vehicles  at  the  battlefront.” 


’During  the  Rwandan  civil  war  almost  three-quarters  of  a  million  people  lived  in  camps  on  the  edge  of  Virunga  national  park. 


According  to  the  Worldwatch  Institute  around  1,000  tonnes  of  wood  was  removed  from  the  park  every  day  for  two  years  in 
order  to  build  shelters,  feed  cooking  fires  and  created  charcoal  for  sale.  By  the  time  the  conflict  ended  105  sq  km  of  forest 
had  been  damaged  and  35  sq  km  stripped  bare.  “ 

“Ian  Redmond,  a  wildlife  consultant  for  Born  Free  says  in  the  disorder  and  desperation  of  war  the  protections  for  precious 
wildlife  habitats  like  Virunga  evaporate.  “War  is  bad  for  wildlife  in  as  many  ways  as  for  people.  Conservation  suffers  because 
rangers  often  have  to  flee  the  fighting,  and  may  be  attacked  because  rebel  annies  covet  their  vehicles,  radios  and  guns. 

Moreover,  rebels  often  feed  their  troops  on  bushmeat  and  finance  their  ops  with  ivory,  timber,  charcoal  and  minerals  from 
protected  areas.”  The  massive  influx  of  high-powered  weaponry  into  these  areas  means  that  during  and  after  conflict,  the 
scale  of  poaching  can  increase  dramatically.  In  just  two  months  in  2006,  Mai-Mai  rebels  in  the  DRC  slaughtered  almost  the 
entire  hippopotamus  population  of  two  of  Virunga’s  rivers  -  changing  the  ecosystem  forever. 

In  Afghanistan  too,  wildlife  and  habitats  have  disappeared.  The  past  30  years  of  war  has  stripped  the  country  of  its  trees, 
including  precious  native  pistachio  woodlands.  The  Costs  of  War  Project  says  illegal  logging  by  US-backed  warlords  and 
wood  harvesting  by  refugees  caused  more  than  one-third  of  Afghanistan’s  forests  to  vanish  between  1990  and  2007.  Drought, 
desertification  and  species  loss  have  resulted.  The  number  of  migratory  birds  passing  through  Afghanistan  has  fallen  by  85%. 

Many  of  the  above  examples  could  be  considered  violations  of  international  law.  The  Geneva  Convention  places  restrictions 
on  methods  of  warfare  “which  are  intended,  or  may  be  expected,  to  cause  widespread,  long-tenn  and  severe  damage  to  the 
natural  environment”.  But  Marie  Jacobsson,  a  special  rapporteur  to  the  UN’s  International  Law  Commission  charged  with 
assessing  how  legal  frameworks  can  protect  the  environment  from  anned  conflict,  says  the  international  legal  protections  are 
“rudimentary”.”  (178) 

The  United  States  has  spent  more  than  $4,400,000,000,000  and  counting,  on  wars  in  the  Middle  East  since  the 
September  1 1  terrorist  attacks,  and  the  War  on  Terror  is  far  from  over  with  a  constant  cycle  of  new  extremist 
leaders  taking  the  place  of  their  dead  predecessors  as  soon  as  they  are  killed.  Terrorism  and  other  forms  of 
tyranny  will  most  likely  continue  in  small  pockets  around  the  globe  for  some  time,  so  long  as  violence  is  used  as 
the  main  solution  to  combat  these  negative  elements  of  society  versus  peace,  intellect,  patience,  understanding, 
and  compromise.  The  tyrants  who  wage  wars  have  always  existed  throughout  history,  but  they  have  all  fallen  and 
never  outlasted  time  or  the  power  of  social  change  through  democracy.  War  and  violence  are  never  the  answer  no 
matter  the  circumstances  and  there  will  never  be  a  valid  justification  for  war,  as  there  is  always  a  peaceful 
alternative.  War  itself  has  been  obsolete  since  its  inception,  as  nothing  negative  will  ever  be  successful  in  the 
end.  Martin  Luther  King  Jr.  wrote  the  following  remarks  about  violence, 

“The  ultimate  weakness  of  violence  is  that  it  is  a  descending  spiral,  begetting  the  very  thing  it  seeks  to  destroy.  Instead  of 
diminishing  evil,  it  multiplies  it.  Through  violence  you  may  murder  the  liar,  but  you  cannot  murder  the  lie,  nor  establish  the 
truth.  Through  violence  you  may  murder  the  hater,  but  you  do  not  murder  hate.  In  fact,  violence  for  violence  multiplies 
violence,  adding  deeper  darkness  to  a  night  already  devoid  of  stars.  Darkness  cannot  dive  out  darkness:  only  light  can  do  that. 

Hate  cannot  drive  out  hate:  only  love  can  do  that. 

The  beauty  of  nonviolence  is  that  in  its  own  way  and  in  its  own  time  it  seeks  to  break  the  chain  reaction  of  evil.  With  a 
majestic  sense  of  spiritual  power,  it  seeks  to  elevate  truth,  beauty  and  goodness  to  the  throne.” 

"Hate  is  just  as  injurious  to  the  hater  as  it  is  to  the  hated.  Like  an  unchecked  cancer,  hate  corrodes  the  personality  and  eats 
away  its  vial  unity.  Many  of  our  inner  conflicts  are  rooted  in  hate.  This  is  why  the  psychiatrist  says,  “Love  or  perish.”  ...  Hate 
is  too  great  a  burden  to  bear. 

Of  course,  you  may  say,  this  is  not  practical ;  life  is  a  matter  of  getting  even,  of  hitting  back,  of  dog  eat  dog.  Maybe  in  some 
distant  Utopia,  you  say,  that  idea  will  work,  but  not  in  the  hard,  cold  world  in  which  we  live.  My  only  answer  is  that  mankind 
has  followed  the  so-called  practical  way  for  a  long  time  now,  and  it  has  led  inexorably  to  deeper  confusion  and  chaos.  Time  is 
cluttered  with  the  wreckage  of  individuals  and  communities  that  surrendered  to  hatred  and  violence.  For  the  salvation  of  our 
nation  and  salvation  of  mankind,  we  must  follow  another  way.” 

“Violence  has  been  the  inseparable  twin  of  materialism,  the  hallmark  of  its  grandeur  and  misery.  This  is  the  one  thing  about 
modem  civilization  that  I  do  not  care  to  imitate. 

Humanity  is  waiting  for  something  other  than  blind  imitation  of  the  past.  If  we  want  truly  to  advance  a  step  further,  if  we 
want  to  turn  over  a  new  leaf  and  really  set  a  new  man  afoot,  we  must  begin  to  turn  mankind  away  from  the  long  and  desolate 
night  of  violence.”  (313) 

An  Incarcerated  and  Policed  Society  Living  with  Unwarranted  Fear 


In  2015,  Amnesty  International  confirmed  at  least  1,634  executions,  573  more  than  in  2014  and  the  most  carried 


out  since  1989.  These  numbers  exclude  data  from  Belarus,  China,  Vietnam,  Laos,  Malaysia,  North  Korea,  Syria 
and  Yemen  where  it  remains  unavailable,  incomplete,  or  is  classified.  (388)  Capital  punishment  in  the  United 
States  is  performed  by  some  states,  even  though  it  contradicts  the  Eighth  Amendment  of  the  United  States 
Constitution  prohibiting  cruel  and  unusual  punishment.  Is  it  not  cruel  and  unusual  to  take  the  life  of  anyone  in 
any  form,  under  any  circumstance  be  it  murder,  war,  or  vengeance?  Isn’t  execution  nothing  more  than 
vengeance?  Does  it  serve  any  real  purpose,  or  does  it  only  perpetuate  the  negative  cycle  of  violence?  Does 
execution  deter  a  possible  future  murderer  or  does  simply  instilling  better  morals  from  an  early  age?  Is  the 
morality  of  society  any  better  than  the  criminals  committing  the  crime  when  the  punishment  is  the  same  action  as 
the  crime,  in  that  of  taking  a  life?  If  killing  is  illegal  how  can  it  be  justifiable  to  kill  the  killer?  Would  not  the 
moral  and  logical  choice  of  rehabilitation  through  education  and  incarceration,  if  necessary,  be  the  way  to 
address  the  issue?  What  is  the  point  of  executing  a  small  number  of  criminals  while  thousands  of  others  remain 
incarcerated  for  life?  It  costs  a  tremendous  amount  of  money  for  a  state  to  engage  in  capital  punishment.  In  20 1 1 , 
the  L.A.  Times  reported  that  in  California  alone, 

“Taxpayers  have  spent  more  than  $4  billion  on  capital  punishment  in  California  since  it  was  reinstated  in  1978,  or  about  $308 

million  for  each  of  the  13  executions  carried  out  since  then,  according  to  a  comprehensive  analysis  of  the  death  penalty's 

costs. 

The  state's  714  death  row  prisoners  cost  $184  million  more  per  year  than  those  sentenced  to  life  in  prison  without  the 

possibility  of  parole.”  (164) 

Prisons  vary  around  the  world  from  supermax  prisons  in  the  United  States  to  the  El  penal  de  San  Pedro  in  La 
Paz,  Bolivia  which  holds  more  than  1,500  inmates  with  no  guards  inside  the  prison  and  is  run  by  the  prisoners 
themselves,  and  some  wives  and  children  of  convicted  criminals  also  living  inside  the  prison  walls.  The  current 
system  of  mass  incarceration,  if  replaced  with  rehabilitation  and  education  like  Bastoy  Prison  in  Norway,  could 
benefit  the  incarcerated  far  more  than  the  current  system  of  justice  practiced  almost  universally,  which  is  the 
mentality  of  ‘Lock  them  up  and  throw  away  the  key.  ’  This  approach  has  shown  to  be  ineffective,  as  many  of  the 
incarcerated  are  either  drug  addicts,  have  mental  issues,  and/or  are  individuals  which  lacked  proper  morals  being 
instilled  at  an  early  age  and  are  nothing  more  than  a  product  of  a  dysfunctional  society  or  a  result  of  the 
inhospitable  environment  which  they  were  fostered  in.  They  simply  need  to  be  educated  and  shown  how,  through 
example,  to  become  positive  members  of  society.  Worldwide  there  are  an  estimated  10,357,134  Homo  sapiens 
which  are  held  in  prisons,  either  as  pre-trial  detainees  or  those  who  have  been  convicted  and  sentenced.  The 
United  states  incarcerates  the  most  with  2,217,000  prisoners,  an  increase  from  1,937,482  prisoners  in  2000.  The 
world  prison  population  has  increased  by  19.5%  since  about  2000.  (501)  Why  has  the  prison  population 
increased,  is  it  from  an  increase  in  excessive  policing,  stricter  laws,  or  from  moral  erosion  within  the  society? 
Shouldn’t  the  world  prison  population  be  decreasing  as  the  world  today  is  more  modem  and  educated  than  at  any 
point  in  history?  How  is  it  possible  that  there  are  so  many  prisoners  in  the  United  States,  a  free  and  democratic 
nation  with  such  a  just  system  of  laws?  Are  there  too  many  antiquated  or  irrelevant  laws  which  incarcerate 
individuals  for  unjust  crimes  like  smoking  cannabis?  How  many  incarcerations  are  alcohol  related? 

Many  prisons  in  the  United  States  are  not  only  extremely  unhealthy  for  the  incarcerated,  but  also  severely 
depredate  the  environment  around  them.  A  June  2017  Moyers  and  Company  report,  ‘America ’s  Toxic  Prisons: 
The  Environmental  Injustices  of  Mass  Incarceration  ’,  reported  that  over  the  last  decade  3,500  California 
prisoners  have  contracted  valley  fever  with  more  than  50  dying  from  it.  In  Texas  state  officials  acknowledged 
that  22  hyperthermia  deaths  occurred,  and  yet  79  of  the  108  state  prison  units  still  lacked  air-conditioning  as  of 
2017.  At  SCI  Fayette  prison,  in  LaBelle,  Pennsylvania,  prisoners  reported  the  water  always  had  a  brown  tint  to  it, 
and  at  the  Wallace  Pack  Unit  in  Texas  the  water  was  also  brown,  until  a  federal  judge  ordered  the  state  to  provide 
the  prisoners  with  safe  drinking  water.  As  of  2017,  there  were  589  federal  and  state  prisons  which  are  located 
within  3  miles  of  a  toxic  Superfund  cleanup  site.  Over  the  past  5  years  there  were  prisons  in  around  30  states 
which  had  more  than  1,000  violations  of  federal  environmental  laws.  The  California  Men’s  Colony  state  prison 
(CMC),  near  San  Luis  Obispo,  has  had  a  legacy  of  water  pollution  from  dumping  more  than  240,000  gallons  of 
sewage  into  Chorro  Creek  which  flows  into  the  protected  marine  estuary  Morro  Bay.  Between  2008  and  2015  the 
Monroe  Correctional  Complex  in  Washington  dumped  around  500,000  gallons  of  contaminated  water  polluting 
nearby  rivers  and  wetlands.  Federal  and  state  agencies  over  the  last  5  years,  utilizing  the  Clean  Water  Act,  have 


brought  132  informal  actions  and  28  formal  actions  against  prisons.  During  this  same  time,  the  EPA  under  the 
Clean  Air  Act,  has  brought  92  informal  actions  and  5 1  formal  actions  against  prisons,  jails,  and  detention  centers. 
(540) 

There  are  undoubtedly  thousands  of  wrongly  convicted  Homo  sapiens  that  have  been  victims  of  an  inadequate 
justice  system  which  has  the  potential  to  make  errors  and  become  corrupt  from  within.  Lack  of  professionalism, 
training,  and  standards  have  also  led  to  easily  preventable  wrongful  convictions,  and  in  some  cases  even  death. 

In  2015,  the  FBI  issued  a  press  release  which  stated, 

"The  United  States  Department  of  Justice  (DOJ),  the  Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation  (FBI),  the  Innocence  Project,  and  the 
National  Association  of  Criminal  Defense  Lawyers  (NACDL)  reported  today  that  the  FBI  has  concluded  that  the  examiners’ 
testimony  in  at  least  90  percent  of  trial  transcripts  the  Bureau  analyzed  as  part  of  its  Microscopic  Hair  Comparison  Analysis 
Review  contained  erroneous  statements.  Twenty-six  of  28  FBI  agent/analysts  provided  either  testimony  with  erroneous 
statements  or  submitted  laboratory  reports  with  erroneous  statements... 

...The  review  encompasses  cases  where  FBI  microscopic  hair  comparison  was  used  to  link  a  defendant  to  a  crime  and  covers 
cases  in  both  federal  and  state  court  systems.  It  does  not,  however,  cover  cases  where  hair  comparison  was  conducted  by  state 
and  local  crime  labs,  whose  examiners  may  have  been  trained  by  the  FBI.  The  FBI  has  trained  hundreds  of  state  hair 
examiners  in  annual  two-week  training  courses. 

The  government  identified  nearly  3,000  cases  in  which  FBI  examiners  may  have  submitted  reports  or  testified  in  trials  using 
microscopic  hair  analysis.  As  of  March  2015,  the  FBI  had  reviewed  approximately  500  cases.  The  majority  of  these  cases 
were  trials  and  the  transcript  of  examiner  testimony  was  reviewed.  Some  of  these  cases  ended  in  guilty  pleas,  limiting  the 
review  to  the  original  lab  report.  In  the  268  cases  where  examiners  provided  testimony  used  to  inculpate  a  defendant  at  trial, 
erroneous  statements  were  made  in  257  (96  percent)  of  the  cases.  Defendants  in  at  least  35  of  these  cases  received  the  death 
penalty  and  errors  were  identified  in  33  (94  percent)  of  those  cases.  Nine  of  these  defendants  have  already  been  executed  and 
five  died  of  other  causes  while  on  death  row.  The  states  with  capital  cases  included  Arizona,  California,  Florida,  Indiana, 

Missouri,  Ohio,  Oklahoma,  Pennsylvania,  Tennessee,  and  Texas.  It  should  be  noted  that  this  is  an  ongoing  process  and  that 
the  numbers  referenced  above  will  change."  (549) 

DNA  has  been  used  to  exonerate  more  than  220  wrongfully  convicted  Homo  sapiens  since  1989.  Forensics  is 
used  now  more  than  ever,  and  while  forensics  can  be  a  potentially  good  addition  to  the  justice  system,  it  has  been 
shown  that  it  is  sometimes  performed  by  unqualified  individuals  who  have  no  education,  training,  or  experience, 
are  not  experts  in  any  field  of  science,  and  often  use  confusing  or  misleading  language  to  cover-up  the  fact  that 
the  evidence  is  not  100%  certain  and  could  potentially  be  flawed.  A  20 16  recommendation  by  The  National 
Commission  on  Forensic  Science  to  the  Attorney  General  stated, 

"Forensic  discipline  conclusions  are  often  testified  to  as  being  held  “to  a  reasonable  degree  of  scientific  certainty”  or  “to  a 
reasonable  degree  of  [discipline]  certainty.”  These  terms  have  no  scientific  meaning  and  may  mislead  factfinders  about  the 
level  of  objectivity  involved  in  the  analysis,  its  scientific  reliability  and  limitations,  and  the  ability  of  the  analysis  to  reach  an 
individualized  conclusion.  Forensic  scientists,  medical  professionals  and  other  scientists  do  not  routinely  express  opinions  or 
conclusions  “to  a  reasonable  scientific  certainty”  outside  of  the  courts.  Neither  the  Daubertn  or  Frye  test  of  scientific 
admissibility  requires  its  use,  and  consideration  of  caselaw  from  around  the  country  confirms  that  use  of  the  phrase  is  not 
required  by  law  and  is  primarily  a  relic  of  custom  and  practice.  There  are  additional  problems  with  this  phrase,  including: 

There  is  no  common  definition  within  science  disciplines  as  to  what  threshold  establishes  “reasonable”  certainty.  Therefore, 
whether  couched  as  “scientific  certainty”  or  “[discipline]  certainty,”  the  tenn  is  idiosyncratic  to  the  witness. 

The  term  invites  confusion  when  presented  with  testimony  expressed  in  probabilistic  tenns.  How  is  a  layperson,  without 
either  scientific  or  legal  training,  to  understand  an  expert’s  “reasonable  scientific  certainty”  that  evidence  is  “probably”  or 
possibly  linked  to  a  particular  source?"  (550) 

And  a  2012  National  Institute  of  Standards  and  Technology  interagency/intemal  report  stated, 

"Outside  the  courtroom,  however,  scientists  do  not  communicate  their  findings  in  this  fashion.  An  astronomer  who  reports  the 
discovery  of  an  exoplanet  does  not  characterize  the  finding  as  satisfying  some  “reasonable  degree  of  scientific  certainty.”  A 
chemist  who  deduces  the  identity  of  a  compound  from  its  nuclear  magnetic  resonance  spectrum  has  no  table  of  degrees  of 
scientific  certainty  with  which  to  label  the  deduction.  Scientists  might  refer  to  personal  degrees  of  confidence  in  a  finding  or 
to  the  degree  of  controversy  surrounding  it,  but  there  is  no  generally  accepted  or  working  definition  of  a  “reasonable  degree 
of  certainty”  in  scientific  discourse."  (551) 


Some  techniques  which  are  used  in  forensic  science  also  allow  the  results  to  be  easily  tainted  by  accident,  as 
there  are  few  established  protocols  in  place.  Other  areas  of  forensic  science  which  have  been  developed  in  a 
crime  laboratory  to  aid  in  a  criminal  case  are  not  based  on  any  scientific  standards  at  all.  There  have  been 
numerous  instances  of  wrongfully  convicted  Homo  sapiens  and  some  have  even  been  executed  by  mistake. 

Some  jurors  are  also  now  tainted  before  the  trial  even  begins  as  a  result  of  watching  so  much  police  drama 
television  that  they  have  what  has  been  dubbed  as  the  ‘CSI Effect’.  A  2009  National  Research  Council  committee 
concluded, 

"The  increased  use  of  DNA  analysis  as  a  more  reliable  approach  to  matching  crime  scene  evidence  with  suspects  and  victims 
has  resulted  in  the  reevaluation  of  older  cases  that  retained  biological  evidence  that  could  be  analyzed  by  DNA.  The  number 
of  exonerations  resulting  from  the  analysis  of  DNA  has  grown  across  the  country  in  recent  years,  uncovering  a  disturbing 
number  of  wrongful  convictions — some  for  capital  crimes — and  exposing  serious  limitations  in  some  of  the  forensic  science 
approaches  commonly  used  in  the  United  States. 

According  to  The  Innocence  Project,  there  have  been  223  postconviction  DNA  exonerations  in  the  United  States  since  1989 
(as  of  November  2008).  Some  have  contested  the  percentage  of  exonerated  defendants  whose  convictions  allegedly  were 
based  on  faulty  science.  Although  the  Innocence  Project  figures  are  disputed  by  forensic  scientists  who  have  reexamined  the 
data,  even  those  who  are  critical  of  the  conclusions  of  The  Innocence  Project  acknowledge  that  faulty  forensic  science  has,  on 
occasion,  contributed  to  the  wrongful  conviction  of  innocent  persons. 

The  fact  is  that  many  forensic  tests — such  as  those  used  to  infer  the  source  of  toolmarks  or  bite  marks — have  never  been 
exposed  to  stringent  scientific  scrutiny.  Most  of  these  techniques  were  developed  in  crime  laboratories  to  aid  in  the 
investigation  of  evidence  from  a  particular  crime  scene,  and  researching  their  limitations  and  foundations  was  never  a  top 
priority.  There  is  some  logic  behind  the  application  of  these  techniques;  practitioners  worked  hard  to  improve  their  methods, 
and  results  from  other  evidence  have  combined  with  these  tests  to  give  forensic  scientists  a  degree  of  confidence  in  their 
probative  value.  Before  the  first  offering  of  the  use  of  DNA  in  forensic  science  in  1986,  no  concerted  effort  had  been  made  to 
determine  the  reliability  of  these  tests,  and  some  in  the  forensic  science  and  law  enforcement  communities  believed  that 
scientists’  ability  to  withstand  cross-examination  in  court  when  giving  testimony  related  to  these  tests  was  sufficient  to 
demonstrate  the  tests’  reliability.  However,  although  the  precise  error  rates  of  these  forensic  tests  are  still  unknown, 
comparison  of  their  results  with  DNA  testing  in  the  same  cases  has  revealed  that  some  of  these  analyses,  as  currently 
performed,  produce  erroneous  results.  The  conclusions  of  forensic  examiners  may  or  may  not  be  right — depending  on  the 
case — but  each  wrongful  conviction  based  on  improperly  interpreted  evidence  is  serious,  both  for  the  innocent  person  and 
also  for  society,  because  of  the  threat  that  may  be  posed  by  a  guilty  person  going  free.  Some  non-DNA  forensic  tests  do  not 
meet  the  fundamental  requirements  of  science,  in  terms  of  reproducibility,  validity,  and  falsifiability. 

Even  fingerprint  analysis  has  been  called  into  question.  For  nearly  a  century,  fingerprint  examiners  have  been  comparing 
partial  latent  fingerprints  found  at  crime  scenes  to  inked  fingerprints  taken  directly  from  suspects.  Fingerprint  identifications 
have  been  viewed  as  exact  means  of  associating  a  suspect  with  a  crime  scene  print  and  rarely  were  questioned. 

Recently,  however,  the  scientific  foundation  of  the  fingerprint  field  has  been  questioned,  and  the  suggestion  has  been  made 
that  latent  fingerprint  identifications  may  not  be  as  reliable  as  previously  assumed.  The  question  is  less  a  matter  of  whether 
each  person’s  fingerprints  are  permanent  and  unique — uniqueness  is  commonly  assumed — and  more  a  matter  of  whether  one 
can  determine  with  adequate  reliability  that  the  finger  that  left  an  imperfect  impression  at  a  crime  scene  is  the  same  finger 
that  left  an  impression  (with  different  imperfections)  in  a  file  of  fingerprints.  In  October  2007,  Baltimore  County  Circuit 
Judge  Susan  M.  Souder  refused  to  allow  a  fingerprint  analyst  to  testify  that  a  latent  print  was  made  by  the  defendant 
in  a  death  penalty  trial.  In  her  ruling,  Judge  Souder  found  the  traditional  method  of  fingerprint  analysis  to  be  “a  subjective, 
untested,  unverifiable  identification  procedure  that  purports  to  be  infallible.” 

Some  forensic  science  methods  have  as  their  goal  the  “individualization”  of  specific  types  of  evidence  (typically  shoe  and  tire 
impressions,  dennal  ridge  prints,  toolmarks  and  firearms,  and  handwriting).  Analysts  using  such  methods  believe  that  unique 
markings  are  acquired  by  a  source  item  in  random  fashion  and  that  such  uniqueness  is  faithfully  transmitted  from 
the  source  item  to  the  evidence  item  being  examined  (or  in  the  case  of  handwriting,  that  individuals  acquire  habits  that  result 
in  unique  handwriting).  When  the  evidence  and  putative  source  items  are  compared,  a  conclusion  of  individualization  implies 
that  the  evidence  originated  from  that  source,  to  the  exclusion  of  all  other  possible  sources.  The  determination  of  uniqueness 
requires  measurements  of  object  attributes,  data  collected  on  the  population  frequency  of  variation  in  these  attributes,  testing 
of  attribute  independence,  and  calculations  of  the  probability  that  different  objects  share  a  common  set  of  observable 
attributes.  Importantly,  the  results  of  research  must  be  made  public  so  that  they  can  be  reviewed,  checked  by  others, 
criticized,  and  then  revised,  and  this  has  not  been  done  for  some  of  the  forensic  science  disciplines.  As  recently  as  September 
2008,  the  Detroit  Police  crime  laboratory  was  shut  down  following  a  Michigan  State  Police  audit  that  found  a  10  percent 
error  rate  in  ballistic  evidence. 

The  forensic  science  community  has  had  little  opportunity  to  pursue  or  become  proficient  in  the  research  that  is  needed  to 
support  what  it  does.  Few  sources  of  funding  exist  for  independent  forensic  research.  Most  of  the  studies  are  commissioned 
by  DOJ  and  conducted  by  crime  laboratories  with  little  or  no  participation  by  the  traditional  scientific  community.  In 
addition,  most  disciplines  in  the  profession  are  hindered  by  a  lack  of  enforceable  standards  for  interpretation  of  data. 


In  recent  years,  the  integrity  of  crime  laboratories  increasingly  has  been  called  into  question,  with  some  highly  publicized 
cases  highlighting  the  sometimes  lax  standards  of  laboratories  that  have  generated  questionable  or  fraudulent  evidence  and 
that  have  lacked  quality  control  measures  that  would  have  detected  the  questionable  evidence.  In  one  notorious  case,  a 
state-mandated  review  of  analyses  conducted  by  West  Virginia  State  Police  laboratory  employee  Fred  Zain  revealed  that  the 
convictions  of  more  than  100  people  were  in  doubt  because  Zain  had  repeatedly  falsified  evidence  in  criminal  prosecutions. 
At  least  10  men  had  their  convictions  overturned  as  a  result.  Subsequent  reviews  questioned  whether  Zain  was  ever  qualified 
to  perform  scientific  examinations. 

Other  scandals,  such  as  one  involving  the  Houston  Crime  Laboratory  in  2003,  highlight  the  sometimes  blatant  lack  of  proper 
education  and  training  of  forensic  examiners.  In  the  Houston  case,  several  DNA  experts  went  public  with  accusations  that  the 
DNA/Serology  Unit  of  the  Houston  Police  Department  Crime  Laboratory  was  performing  grossly  incompetent  work  and  was 
presenting  findings  in  a  misleading  manner  designed  to  unfairly  help  prosecutors  obtain  convictions.  An  audit  by  the  Texas 
Department  of  Public  Safety  confirmed  serious  inadequacies  in  the  laboratory’s  procedures,  including  “routine  failure  to  run 
essential  scientific  controls,  failure  to  take  adequate  measures  to  prevent  contamination  of  samples,  failure  to  adequately 
document  work  performed  and  results  obtained,  and  routine  failure  to  follow  correct  procedures  for  computing  statistical 
frequencies.” 

The  Innocence  Project  has  documented  instances  of  both  intentional  and  unintentional  laboratory  errors  that  have  led  to 
wrongful  convictions,  including: 

-  In  the  laboratory — contamination  and  mislabeling  of  evidence. 

-  In  information  provided  in  forensics  reports — falsified  results  (including  “drylabbing,”  i.e.,  providing  conclusions  from 
tests  that  were  never  conducted),  and  misinterpretation  of  evidence. 

-  In  the  courtroom — suppression  of  exculpatory  evidence;  providing  a  statistical  exaggeration  of  the  results  of  a  test 
conducted  on  evidence;  and  providing  false  testimony  about  test  results. 

Saks  and  Koehler  have  written  that  the  testimony  of  forensic  scientists  is  one  of  many  problems  in  criminal  cases  today.30 
They  cite  the  norms  of  science,  which  emphasize  “methodological  rigor,  openness,  and  cautious  interpretation  of  data,”  as 
nonns  that  often  are  absent  from  the  forensic  science  disciplines. 

Although  cases  of  fraud  appear  to  be  rare,  perhaps  of  more  concern  is  the  lack  of  good  data  on  the  accuracy  of  the  analyses 
conducted  in  forensic  science  disciplines  and  the  significant  potential  for  bias  that  is  present  in  some  cases.  For  example,  the 
FBI  was  accused  of  bias  in  the  case  of  the  Madrid  bombing  suspect  Brandon  Mayfield.  In  that  case,  the  Inspector  General  of 
DOJ  launched  an  investigation.  The  FBI  conducted  its  own  review  by  a  panel  of  independent  experts.  The  reviews  concluded 
that  the  problem  was  not  the  quality  of  the  digital  images  reviewed,  but  rather  the  bias  and  “circular  reasoning”  of  the  FBI 
examiners. 

Parts  of  the  forensic  science  community  have  resisted  the  implications  of  the  mounting  criticism  of  the  reliability  of  forensic 
analyses  by  investigative  units  such  as  Inspector  General  reports,  The  Innocence  Project,  and  studies  in  the  published 
literature.  In  testimony  before  the  committee,  it  was  clear  that  some  members  of  the  forensic  science  community  will 
not  concede  that  there  could  be  less  than  perfect  accuracy  either  in  given  laboratories  or  in  specific  disciplines,  and  experts 
testified  to  the  committee  that  disagreement  remains  regarding  even  what  constitutes  an  error.  For  example,  if  the  limitations 
of  a  given  technology  lead  to  an  examiner  declaring  a  “match”  that  is  found  by  subsequent  technology  (e.g.,  DNA 
analysis)  to  be  a  “mismatch,”  there  is  disagreement  within  the  forensic  science  community  about  whether  the  original 
determination  constitutes  an  error.  Failure  to  acknowledge  uncertainty  in  findings  is  common:  Many  examiners  claim  in 
testimony  that  others  in  their  field  would  come  to  the  exact  same  conclusions  about  the  evidence  they  have  analyzed. 
Assertions  of  a  “100  percent  match”  contradict  the  findings  of  proficiency  tests  that  find  substantial  rates  of  erroneous  results 
in  some  disciplines  (i.e.,  voice  identification,  bite  mark  analysis). 

As  an  example,  in  a  FBI  publication  on  the  correlation  of  microscopic  and  mitochondrial  DNA  hair  comparisons,  the  authors 
found  that  even  competent  hair  examiners  can  make  significant  errors.  In  this  study,  the  authors  found  that  in  1 1  percent  of 
the  cases  in  which  the  hair  examiners  declared  two  hairs  to  be  “similar,”  subsequent  DNA  testing  revealed  that  the  hairs  did 
not  match,  which  refers  either  to  the  competency  or  the  relative  ability  of  the  two  divergent  techniques  to  identify  differences 
in  hair  samples,  as  well  as  to  the  probative  value  of  each  test. 

The  insistence  by  some  forensic  practitioners  that  their  disciplines  employ  methodologies  that  have  perfect  accuracy  and 
produce  no  errors  has  hampered  efforts  to  evaluate  the  usefulness  of  the  forensic  science  disciplines.  And,  although  DNA 
analysis  is  considered  the  most  reliable  forensic  tool  available  today,  laboratories  nonetheless  can  make  errors  working  with 
either  nuclear  DNA  or  mtDNA — errors  such  as  mislabeling  samples,  losing  samples,  or  misinterpreting  the  data. 

Standard  setting,  accreditation  of  laboratories,  and  certification  of  individuals  aim  to  address  many  of  these  problems,  and 
although  many  laboratories  have  excellent  training  and  quality  control  programs,  even  accredited  laboratories  make  mistakes. 


Furthermore,  accreditation  is  a  voluntary  program,  except  in  a  few  jurisdictions  in  which  it  is  required  (New  York,  Oklahoma, 
and  Texas). 

Media  attention  has  focused  recently  on  what  is  being  called  the  “CSI  Effect,”  named  for  popular  television  shows  (such  as 
Crime  Scene  Investigation)  that  are  focused  on  police  forensic  evidence  investigation.  The  fictional  characters  in  these 
dramas  often  present  an  unrealistic  portrayal  of  the  daily  operations  of  crime  scene  investigators  and  crime  laboratories 
(including  their  instrumentation,  analytical  technologies,  and  capabilities).  Cases  are  solved  in  an  hour,  highly  technical 
analyses  are  accomplished  in  minutes,  and  laboratory  and  instrumental  capabilities  are  often  exaggerated,  misrepresented,  or 
entirely  fabricated.  In  courtroom  scenes,  forensic  examiners  state  their  findings  or  a  match  (between  evidence  and  suspect) 
with  unfailing  certainty,  often  demonstrating  the  technique  used  to  make  the  determination.  The  dramas  suggest  that 
convictions  are  quick  and  no  mistakes  are  made. 

The  CSI  Effect  specifically  refers  to  the  real-life  consequences  of  exposure  to  Hollywood’s  version  of  law  and  order.  Jurists 
and  crime  laboratory  directors  anecdotally  report  that  jurors  have  come  to  expect  the  presentation  of  forensic  evidence  in 
every  case,  and  they  expect  it  to  be  conclusive.  A  recent  study  by  Schweitzer  and  Saks  found  that  compared  to  those  who 
do  not  watch  CSI,  CSI  viewers  were  “more  critical  of  the  forensic  evidence  presented  at  the  trial,  finding  it  less  believable. 
Forensic  science  viewers  expressed  more  confidence  in  their  verdicts  than  did  nonviewers.”  Prosecutors  and  defense 
attorneys  have  reported  jurors  second  guessing  them  in  the  courtroom,  citing  “reasonable  doubt”  and  refusing  to  convict 
because  they  believed  that  other  evidence  was  available  and  not  adequately  examined. 

Schweitzer  and  Saks  found  that  the  CSI  Effect  is  changing  the  manner  in  which  forensic  evidence  is  presented  in  court,  with 
some  prosecutors  believing  they  must  make  their  presentation  as  visually  interesting  and  appealing  as  such  presentations 
appear  to  be  on  television.  Some  are  concerned  that  the  conclusiveness  and  finality  of  the  manner  in  which  forensic  evidence 
is  presented  on  television  results  in  jurors  giving  more  or  less  credence  to  the  forensic  experts  and  their  testimony  than  they 
should,  raising  expectations,  and  possibly  resulting  in  a  miscarriage  of  justice.  The  true  effects  of  the  popularization  of 
forensic  science  disciplines  will  not  be  fully  understood  for  some  time,  but  it  is  apparent  that  it  has  increased  pressure  and 
attention  on  the  forensic  science  community  in  the  use  and  interpretation  of  evidence  in  the  courtroom. 

Fragmented  and  Inconsistent  Medicolegal  Death  Investigation  The  medicolegal  death  investigation  system  is  a  fragmented 
organization  of  state  and  local  entities  called  upon  to  investigate  deaths  and  to  certify  the  cause  and  manner  of  unnatural  and 
unexplained  deaths.  About  1  percent  of  the  U.S.  population  (about  2.6  million  people)  dies  each  year.  Medical  examiner  and 
coroner  offices  receive  nearly  1  million  reports  of  deaths,  constituting  between  30  to  40  percent  of  all  U.S.  deaths  in  2004, 
and  accept  about  one  half  of  those  (500,000,  or  1  in  5  deaths)  for  further  investigation  and  certification.41  In  carrying  out  this 
role,  medical  examiners  and  coroners  are  required  to  decide  the  scope  and  course  of  a  death  investigation,  which  may  include 
assessing  the  scene  of  death,  examining  the  body,  determining  whether  to  perform  an  autopsy,  and  ordering  other  medical 
tests,  forensic  analyses,  and  procedures  as  needed.  Yet  the  training  and  skill  of  medical  examiners  and  coroners  and  the 
systems  that  support  them  vary  greatly.  Medical  examiners  may  be  physicians,  pathologists,  or  forensic  pathologists  with 
jurisdiction  within  a  county,  district,  or  state.  A  coroner  is  an  elected  or  appointed  official  who  might  not  be  a  physician  or 
have  had  any  medical  training.  Coroners  typically  serve  a  single  county. 

Since  1877,  in  the  United  States,  there  have  been  efforts  to  replace  the  coroner  system  with  a  medical  examiner  system.  In 
fact,  more  than  80  years  ago,  the  National  Academy  of  Sciences  identified  concerns  regarding  the  lack  of  standardization  in 
death  investigations  and  called  for  the  abolishment  of  the  coroner’s  office,  noting  that  the  office  “has  conclusively 
demonstrated  its  incapacity  to  perform  the  functions  customarily  required  of  it.”  In  its  place,  the  report  called  for  well-staffed 
offices  of  a  medical  examiner,  led  by  a  pathologist.  In  strong  terns,  the  1928  committee  called  for  the  professionalization  of 
death  investigation,  with  medical  science  at  its  center. 

Despite  these  calls,  efforts  to  move  away  from  a  coroner  system  in  the  United  States  have  stalled.  Currently,  1 1  states  have 
coroner-only  systems,  22  states  have  medical  examiner  systems,  and  18  states  have  mixed  systems — in  which  some  counties 
have  coroners  and  others  have  medical  examiners.  Some  of  these  states  have  a  referral  system,  in  which  the  coroner  refers 
cases  to  medical  examiners  for  autopsy.  According  to  a  2003  Institute  of  Medicine  report,  in  addition  to  the  variety  of  systems 
in  the  United  States,  the  location  and  authority  of  the  medical  examiner  or  coroner  office  also  varies,  with  43  percent  of  the 
U.S.  population  served  by  a  medical  examiner  or  coroner  housed  in  a  separate  city,  county,  or  state  government  office.  Other 
arrangements  involve  an  office  under  public  safety  or  law  enforcement.  The  least  common  placement  is  under  a  forensic 
laboratory  or  health  department. 

Variability  also  is  evident  in  terns  of  accreditation  of  death  investigation  systems.  As  of  August  2008,  54  of  the  medical 
examiner  offices  in  the  United  States  (serving  23  percent  of  the  population)  have  been  accredited  by  the  National  Association 
of  Medical  Examiners,  the  professional  organization  of  physician  medical  examiners.  Most  of  the  country  is  served  by  offices 
lacking  accreditation.  Similarly,  requirements  for  training  are  not  mandatory.  About  36  percent  of  the  population  lives  where 
minimal  or  no  special  training  is  required  to  conduct  death  investigations.  Recently,  an  18-year-old  high  school  student  was 
elected  a  deputy  coroner  in  Indiana  after  completing  a  short  training  course."  (548) 


In  1973,  the  drug  field  test  was  patented,  and  police  departments  began  implementing  use  of  the  test  even  though 


the  tests  are  extremely  unreliable,  as  they  can  give  a  false-positive  result  from  exposure  to  more  than  80  other 
compounds  besides  illegal  drugs.  And  while  there  are  no  official  or  comprehensive  statistics  on  wrongful 
convictions  because  of  errors  in  field  drug  tests,  thousands  of  cases  have  been  dismissed  because  of  a  false¬ 
positive  field  drug  test,  (482)  and  thousands  of  other  innocent  citizens  have  most  likely  been  wrongfully 
convicted  as  a  result  of  a  false-positive  field  drug  test.  A  20 1 3  federal  survey  of  United  States  forensic 
laboratories,  found  that  8  out  of  10  responding  laboratories  reported  that  they  don’t  analyze  all  drug  cases  which 
are  submitted  to  them.  (483)  Why  are  drug  field  tests  admissible  in  some  courts  when  they  can  give  such  an  easy 
false-positive  result,  shouldn’t  a  secondary  more  definitive  technique  such  as  mass  spectrometry  be  used  to 
confirm  the  initial  results?  How  many  thousands  of  Homo  sapiens  have  been  wrongly  accused  and  possibly  even 
convicted  because  of  these  tests?  Why  are  so  many  incarcerated  in  the  United  States  because  of  unjust 
mandatory  minimum  sentences,  a  technicality,  and  other  minor  infractions  or  non-violent  crimes?  How  many 
millions  of  American  citizens  have  been  incarcerated  since  the  1970s  as  a  result  of  the  failing  War  on  Drugs? 
(387)  Why  aren’t  more  comprehensive  databases  and  statistics  kept  by  the  government  on  injustices  so  that  the 
continual  cause  can  be  corrected,  instead  of  just  accepting  it  as  a  part  of  the  justice  system  and  that  innocence 
will  at  some  point  prevail?  Isn’t  the  United  States  criminal  justice  system  first  and  foremost  based  on  that  the 
crime  must  be  proven  beyond  a  reasonable  doubt?  If  a  forensic  technique  has  be  shown  to  be  flawed  on 
numerous  occasions  shouldn’t  it  be  abandon?  How  just  is  a  system  with  so  many  errors  being  allowed  to  occur? 
As  of  2017  Alaska,  Arizona,  Arkansas,  Delaware,  Georgia,  Idaho,  Indiana,  Kansas,  Kentucky,  Nevada,  New 
Mexico,  North  Dakota,  Oregon,  Pennsylvania,  Rhode  Island,  South  Carolina,  South  Dakota,  and  Wyoming  do 
not  have  any  compensation  statutes,  will  these  states  ever  give  the  wrongly  convicted  the  financial  support, 
housing,  education,  food,  medical  services,  and  other  assistance  that  they  are  owed? 

After  the  September  1 1  terrorist  attacks,  there  was  a  mentality  of  fear  spread  by  demagogues  and  their  paranoid 
followers  that  more  terrorist  attacks  even  worse  than  the  September  1 1  terrorist  attacks  would  follow,  and  that 
Americans  must  be  prepared  with  more  cameras  and  more  police  with  a  larger  and  more  military  style  arsenal. 
But  the  reality  is,  that  in  the  United  States  after  the  September  1 1  terrorist  attacks  up  until  2015,  only  95  Homo 
sapiens  were  killed  as  a  result  of  jihadist-based  terrorism,  while  over  that  same  time  frame  410,522  Homo 
sapiens  died  as  a  result  of  a  domestic  firearms,  (e.g.  accidents,  homicide,  suicide,  etc.)  (278)  Between  1977  and 
2016  anti-abortion  extremists  committed  11  murders,  26  attempted  murders,  42  bombings,  186  arson  attacks,  98 
attempted  bombings  or  arson  attacks,  411  invasions,  1,643  acts  of  vandalism,  100  butyric  acid  attacks,  663 
anthrax  or  bioterrorism  threats,  239  assault  and  battery  incidents,  545  death  threats  or  threats  of  harm,  4 
kidnappings,  255  burglaries,  and  583  incidents  of  stalking.  (533)  Hari  Sreenivasan  on  the  PBS  NewsHour 
reported  that, 

"Despite  the  nation’s  intense  national  focus  on  Islamic  terrorism  since  9/11,  homegrown,  right  wing  extremists  have  also 
killed  dozens  of  Americans.  The  groups  include  white  supremacist  and  neo-Nazi  groups  and  anti-federalists  militias.  Since 
2001,  the  number  of  violent  attacks  on  U.S.  soil  inspired  by  far-right  ideology  has  spiked  to  an  average  of  more  than  300  a 
year,  according  to  a  study  by  the  Combating  Terrorism  Center  at  West  Point. 

A  2015  survey  of  U.S.  law  enforcement  groups  found  they  consider  anti-government  violent  extremists  to  be  a  more  severe 
threat  than  radicalized  Muslims.  And  while  jihadist  terrorists  have  killed  95  people  in  the  U.S.  since  9/11,  far-right  extremists 
have  killed  68  during  the  same  time,  including  the  car  attack  in  Charlottesville."  (498) 

In  the  United  States,  there  are  some  33,000  violent  street  gangs,  motorcycle  gangs,  and  prison  gangs  with  about 
1,400,000  members  which  are  criminally  active.  (600)  Should  not  more  federal  money  and  resources  be  allocated 
to  eliminating  violent  political  and  religious  extremists,  domestic  terrorism,  gangs,  and  other  criminal 
organizations  through  education  and  societal  changes,  instead  of  arming  the  police  to  fight  terrorist  with 
weapons  that  will  most  likely  never  be  used  except  during  training?  Since  the  September  1 1  terrorist  attacks, 
there  has  been  a  militarization  of  police  departments  throughout  the  United  States  with  many  officers  becoming 
even  more  military  in  their  appearance  by  utilizing  billions  of  dollars’  worth  of  recycled  military  equipment. 
Some  police  departments  have  in  essence  created  a  secret  police  state  by  their  actions  and  abuses  of  power.  In 
September  2014,  the  Washington  Post  published  their  findings  from  an  investigation  it  did  about  a  dramatic 
increase  of  illegal  police  search  and  seizures  after  the  September  1 1  terrorist  attacks.  During  their  investigation 
they  found  that, 


“There  have  been  61,998  cash  seizures  made  on  highways  and  elsewhere  since  9/11  without  search  warrants  or  indictments 
through  the  Equitable  Sharing  Program,  totaling  more  than  $2.5  billion.  State  and  local  authorities  kept  more  than  $1.7  billion 
of  that  while  Justice,  Homeland  Security  and  other  federal  agencies  received  $800  million.  Half  of  the  seizures  were  below 
$8,800.  Only  a  sixth  of  the  seizures  were  legally  challenged,  in  part  because  of  the  costs  of  legal  action  against  the 
government.  But  in  41  percent  of  cases  —  4,455  —  where  there  was  a  challenge,  the  government  agreed  to  return  money.  The 
appeals  process  took  more  than  a  year  in  40  percent  of  those  cases  and  often  required  owners  of  the  cash  to  sign  agreements 
not  to  sue  police  over  the  seizures.”  (173) 

Currently  there  are  no  federal  government  entities  which  collect  data  on  all  criminal  arrests  of  law  enforcement 
officers,  nor  are  there  any  federal  government  entities  which  monitor  all  police  shootings  which  occur,  therefore 
most  statistical  data  on  these  subjects  has  been  primarily  gathered  from  news  reports  or  concerned  organizations. 
Between  1976  and  2011,  the  police  in  the  United  States  killed  at  least  14,012  Homo  sapiens,  perhaps  even  more. 
(210)  In  2015,  there  were  1,146  Homo  sapiens  killed  by  police  in  the  United  States,  230  of  them  were  unarmed, 
and  in  2016  there  were  1,093  police  shootings  which  resulted  in  a  death.  (211)  In  2015,  the  Washington  Post  and 
Bowling  Green  State  University  researched  police  killings  in  the  United  States,  they  found  that  since  2005  out  of 
the  thousands  of  killings  by  the  police,  and  even  with  evidence  that  hundreds  of  the  victims  were  unarmed  and 
some  even  shot  in  the  back,  only  53  officers  were  ever  charged  with  a  crime.  Out  of  those  officers  charged,  21 
were  not  convicted,  1 1  were  convicted,  19  were  pending  cases,  and  3  made  other  deals.  (212)  When  a  police 
shootout  occurs,  it  often  results  in  mass  quantities  of  bullets  being  fired,  like  when  13  Cleveland  police  officers 
fired  137  shots  into  a  car  killing  the  unarmed  driver  and  passenger,  with  one  officer  alone  firing  49  of  the  shots. 
(476)  The  U.S.  Customs  and  Border  Protection  Agency  was  established  in  2003,  it  now  employs  56,000  agents, 
177  of  which  were  arrested  for  official  misconduct,  between  2004  and  2015.  (477)  A  2016  study,  of  only  state  and 
local  law  enforcement  agencies,  identified  6,724  arrest  cases  between  2005  and  2011  which  involved  5,545 
sworn  law  enforcement  officers  engaged  in  either  sex-related,  drug-related,  alcohol-related,  profit-motivated,  or 
violence-related  crimes.  Many  of  these  officers  were  never  prosecuted  and  remained  law  enforcement  officers, 
the  study  found, 

“-Sex-related  police  crime  included  1,475  arrest  cases  of  1,070  sworn  officers 

-  Alcohol-related  police  crime  included  1,405  arrest  cases  of  1,283  sworn  officers 

-  Drug-related  police  crime  included  739  arrest  cases  of  665  sworn  officers 

-  Violence-related  police  crime  included  3,328  arrest  cases  of  2,586  sworn  officers 

-  Profit-motivated  police  crime  included  1,592  cases  of  1,396  sworn  officers” 

"The  study  identified  a  total  of  422  forcible  or  statutory  rapes,  352  cases  of  forcible  fondling,  and  94  sodomy  arrest  cases. 

Children  seem  to  be  particularly  vulnerable  to  law  enforcement  officers  who  perpetrate  sex  crimes.  Almost  one-half  of  the 
known  victims  were  children,  and  the  second-most  commonly  occurring  category  in  terms  of  the  victim's  relationship  to  the 
arrested  officer  was  an  unrelated  child.  Arrested  officers  were  criminally  convicted  on  at  least  one  charge  in  four- fifths  (80%) 
of  the  sex-related  cases  in  which  conviction  data  were  available." 

"For  example,  many  of  the  police  DUI  arrest  cases  involved  traffic  accidents  (51%)  often  resulting  in  victim  injury  (24.1%) 
or  fatalities  (4%).  Arrested  officers  are  known  to  have  lost  their  jobs  as  sworn  law  enforcement  officers  in  less  than  one-third 
(29.8%)  of  the  police  DUI  arrest  cases." 

"More  than  two-thirds  of  the  sworn  law  enforcement  officers  arrested  for  profit-motivated  crime  lost  their  jobs  (67%)  and 
more  than  half  of  the  profit-motivated  arrest  cases  resulted  in  conviction  (57.4%)."  (478) 

Why  are  so  many  trigger-happy  individuals  and  criminals  allowed  to  become  officers  of  the  law?  Could  these 
murders  and  criminal  acts  be  eliminated  if  police  officers  were  initially  evaluated  and  screened  more  thoroughly 
for  possible  psychological  issues?  Should  there  not  be  more  policing  of  the  police  which  wield  so  much  power 
over  society?  How  many  other  thousands  of  criminal  acts  have  police  done  and  gotten  away  with?  Why  isn’t 
precise  data  involving  police  crimes  and  shootings  collected  and  disseminated  by  the  federal  government?  Why 
are  only  a  small  portion  of  the  police  officers  prosecuted  for  their  crimes?  How  pure  is  a  justice  system  that  has 
statues  of  limitations  for  so  many  crimes,  especially  when  clear  evidence  so  plainly  exists  many  times  in  the 
form  of  a  confession  from  the  criminal?  What  does  it  say  about  the  morals  and  trust  of  society,  when  security 
systems  like  armed  guards,  locks,  alarm  systems,  and  cameras  must  be  implemented  to  maintain  order  and  civil 
stability?  Can  members  of  society  not  have  better  morals  instilled  by  being  fostered  and  educated  not  only  by 
their  parents  or  mentors,  but  also  by  an  example  set  by  society  as  a  whole? 


Guns 


Since  1 872,  the  National  Rifle  Association  has  lobbied  in  Washington  D.C.  for  legislation  which  promotes  the 
sale  and  possession  of  guns,  while  also  fighting  against  gun-control  policies.  There  are  an  estimated  875,000,000 
small  arms  in  the  world,  200,000,000  which  arm  the  militaries,  25,000,000  held  by  the  police,  and  650,000,000 
possessed  by  individual  civilian  gun  enthusiasts  and  criminals.  (567)  In  2017,  in  the  United  States,  there  were  an 
estimated  265,000,000  guns  possessed  by  17%  of  the  population,  and  each  year  the  number  of  guns 
manufactured  continues  to  rise  while  the  number  of  individual  gun  owners  falls.  Half  of  the  guns  in  the  United 
States  are  possessed  by  just  3%  of  American  adults,  with  these  super  gun  owners  possessing  between  8  and  140 
guns  each.  (464)  United  States  gun  manufacturers  made  3,040,934  guns  in  1986,  and  this  number  increased  to 
10,884,792  guns  in  2013.  (330) 

In  the  United  States,  between  2001  and  2015,  there  were  177,731  reported  unintentional  nonfatal  injuries 
resulting  from  a  BB  or  pellet  gunshot,  in  addition  to  236,783  unintentional  firearm  gunshot  injuries.  (500) 
Between  1968  and  2011,  there  were  1,400,000  firearm  deaths  in  the  United  States.  (331)  There  were  58,546 
violent  incidents  in  the  United  States  involving  a  gun  in  2016  which  resulted  in  15,053  deaths.  A  joint 
investigation  by  the  Associated  Press  and  USA  Today,  found  that  during  the  first  months  of  20 1 6  every  other  day 
a  minor  died  as  a  result  of  an  accidental  shooting,  either  at  their  own  hands  or  at  the  hands  of  other  children  or 
adults.  (499)  In  the  United  States,  there  were  274  mass  shootings  in  2014,  in  2016  the  number  of  mass  shootings 
increased  to  384.  (332)  The  two  deadliest  mass  shooting  in  United  States  history  occurred  less  than  16  months 
apart,  the  June  2016  Pulse  nightclub  shooting  which  killed  49  and  injured  58  others,  and  the  October  2017  Las 
Vegas  Route  91  Harvest  music  festival  shooting  which  killed  58  and  injured  546.  Then  in  November  2017,  the 
deadliest  shooting  in  Texas  history  occurred  at  a  church  leaving  26  dead  and  20  others  injured.  Between  2013 
and  2016,  there  were  more  than  200  school  shootings  in  the  United  States.  (334)  Are  the  hundreds  of  mass 
shootings  each  year,  and  children  taking  guns  to  school  and  killing  other  children,  not  enough  evidence  that  there 
is  a  major  failure  in  government  with  regard  to  gun  legislation?  Why  are  a  minority  of  tyrannical  gun  enthusiast 
allowed  to  put  the  rest  of  the  population  in  potential  danger?  Are  there  not  enough  guns  in  existence,  why  must 
guns  continue  to  be  manufactured?  When  4  United  States  Presidents  have  been  assassinated  by  gunshots,  2 
United  States  Presidents  have  been  injured  during  attempted  assassinations  by  gunshots,  and  others  like  John 
Lennon,  Mahatma  Gandhi,  Martin  Luther  King  Jr.,  Peter  Tosh,  and  thousands  of  other  peaceful  Homo  sapiens 
have  also  been  assassinated  or  murdered  in  cold  blood  with  a  gun,  is  this  not  enough  evidence  there  should  be 
major  reforms  to  gun  legislation? 

Guns  are  justified  as  being  a  part  of  freedom,  for  use  to  hunt  animals,  for  protection,  and  crime  prevention.  In 
Spain,  Cyprus,  Hong  Kong,  China,  Japan,  Philippines,  Taiwan,  Germany,  Greece,  Romania,  United  Kingdom, 
Australia,  and  some  other  countries  where  gun  legislation  has  been  enacted  to  control  and  ban  firearms,  there  are 
far  lower  rates  of  accidental  shootings,  mass  shootings,  armed  robberies,  murders,  and  other  crimes  committed 
with  firearms.  And  yet  in  the  United  States  where  guns  are  legal  more  gun  related  crimes  occur.  Logical  sensible 
Homo  sapiens  don't  own  guns,  they  call  911.  Neighborhood  watch  groups  were  designed  to  be  the  eyes  and  ears 
of  police  and  nothing  more,  now,  where  the  laws  allow,  thousands  of  these  trigger-happy  volunteers  pack  a 
variety  of  guns.  Trayvon  Martin,  who  was  unarmed,  was  murdered  in  2012  by  neighborhood  watch  volunteer 
George  Zimmerman,  a  violent  gun  owner  known  to  police  with  a  prior  history  of  violence  with  guns,  who  was 
also  told  to  wait  for  police  but  did  not. 

Why  are  things  like  bump  stocks  legal?  Why  are  the  mentally  ill  allowed  to  own  guns?  Why  are  military  style 
weapons  even  legal?  What  good  are  background  checks  if  they  aren’t  universal  and  can  easily  be  circumvented 
through  private  sales?  What  purpose  do  guns  ever  serve  other  than  to  kill?  Must  one  own  a  gun  for  protection, 
are  the  police  not  enough  protection?  Can  society  not  simply  educate  and  impress  good  morals  onto  itself  to 
prevent  crime?  Do  guns  really  symbolize  freedom,  or  nothing  more  than  paranoia  and  intimidation?  Is  there  a 
real  need  for  guns  because  of  an  old  antiquated  constitutional  provision  which  allows  the  population  to  rise  up 
against  an  old  form  of  government,  military,  and  police  force?  Is  it  even  possible  for  today’s  society  to  rise  up 
against  the  government  and  revolt,  do  these  fanatical  gun  owners  not  see  the  impossibility  of  such  an  uprising, 
when  the  government  with  a  much  larger  force  and  far  superior  weapons  could  so  easily  subdue  any  rebellion? 


Martin  Luther  King  Jr.  wrote, 


“They  fail  to  see  that  no  internal  revolution  has  ever  succeeded  in  overthrowing  a  government  by  violence  unless  the 
government  had  already  lost  the  allegiance  and  effective  control  of  its  anned  forces.  Anyone  in  his  right  mind  knows  that  this 
will  not  happen  in  the  United  States.  In  a  violent  racial  situation,  the  power  structure  has  the  local  police,  the  state  troopers, 
the  national  guard  and  finally  the  army  to  call  on...”  (333) 

Religion 

Religions  have  attempted  to  help  maintain  the  societal  order  and  answer  questions  about  the  unknown,  but  have 
failed  miserably  for  over  10,000  years.  The  exploitation  of  religious  followers  some  by  televangelist 
personalities  like  Jimmy  Swaggart,  Pat  Robertson,  Jim  Bakker,  Billy  Graham,  Jerry  Falwell,  Robert  Schuller, 
Benny  Hinn,  Oral  Roberts,  and  others  is  further  clear  evidence  of  how  fraudulent  these  modern-day  religions 
truly  are.  Religion  has  become  just  another  business  where  a  religion  can  make  vast  sums  of  money,  usually  in 
the  form  of  cash,  and  always  tax  exempt.  The  economic  value  of  religion  in  the  United  States  alone  is 
$1,000,000,000,000  a  year  based  on  the  revenues  of  faith-based  organizations,  the  fair  market  value  of  goods 
and  services  provided  by  religious  organizations,  and  on  businesses  with  religious  roots.  (377)  Do  any  of  these 
devout  worshipers  ever  question  what  their  weekly  tithing  was  spent  on?  How  many  billions  of  dollars  has  been 
wasted  because  of  mismanagement,  embezzlement,  or  other  fraud?  How  many  billions  of  dollars  has  been  spent 
by  the  leaders  of  these  religious  organizations  on  their  self-indulgent  lifestyles? 

Most  religious  leaders  have  also  been  silent  and  neutral  when  it  comes  to  the  destruction  of  Earth,  and  some  even 
encourage  it  through  the  message  they  preach  during  their  sermons,  which  continuously  focuses  on  the  inevitable 
pseudo  apocalypse.  If  it  ever  happens  at  all,  the  end  of  days  which  the  Bible  and  other  religions  speak  of  with  the 
natural  world  destroying  Earth  and  Homo  sapiens,  will  only  be  the  self-inflicted  one  which  is  created  by  Homo 
sapiens  depredations.  Some  Christians  even  justify  their  depredations  of  Earth  with  Bible  passages  like  Genesis 
1:28  which  states,  ‘God  blessed  them;  and  God  said  to  them,  “Be  fruitful  and  multiply,  and  fill  the  earth,  and 
subdue  it;  and  rule  over  the  fish  of  the  sea  and  over  the  birds  of  the  sky  and  over  every  living  thing  that  moves  on 
the  earth.  ”’lf  one  thinks  the  end  of  the  world  is  coming,  as  many  religious  followers  believe,  what  motivation 
do  they  have  for  being  a  good  steward  of  Earth?  If  one  believes  that  the  Earth  was  given  to  them  by  God  to  do 
with  what  they  please,  how  can  they  ever  be  expected  to  coexist  on  Earth?  Religions  talk  of  thou  shalt  not  do  this 
or  that,  and  if  you  do  then  wrath  of  God  will  be  brought  down  upon  you,  and  yet  most  of  these  religious 
followers  continuously  destroy  Earth.  Is  it  not  a  contradiction  to  worship  God,  but  then  depredate  the  Earth 
which  is  God’s  supposed  creation?  Would  not  their  supposed  God  be  more  ecstatic  if  Homo  sapiens  treated  the 
Earth  with  more  respect  and  admiration  for  which  it  was  created?  How  can  religious  Homo  sapiens  all  in  the 
name  of  greed,  power,  and  progress  willingly  and  hypocritically  destroy  a  perfect  creation  like  the  Earth,  which 
their  supposed  God  created?  Is  it  not  disrespectful  and  sacrilegious  in  a  sense  to  depredate  the  Earth  which  your 
supposed  God  created?  Perhaps  Homo  sapiens  have  had  so  much  fear  of  God  instilled  into  them  over  several 
thousand  years  that  it  just  doesn't  matter  anymore,  and  there  is  no  true  fear  nor  respect  for  their  supposed  God. 

Some  Homo  sapiens  appear  to  be  abandoning  traditional  religions  around  the  world  and  are  seeking  something 
more  factual  to  believe  in  and  ponder.  Could  a  revived  connection  with  nature  help  those  with  questions  about 
the  meaning  of  life  to  find  the  answers  from  within?  Nature  has  what  most  everyone  is  seeking,  truth  and  purity, 
and  this  will  never  be  matched  by  the  religious  creations  of  Homo  sapiens.  Perhaps  one-day  Homo  sapiens  will 
acknowledge  this,  coexist  on  Earth,  and  learn  from  it.  Maybe  a  new  religion  will  emerge  in  the  near  future  based 
on  nature  and  the  environment.  If  this  new  type  of  environmental  based  religion  does  emerge  and  takes  hold 
anywhere  near  the  way  religions  of  the  past  have,  it  would  bring  billions  of  Homo  sapiens  back  to  their  roots 
with  nature  and  perhaps  initiate  more  coexistence  on  Earth.  Perhaps  Homo  sapiens  will  fully  abandon  the  current 
religions  after  thousands  of  years  like  the  mythological  and  sacrificial  religions  before  them.  As  of  2010, 
estimated  religious  statistics  for  the  world  were:  Christian  3 1 .4%,  Muslim  23.2%,  Hindu  15%,  Buddhist  7.1%, 
folk  religions  5.9%,  Jewish  0.2%,  other  0.8%,  unaffiliated  16.4%.  But  it  should  also  be  noted,  that  some  of  those 
who  claim  a  religious  affiliation  do  not  practice  the  religion  actively  and  are  simply  responding  to  the  question 
with  the  religion  that  was  forced  on  them  as  a  child.  The  unaffiliated  percentage  has  steadily  risen  over  time  and 
will  perhaps  be  the  majority  in  the  near  future.  (124)  In  201 1,  Daniel  M.  Abrams,  Haley  A.  Yaple,  and  Richard  J. 


Wiener  released,  ‘Dynamics  of  Social  Group  Competition:  Modeling  the  Decline  of  Religious  Affiliation' ,  in  it, 
they  stated, 


"People  claiming  no  religious  affiliation  constitute  the  fastest  growing  religious  minority  in  many  countries  throughout  the 
world.  Americans  without  religious  affiliation  comprise  the  only  religious  group  growing  in  all  50  states;  in  2008  those 
claiming  no  religion  rose  to  15%  nationwide,  with  a  maximum  in  Vermont  at  34%.In  the  Netherlands  nearly  half  the 
population  is  religiously  unaffiliated." 

"We  found  that  a  particular  case  of  the  solution  fits  census  data  on  competition  between  religious  and  irreligious  segments  of 
modem  secular  societies  in  85  regions  around  the  world.  The  model  indicates  that  in  these  societies  the  perceived  utility  of 
religious  nonaffiliation  is  greater  than  that  of  adhering  to  a  religion,  and  therefore  predicts  continued  growth  of  nonaffiliation, 
tending  toward  the  disappearance  of  religion."  (614) 

It  all  began  with  the  enlightenment  or  intellectual  movement  which  spawned  out  of  the  Renaissance  era  500 
years  ago,  it  was  the  beginning  of  favoring  rational  inquiry  over  the  long-established  dogma,  science  along  with 
logic,  truth,  and  knowledge  could  be  suppressed  no  more.  Science  will  ultimately  succeed  in  the  end,  because  of 
scientists  and  philosophers  which  are  logical  and  rational  in  their  thinking,  (e.g.  Lucretius,  Hippocrates, 
Pythagoras,  Socrates,  Aristotle,  Plato,  Copernicus,  Spinoza,  Galileo,  Kepler,  Newton,  Darwin,  Einstein,  and  so 
many  others)  Some  of  them  spent  time  in  jail,  exile,  or  were  killed  as  a  result  of  their  work.  Today  thanks  to 
these  pioneers  of  science  and  logical  thought,  and  even  modem-day  specialty  debunkers,  all  pseudo  things  like 
religions,  pseudoscience,  myths,  wise  tales,  rumors,  hoaxes,  and  the  like  are  eventually  replaced  with  the  truth 
through  logical  thought  and  scientific  factual  evidence.  Will  science,  knowledge,  the  power  of  the  Internet,  and 
time  result  in  less  mainstream  religions  and  eventually  make  them  just  another  thing  of  the  past  like  Greek 
mythology?  Perhaps  the  charlatans,  fear-mongers,  alarmists,  and  other  ‘Franz  von  Walseggs  ’  of  the  world  who 
peipetuate  these  lies  will  also  disappear  with  time  as  well.  What  would  the  world  be  like  if  every  religious 
follower  first  read  Thomas  Paine’s  ‘The  Age  of  Reason  ’  before  so  blindly  following  such  religions? 

Some  Homo  sapiens  still  possess  an  Orthodox  or  other  religious  viewpoint  about  society.  Earth,  and  even  the 
Universe.  Religion  based  purely  on  faith  discourages  logic  and  seems  to  ignore  it  as  if  it  isn't  applicable.  A  future 
observer  might  see  this  as  foolish,  given  Homo  sapiens  level  of  technological  and  scientific  advancements  over 
the  last  100  years.  One  can  understand  science  and  believe  that  something  created  the  entire  universe,  call  it  God 
or  whatever  name  suits  you,  but  the  question  will  forever  linger  as  to  what  created  the  creator,  and  thus  the  God 
and  creation  loop  is  forever  infinite.  And  it  is  precisely  this  type  of  uncertainty  which  perpetuates  religions  still 
to  this  day,  as  most  all  religions  are  based  not  on  fact,  but  on  faith  in  fiction,  superstition,  myth,  magic,  or 
mysticism.  In  1930,  Albert  Einstein  wrote  an  article  about  religion  and  science  for  the  New  York  Times 
Magazine,  in  it  he  made  the  following  remarks, 

"In  this  sense  I  am  speaking  of  a  religion  of  fear.  This,  though  not  created,  is  in  an  important  degree  stabilized  by  the 
formation  of  a  special  priestly  caste  which  sets  itself  up  as  a  mediator  between  the  people  and  the  beings  they  fear,  and  erects 
a  hegemony  on  this  basis.  In  many  cases  a  leader  or  ruler  or  a  privileged  class  whose  position  rests  on  other  factors  combines 
priestly  functions  with  its  secular  authority  in  order  to  make  the  latter  more  secure;  or  the  political  rulers  and  the  priestly  caste 
make  common  cause  in  their  own  interests." 


"But  there  is  a  third  stage  of  religious  experience  which  belongs  to  all  of  them,  even  though  it  is  rarely  found  in  a  pure  form:  I 
shall  call  it  cosmic  religious  feeling.  It  is  very  difficult  to  elucidate  this  feeling  to  anyone  who  is  entirely  without  it,  especially 
as  there  is  no  anthropomorphic  conception  of  God  corresponding  to  it. 

The  individual  feels  the  futility  of  human  desires  and  aims  and  the  sublimity  and  marvelous  order  which  reveal  themselves 
both  in  nature  and  in  the  world  of  thought.  Individual  existence  impresses  him  as  a  sort  of  prison  and  he  wants  to  experience 
the  universe  as  a  single  significant  whole." 

"The  religious  geniuses  of  all  ages  have  been  distinguished  by  this  kind  of  religious  feeling,  which  knows  no  dogma  and  no 
God  conceived  in  man's  image;  so  that  there  can  be  no  church  whose  central  teachings  are  based  on  it.  Hence  it  is  precisely 
among  the  heretics  of  every  age  that  we  find  men  who  were  filled  with  this  highest  kind  of  religious  feeling  and  were  in  many 
cases  regarded  by  their  contemporaries  as  atheists,  sometimes  also  as  saints.  Looked  at  in  this  light,  men  like  Democritus, 
Francis  of  Assisi,  and  Spinoza  are  closely  akin  to  one  another. 


How  can  cosmic  religious  feeling  be  communicated  from  one  person  to  another,  if  it  can  give  rise  to  no  definite  notion  of  a 
God  and  no  theology?  In  my  view,  it  is  the  most  important  function  of  art  and  science  to  awaken  this  feeling  and  keep  it  alive 
in  those  who  are  receptive  to  it." 

"The  man  who  is  thoroughly  convinced  of  the  universal  operation  of  the  law  of  causation  cannot  for  a  moment  entertain  the 
idea  of  a  being  who  interferes  in  the  course  of  events  provided,  of  course,  that  he  takes  the  hypothesis  of  causality  really 
seriously.  He  has  no  use  for  the  religion  of  fear  and  equally  little  for  social  or  moral  religion.  A  God  who  rewards  and 
punishes  is  inconceivable  to  him  for  the  simple  reason  that  a  man's  actions  are  determined  by  necessity,  external  and  internal, 
so  that  in  God's  eyes  he  cannot  be  responsible,  any  more  than  an  inanimate  object  is  responsible  for  the  motions  it  undergoes. 
Science  has  therefore  been  charged  with  undermining  morality,  but  the  charge  is  unjust.  A  man's  ethical  behavior  should  be 
based  effectually  on  sympathy,  education,  and  social  ties  and  needs;  no  religious  basis  is  necessary.  Man  would  indeed  be  in  a 
poor  way  if  he  had  to  be  restrained  by  fear  of  punishment  and  hope  of  reward  after  death. 

It  is  therefore  easy  to  see  why  the  churches  have  always  fought  science  and  persecuted  its  devotees.  On  the  other  hand,  I 
maintain  that  the  cosmic  religious  feeling  is  the  strongest  and  noblest  motive  for  scientific  research.  Only  those  who  realize 
the  immense  efforts  and,  above  all,  the  devotion  without  which  pioneer  work  in  theoretical  science  cannot  be  achieved  are 
able  to  grasp  the  strength  of  the  emotion  out  of  which  alone  such  work,  remote  as  it  is  from  the  immediate  realities  of  life, 
can  issue.  What  a  deep  conviction  of  the  rationality  of  the  universe  and  what  a  yearning  to  understand,  were  it  but  a  feeble 
reflection  of  the  mind  revealed  in  this  world,  Kepler  and  Newton  must  have  had  to  enable  them  to  spend  years  of  solitary 
labor  in  disentangling  the  principles  of  celestial  mechanics!  Those  whose  acquaintance  with  scientific  research  is  derived 
chiefly  from  its  practical  results  easily  develop  a  completely  false  notion  of  the  mentality  of  the  men  who,  surrounded  by  a 
skeptical  world,  have  shown  the  way  to  kindred  spirits  scattered  wide  through  the  world  and  the  centuries.  Only  one  who  has 
devoted  his  life  to  similar  ends  can  have  a  vivid  realization  of  what  has  inspired  these  men  and  given  them  the  strength  to 
remain  true  to  their  purpose  in  spite  of  countless  failures.  It  is  cosmic  religious  feeling  that  gives  a  man  such  strength.  A 
contemporary  has  said,  not  unjustly,  that  in  this  materialistic  age  of  ours  the  serious  scientific  workers  are  the  only 
profoundly  religious  people."  (58) 

Most  religions  have  also  helped  to  bring  about  a  false  justification  of  patriarchy,  with  God  so  often  referred  to  as 
‘He  ’  and  never  ‘She  Most  religions  are  nothing  more  than  a  tyrannical  form  of  control  based  on  faith  and  fear 
of  the  unknown,  and  religions  have  always  used  their  power  to  control  or  in  an  attempt  to  control  Homo  sapiens. 
How  can  billions  of  Homo  sapiens  still  follow  these  mainstream  antiquated  religions  that  have  committed  so 
many  horrendous  deeds  over  the  last  2,000  years?  Do  these  followers  not  know  the  history  of  their  religion 
which  they  follow  so  blindly?  How  can  one  follow  and  believe  in  such  a  hypocrisy  that  has  done  nothing  more 
than  suppress  and  exploit  Homo  sapiens  throughout  history?  Why  would  anyone  follow  a  religion  which  has  a 
known  history  of  cruelty,  murder,  prejudice,  and  deception?  Perhaps  more  research  of  the  factual  historic 
evidence  would  enlighten  followers  to  how  truly  evil  the  religions  they  worship  are.  Since  2004,  more  than  3,400 
credible  cases  of  sexual  abuse  towards  children  by  Catholic  priests  have  been  reported  to  the  Vatican.  And 
although  there  is  irrefutable  evidence  and  even  confessions  in  some  cases,  only  a  small  number  of  these  priests 
have  gone  to  trial  and  have  avoided  true  justice  in  a  court  of  law.  Instead  the  Vatican  has  delivered  pseudo  justice 
in  the  form  of  848  priests  having  been  defrocked,  or  returned  to  the  lay  state,  and  another  2,572  have  been  given 
a  lifetime  of  penance  and  prayer  or  another  lesser  sanction.  (485)  Between  2007  and  2015,  the  New  York 
Catholic  Conference  spent  more  than  $2,100,000  on  lobbying,  in  part  to  work  on  blocking  child-sex  law  reforms 
involving  the  statute  of  limitations  and  timelines  for  commencing  certain  civil  actions  related  to  sex  offenses. 
(486)  It  is  interesting  to  examine  the  perspective  of  Christianity  by  that  of  a  non-believer  and  who  does  not  take 
part  in  organized  religion,  a  perspective  like  that  of  an  Indian  such  as  Ishi.  Theodora  Kroeber  wrote  that, 

“Christian  doctrine  interested  him,  and  seemed  to  him  to  be  for  the  most  part  reasonable  and  understandable.  He  held  to  the 
conviction  that  the  White  God  would  not  care  to  have  Indians  in  His  home,  for  all  Loudy  told  him  to  the  contrary.  It  may  have 
occurred  to  him  that  the  souls  of  white  men  would  fit  but  poorly  into  a  round  dance  of  Yana  dead.  If  so,  he  was  too  polite  to 
say  so. ..When  Ishi  saw  the  cinema  of  Passion  Play,  which  moved  him  and  which  he  found  beautiful,  he  assumed  that  Christ 
was  the  “badman”  whose  crucifixion  was  justified.”  (100) 

If  Homo  sapiens  are  to  ever  truly  progress  forward  as  a  whole,  traditional  religions  will  most  likely  need  to  be 
abandoned  completely.  The  time  and  energy  that  Homo  sapiens  would  acquire  by  the  abandonment  of  these  time 
consuming  pointless  activities  would  be  exponential.  What  could  be  accomplished  if  instead  of  wasting  time 
worshiping  and  idolizing  myths  for  hours  on  end,  individuals  became  more  scientifically  educated,  devoted  time 
to  resolving  social  issues,  or  helped  to  clean-up  Earth?  Billions  of  minds  are  simply  waiting  to  be  exposed  to 
scientific  truth  and  knowledge,  and  perhaps  when  that  happens  the  scientific  disciplines  will  have  far  more  input 


from  additional  minds  helping  to  unravel  the  scientific  mysteries  of  the  universe.  In  1941  at  a  Symposium  on 
science,  philosophy,  and  religion  Albert  Einstein  said, 

"The  further  the  spiritual  evolution  of  mankind  advances,  the  more  certain  it  seems  to  me  that  the  path  to  genuine  religiosity 
does  not  lie  through  the  fear  of  life,  and  the  fear  of  death,  and  blind  faith,  but  through  striving  after  rational  knowledge.”  (60) 

By  definition,  all  religions  are  cults,  and  they  engage  in  deception,  brainwashing,  and  other  manipulative  actions 
over  their  followers,  and  it  is  nothing  more  than  fear  and  ignorance  which  peipetuates  these  religions. 
Organizations  like  Scientology,  Aryan  Nations,  Branch  Davidians,  Heaven's  Gate,  Unification  Church,  Peoples 
Temple,  and  thousands  of  other  groups  claim  or  claimed  to  be  religions,  and  yet  they  have  been  known  or  were 
known  to  engage  in  either  racism,  terrorism,  follower  abuse,  harassment,  extortion,  or  other  illegal  activities. 
Even  more  ludicrous  are  some  of  the  foundations  these  cults  are  based  on,  like  extraterrestrials  and  doomsday 
prophecies.  L.  Ron  Hubbard’s  Scientology  uses  alien  Gods  named  Xenu  and  Rael,  which  founded  the  Raelism 
cult  on  his  supposed  December  13,  1973  encounter  with  an  extraterrestrial.  How  can  an  organization  like 
Scientology  be  allowed  to  operate  so  secretively  posing  as  a  religion,  when  they  are  known  to  engage  in  criminal 
activities?  The  documentary  series  ‘Leah  Remini:  Scientology  and  the  Aftermath  ’2016,  explains  exactly  how 
this  modem-day  cult  manipulates  its  followers  and  seeks  to  destroy  its  critics.  These  negative  cults  are  allowed 
to  thrive  while  the  followers  of  positive  and  peaceful  spiritual  practices  like  Tibetan  Buddhism  and  Falun  Gong 
are  persecuted,  jailed,  and  even  executed  by  the  Chinese  government.  Robert  Pirsig  wrote, 

‘‘An  insane  delusion  can't  be  held  by  a  group  at  all.  A  person  isn't  considered  insane  if  there  are  a  number  of  people  who 
believe  the  same  way.  Insanity  isn't  supposed  to  be  a  communicable  disease.  If  one  other  person  starts  to  believe  him,  or 
maybe  two  or  three,  then  it's  a  religion." 

“The  current  subject-object  point  of  view  of  religion,  conventionally  muted  so  as  not  to  stir  up  the  fanatics,  is  that  religious 
mysticism  and  insanity  are  the  same.  Religious  mysticism  is  intellectual  garbage.  It's  a  vestige  of  the  old  superstitious  Dark 
Ages  when  nobody  knew  anything  and  the  whole  world  was  sinking  deeper  and  deeper  into  filth  and  disease  and  poverty  and 
ignorance.  It  is  one  of  those  delusions  that  isn't  called  insane  only  because  there  are  so  many  people  involved.”  (428) 

The  occult  has  been  in  existence  longer  than  modem  religions  and  is  still  practiced  by  millions  around  the  world 
today  in  some  lesser  form  than  that  of  5,000  years  ago.  The  ancient  Egyptians  are  thought  to  have  worshipped 
faunae  so  much  so  that  they  imagined  them  as  Gods,  mummifying  millions  of  cats,  birds,  and  other  faunae.  Even 
today  occultists  focus  on  bizarre  foolish  magical  rituals  sometimes  involving  the  sacrifice  of  living  florae  or 
faunae.  Occultists  often  claim  to  have  some  connection  to  the  Universe  or  nature  and  attempt  to  derive  powers 
from  nature  by  offering  nature  itself  as  the  sacrifice,  but  they  in  fact  do  not  respect  nature  and  cannot  derive  any 
powers  from  nature,  nor  do  they  have  any  magical  or  special  connection  to  it. 

Instead  of  worshiping,  idolizing,  and  celebrating  antiquated  religions,  perhaps  future  generations  will  celebrate 
the  beauty,  perfection,  diversity,  and  evolutionary  brilliance  within  nature.  Nature  is  capable  of  giving  Homo 
sapiens  enlightenment  on  a  scale  far  greater  than  any  religion  could  ever  come  close  to.  If  one  wants  to  meet 
God  or  go  to  church,  go  out  into  the  wilds  of  nature  and  meet  God  up  close  and  personal,  it  was  all  scientifically 
engineered  to  perfection  using  the  laws  of  nature,  and  you  can  get  no  closer  to  a  God  if  one  exists.  Nature  and 
everything  contained  in  the  Universe  is  a  direct  result  of  a  perfect  formula  and  is  an  example  of  the  only  true 
perfection  which  is  possible  throughout  the  Universe.  God  if  it  exists,  could  be  best  described  as  a  naturalist  with 
an  extremely  logical  thought  process  which  set  the  Universe  itself  into  motion  and  is  allowing  things  to  evolve 
without  intervention,  for  none  is  necessary,  as  the  laws  of  nature  and  that  which  make  up  the  Universe  are 
perfect,  and  evidence  of  this  can  be  seen  in  every  aspect  of  nature  and  even  the  Universe  itself.  One  need  only 
look  at  nature  to  see  the  beauty  and  perfection  with  which  it  has  evolved  into  over  billions  of  years.  Thomas 
Paine  wrote, 

"All  the  knowledge  man  has  of  science  and  of  machinery,  by  the  aid  of  which  his  existence  is  rendered  comfortable  upon 
earth,  and  without  which  he  would  be  scarcely  distinguishable  in  appearance  and  condition  from  a  common  animal,  comes 
from  the  great  machine  and  structure  of  the  universe.  The  constant  and  unwearied  observations  of  our  ancestors  upon  the 
movements  and  revolutions  of  the  heavenly  bodies,  in  what  are  supposed  to  have  been  the  early  ages  of  the  world,  have 
brought  this  knowledge  upon  earth.  It  is  not  Moses  and  the  prophets,  nor  Jesus  Christ,  nor  his  apostles,  that  have  done  it.  The 
Almighty  is  the  great  mechanic  of  the  creation;  the  first  philosopher  and  original  teacher  of  all  science.  Let  us,  then,  learn  to 


reverence  our  master,  and  let  us  not  forget  the  labors  of  our  ancestors. 


Had  we,  at  this  day,  no  knowledge  of  machinery,  and  were  it  possible  that  man  could  have  a  view,  as  I  have  before  described, 
of  the  structure  and  machinery  of  the  universe,  he  would  soon  conceive  the  idea  of  constructing  some  at  least  of  the 
mechanical  works  we  now  have;  and  the  idea  so  conceived  would  progressively  advance  in  practice.  Or  could  a  model  of  the 
universe,  such  as  is  called  an  orrery,  be  presented  before  him  and  put  in  motion,  his  mind  would  arrive  at  the  same  idea.  Such 
an  object  and  such  a  subject  would,  while  it  improved  him  in  knowledge  useful  to  himself  as  a  man  and  a  member  of  society, 
as  well  as  entertaining,  afford  far  better  matter  for  impressing  him  with  a  knowledge  of,  and  a  belief  in,  the  Creator,  and  of 
the  reverence  and  gratitude  that  man  owes  to  him,  than  the  stupid  texts  of  the  Bible  and  of  the  Testament  from  which,  be  the 
talents  of  the  preacher  what  they  may,  only  stupid  sermons  can  be  preached.  If  man  must  preach,  let  him  preach  something 
that  is  edifying,  and  from  texts  that  are  known  to  be  true. 

The  Bible  of  the  creation  is  inexhaustible  in  texts.  Every  part  of  science,  whether  connected  with  the  geometry  of  the 
universe,  with  the  systems  of  animal  and  vegetable  life,  or  with  the  properties  of  inanimate  matter,  is  a  text  as  well  for 
devotion  as  for  philosophy-for  gratitude  as  for  human  improvement.  It  will  perhaps  be  said,  that  if  such  a  revolution  in  the 
system  of  religion  takes  place,  every  preacher  ought  to  be  a  philosopher.  Most  certainly;  and  every  house  of  devotion  a  school 
of  science."  (630) 

How  can  Homo  sapiens  engage  in  religions  when  they  are  based  on  such  an  obvious  lie  and  on  faith  and  not 
fact?  What  would  the  world  be  like  if  Homo  sapiens  simply  respected  Earth  and  the  other  species  which  inhabit 
the  planet  instead  of  practicing  illogical  religions?  What  would  religious  followers  be  like  if  they  simply  spent 
time  in  nature  instead  of  going  to  church  on  Sunday?  The  majority  of  religions  around  the  world  be  it 
Christianity,  Judaism,  Islam,  or  other  place  no  real  emphasis  on  the  natural  world,  which  is  the  purest  connection 
that  one  can  have  with  God  or  the  Universe  at  large.  What  would  the  world  be  like  today  if  society  had  not  tried 
to  make  God  a  reflective  image  of  Homo  sapiens,  and  instead  understood  nature  as  the  true  and  only  reflection  of 
God  that  exists  on  Earth?  How  much  more  enlightened  would  the  world  be  if  more  children  were  given  the 
scientific  truth  to  read  versus  fictional  biblical  entertainment?  Why  can’t  more  Homo  sapiens  see  the  scientific 
brilliance  with  which  the  Universe  was  created?  Does  not  Darwin’s  ‘On  the  Origin  of  Species  by  Means  of 
Natural  Selection  ’  disprove  all  the  organized  religions  through  the  scientific  evidence  of  evolution?  Albert 
Einstein  said, 

“The  most  beautiful  experience  we  can  have  is  the  mysterious.  It  is  the  fundamental  emotion  which  stands  at  the  cradle  of  true 
art  and  true  science.  Whoever  does  not  know  it  and  can  no  longer  wonder,  no  longer  marvel,  is  as  good  as  dead,  and  his  eyes 
are  dimmed.  It  was  the  experience  of  mystery-even  if  mixed  with  fear-that  engendered  religion.  A  knowledge  of  the  existence 
of  something  we  cannot  penetrate,  our  perceptions  of  the  profoundest  reason  and  the  most  radiant  beauty,  which  only  in  their 
most  primitive  forms  are  accessible  to  our  minds-it  is  this  knowledge  and  this  emotion  that  constitute  true  religiosity;  in  this 
sense,  and  in  this  alone,  I  am  a  deeply  religious  man.  I  cannot  conceive  of  a  God  who  rewards  and  punishes  his  creatures,  or 
has  a  will  of  the  kind  that  we  experience  in  ourselves.  Neither  can  I  nor  would  I  want  to  conceive  of  an  individual  that 
survives  his  physical  death;  let  feeble  souls,  from  fear  or  absurd  egoism,  cherish  such  thoughts.  I  am  satisfied  with  the 
mystery  of  the  eternity  of  life  and  with  the  awareness  and  a  glimpse  of  the  marvelous  structure  of  the  existing  world,  together 
with  the  devoted  striving  to  comprehend  a  portion,  be  it  ever  so  tiny,  of  the  Reason  that  manifests  itself  in  nature.”  (53) 

Furthermore,  Albert  Einstein  said, 

“What  is  the  meaning  of  human  life,  or,  for  that  matter,  of  the  life  of  any  creature?  To  know  an  answer  to  this  question  means 
to  be  religious.  You  ask:  Does  it  make  any  sense,  then,  to  pose  this  question?  I  answer:  The  man  who  regards  his  own  life  and 
that  of  his  fellow  creatures  as  meaningless  is  not  merely  unhappy  but  hardly  fit  for  life.”  (53) 

The  destructive  godlike  mentality  which  some  Homo  sapiens  have  in  thinking  that  they  can  do  anything, 
including  depredate  Earth,  must  be  changed  if  true  progress  for  humanity  is  to  ever  be  made.  To  be  born  into  this 
world  and  assume  that  it  is  rational  and  logical  that  Homo  sapiens  are  Godlike  creatures  on  Earth  is  a  very 
erroneous  assumption  to  make.  Religions  have  only  led  Homo  sapiens  in  a  negative  direction  and  down  path  of 
lies  for  thousands  of  years.  To  follow  a  mythical  legend  passed  down  for  thousands  of  years  and  not  ever 
question  or  even  research  history  is  a  disservice  to  the  self.  Religion  has  been  so  good  at  brainwashing  followers 
it’s  no  wonder  that  more  Homo  sapiens  have  not  seen  the  facade  which  has  been  perpetuated  for  thousands  of 
years.  The  traditional  religions  have  been  proven  again  and  again  to  be  antiquated  through  scientific  facts  and 
simple  logic,  but  they  have  always  managed  to  adapt  their  teachings  to  include  evolution  and  other  selected  parts 
of  science  which  can  be  interwoven  to  be  included  into  their  web  of  lies.  Even  if  extraterrestrials  came  down 
from  outer  space  organized  religious  followers  would  most  likely  say  it  was  the  devil  or  just  another  thing  God 


was  doing  to  test  their  faith.  In  what  Albert  Einstein  referred  to  as  the  'Religious  Spirit  of  Science'  he  wrote, 

But  the  scientist  is  possessed  by  the  sense  of  universal  causation.  The  future,  to  him,  is  every  whit  as  necessary  and 
determined  as  the  past.  There  is  nothing  divine  about  morality;  it  is  a  purely  human  affair.  His  religious  feeling  takes  the  fonn 
of  a  rapturous  amazement  at  the  harmony  of  natural  law,  which  reveals  an  intelligence  of  such  superiority  that,  compared  with 
it,  all  the  systematic  thinking  and  acting  of  human  beings  is  an  utterly  insignificant  reflection.  This  feeling  is  the  guiding 
principle  of  his  life  and  work,  in  so  far  as  he  succeeds  in  keeping  himself  from  the  shackles  of  selfish  desire.  It  is  beyond 
question  closely  akin  to  that  which  has  possessed  the  religious  geniuses  of  all  ages."  (59) 

Perhaps  in  the  near  future,  through  science,  all  religions  will  finally  be  definitively  proven  impossible  and  shown 
for  what  they  truly  are,  which  is  nothing  more  than  a  fallacy.  The  fatal  flaw  with  most  religions  is  that  they  are 
based  on  legends  and  rely  on  the  faith  of  the  ignorant  to  survive.  Most  religions  are  still  relying  on  old  conquest 
and  conversion  tactics  which  only  work  on  their  ignorant  naive  followers.  Some  use  simple  logical  deductions 
combined  with  scientific  thought  based  on  all  known  scientific  knowledge,  factual  and  theoretical,  to  formulate  a 
more  original  and  meaningful  postulation  about  religion  and  the  meaning  of  life.  Perhaps  in  the  future  religion 
will  be  based  on  facts  and  become  something  more  meaningful  by  doing  far  more  positive  things  within  society 
and  for  the  conservation  of  Earth.  What  a  waste  of  life  when  one  thinks  of  all  the  millions  of  Homo  sapiens  who 
have  been  tortured,  murdered,  sacrificed,  or  were  martyrs  all  in  the  name  of  a  God  that  that  was  created  by  Homo 
sapiens.  Religions  no  longer  have  ultimate  power  over  Homo  sapiens  and  they  can  no  longer  can  suppress  and 
destroy  knowledge,  nor  imprison  or  murder  the  scientists  who  progress  that  knowledge. 

Most  all  ancient  religions  that  past  cultures  invented  throughout  history  worshiped  the  powers  of  nature,  but  it 
was  more  of  a  respect  based  on  fear,  and  not  reverence  based  on  coexistence.  The  irony  is,  that  after  10,000  years 
Homo  sapiens  have  again  come  full  circle  to  the  source  of  it  all,  nature.  There  is  nothing  wrong  with  some  of  the 
ethics  which  have  been  taught  through  religions,  but  one  could  just  as  easily  get  a  moral  standard  from  a 
philosophy  like  Confucianism,  which  existed  500  years  before  Jesus  and  1,000  years  before  Muhammad.  As 
Confucianism  is  purely  philosophical  and  non-religious,  it  has  been  described  as  definitively  pantheistic, 
nontheistic,  and  humanistic.  Perhaps  it  will  be  by  rediscovering  this  ancient  philosophy  that  will  help  to  change 
Homo  sapiens  ethics,  or  perhaps  it  will  be  through  New  Age  shamanistic  works  like  Carlos  Castaneda's  12  book 
series  with  don  Juan  Matus  which  draws  on  many  ancient  religious  concepts.  Society  and  future  generations 
already  appear  to  be  gravitating  towards  a  Confucianism  and  humanism  type  society  as  any  observer  can  clearly 
see  by  societies  focus  on  knowledge,  science,  history,  human  rights,  freedom,  and  truth.  What  would  the  world 
be  like  if  everyone  lived  by  the  simple  Ahimsa  virtue  of  nonviolence  and  respected  all  living  things?  Have  the 
plethora  of  new  social  activities  already  begun  to  substitute  traditional  religious  activities?  Are  celebrities  now 
worshiped  more  than  Jesus?  Is  social  media  being  used  more  than  the  Bible?  Has  entertainment  and  technology 
already  begun  to  replace  mainstream  religions? 

Suppression  of  History  and  Knowledge 

History  has  often  been  written  by  the  winners  of  wars.  The  destruction  of  art  and  history  has  been  done 
throughout  history  by  conquering  tyrants  or  by  the  religions  which  backed  them,  and  it  was  usually  done  out  of 
unwarranted  fear,  in  order  to  spread  lies,  erase  history  and  truth,  and  ultimately  to  convert  the  now  ignorant 
humble  masses  to  follow  the  new  ruler  and  a  new  faith.  These  tyrants  and  religious  fanatics  have  always 
attempted  to  silence  the  truth  by  controlling  knowledge  and  rewriting  history.  And  although  they  have  erased 
some  history,  they  have  all  failed  in  the  end  and  only  made  the  thirst  for  truth  and  knowledge  even  stronger.  How 
much  more  advanced  and  enlightened  would  humanity  be  if  science  and  history  would  have  not  been  suppressed 
so  much  throughout  history?  How  much  history  and  knowledge  was  suppressed  and  erased  all  in  the  name  of 
religion  and  politics?  What  type  of  art  could  have  been  created  by  Michelangelo  and  other  artists  if  they  would 
have  had  total  creative  freedom  instead  of  religious  tyrants  forcing  them  to  create  religious  art  works  based  on 
myth? 

The  Library  of  Alexandria  containing  thousands  of  scrolls  and  books,  was  destroyed  partially  or  completely 
several  times  throughout  history.  The  amount  of  history  and  knowledge  that  was  destroyed  in  the  New  World  by 
the  conquistadors  and  the  Catholic  priests  which  accompanied  them  is  incalculable.  Of  the  thousands  of  Maya 


Codices  that  once  existed,  only  the  Madrid  Codex,  Dresden  Codex,  and  Paris  Codex  now  remain,  and  other 
ancient  knowledge  like  the  Rongorongo  glyphs  were  also  destroyed.  Recent  history  witnessed  3,000  books  from 
the  Library  of  Congress  used  by  the  English  to  ignite  the  United  States  Capitol  during  the  Burning  of 
Washington  in  1813.  In  1873  fanatical  petty  tyrant  Anthony  Comstock  founded  the  New  York  Society  for  the 
Suppression  of  Vice,  and  managed  to  bum  15  tons  of  books,  284,000  pounds  of  plates  for  printing  books,  and 
nearly  4,000,000  pictures  he  deemed  lewd.  Between  1933  and  1945,  the  Nazi  regime  burned  millions  of  books, 
many  were  only  copies,  but  some  were  not.  Also  included  in  these  Nazi  burnings  were  the  personal  papers,  art, 
photos,  letters,  journals,  and  other  writings  of  many  individuals.  An  eccentric  scientist  Wilhelm  Reich  may  have 
been,  but  it  did  not  justify  the  destruction  of  his  invention,  nor  the  burning  of  his  6  tons  of  books  and  papers  by 
the  United  States  government  in  1957.  In  1973,  the  Chilean  fascist  dictator  Augusto  Pinochet  burned  hundreds  of 
books  to  foster  repression  and  censorship.  In  1981,  the  Sinhalese  police  and  paramilitaries  burned  the  Jaffna 
Public  Library  in  Sri  Lanka,  resulting  in  the  loss  of  nearly  100,000  Tamil  books  and  rare  documents.  As  of  2017, 
the  Texas  Department  of  Criminal  Justice  was  still  banning  some  10,000  published  titles  from  the  nearly  150,000 
inmates  which  reside  in  the  state  prison  system.  (611)  How  could  a  country  with  rights  guaranteeing  freedom  of 
speech  and  thought  still  be  engaged  in  such  blatant  censorship? 

There  will  always  be  those  who  spread  the  truth  with  comedy  like  Bill  Hicks,  George  Carlin,  Richard  Pryor, 
Howard  Stem,  Lenny  Bruce,  and  others,  and  there  have  always  been  those  who  have  attempted  to  censor  this 
speech.  How  can  freedom  of  speech  be  in  the  foundation  of  a  constitution,  while  the  United  States  Federal 
Communications  Commission,  which  is  an  appointed  not  elected  division  of  the  government,  is  allowed  to 
censor  and  regulate  free  speech  over  broadcasting  with  their  indecency  codes?  How  can  language  be  filtered  on 
public  television,  radio,  and  other  mediums  by  the  Federal  Communications  Commission  (FCC)  when  this 
clearly  violates  freedom  of  speech?  What  right  does  a  government  have  to  censor  a  set  of  words  that  a  religious 
minority  has  deemed  indecent,  when  in  reality  the  words  are  simply  a  fomi  of  expression?  The  Internet  which  is 
rapidly  replacing  radio  and  television  broadcasting  will  ultimately  put  an  end  to  this  censorship,  as  there  is  no 
way  to  truly  regulate  and  enforce  censorship  in  the  vastness  of  cyberspace,  and  any  attempts  have  for  the  most 
part  been  thwarted  by  citizen  protests  thus  far.  Why  have  these  language  censorship  laws  not  been  repealed  as 
the  Internet  has  definitively  made  these  laws  obsolete? 

Information  will  never  be  controlled  or  eliminated  through  censorship,  it  will  only  make  Homo  sapiens  seek  it 
out  even  further,  and  censorship  efforts  like  the  ‘Index  Librorum  Prohibitorum  ’  by  the  Roman  Catholic  Church 
will  always  fail  and  often  will  have  the  opposite  effect  making  the  censored  work  even  more  popular.  There  have 
always  been  dissident  activities  when  there  is  censorship,  like  Russian  samizdat  and  similar  underground 
information  networks,  and  now  with  the  Internet  there  is  no  chance  of  traditional  censorship  ever  happening 
again.  If  anything,  the  truth  of  the  future  might  be  censored  by  the  sea  of  false  information  which  now  seems  so 
prevalent  in  some  parts  of  the  Internet.  But  this  form  of  censorship  cannot  happen  if  one  is  able  to  see  through 
the  veil  of  lies,  and  find  the  truth  through  the  individuals  and  organizations  who  make  this  truth  easier  to  find.  An 
observer  of  today’s  society  might  see  that  the  current  society  members  will  never  be  controlled  through 
censorship  or  by  big  brother,  but  rather  by  corporations,  greed,  necessity,  money,  indulgence,  and  pleasure.  In 
describing  Aldous  Huxley's  ‘Brave  New  World’  vq rsus  George  Orwell’s  ‘1984  ’,  Neil  Postman  wrote, 

“...no  Big  Brother  is  required  to  deprive  people  of  their  autonomy,  maturity  and  history.  As  he  saw  it,  people  will  come  to 
love  their  oppression,  to  adore  the  technologies  that  undo  their  capacities  to  think. 

What  Orwell  feared  were  those  who  would  ban  books.  What  Huxley  feared  was  that  there  would  be  no  reason  to  ban  a  book, 
for  there  would  be  no  one  who  wanted  to  read  one.  Orwell  feared  those  who  would  deprive  us  of  information.  Huxley  feared 
those  who  would  give  us  so  much  that  we  would  be  reduced  to  passivity  and  egoism.  Orwell  feared  that  the  truth  would  be 
concealed  from  us.  Huxley  feared  the  truth  would  be  drowned  in  a  sea  of  irrelevance.  Orwell  feared  we  would  become  a 
captive  culture.  Huxley  feared  we  would  become  a  trivial  culture,  preoccupied  with  some  equivalent  of  the  feelies,  the  orgy 
porgy,  and  the  centrifugal  bumblepuppy.” 

“In  1984,  Huxley  added,  people  are  controlled  by  inflicting  pain.  In  Brave  New  World,  they  are  controlled  by  inflicting 
pleasure.  In  short,  Orwell  feared  that  what  we  hate  will  ruin  us.  Huxley  feared  that  what  we  love  will  ruin  us.”  (370) 


Education  and  The  Monetary  Value  of  History  and  Knowledge 


Education  and  history  have  become  just  another  avenue  to  generate  money  and  make  huge  profits  from.  College 
education  in  the  United  States  and  some  other  western  countries  has  become  based  around  profits  and  not 
education.  In  2017,  Student  loan  debt  in  the  United  States  was  $1,400,000,000,000  an  increase  of  170%  from  10 
years  ago.  44,000,000  Americans  have  student  debt  with  8,000,000  of  the  borrowers  in  default.  (320)  In  2016, 

U.S.  college  graduates  that  utilized  student  loans  had  an  average  debt  of  $37,173  a  6%  increase  from  2015.  (423) 
The  vast  majority  of  museums  and  historical  monuments  in  the  world  charge  an  entrance  fee  to  access  history. 
Does  this  history  not  belong  to  all  the  Homo  sapiens  of  Earth?  Shouldn’t  all  museums  and  historical  monuments 
give  free  admission,  so  everyone  can  view  and  learn  from  them  at  any  time?  Some  access  to  the  truth  and  written 
scientific  knowledge  which  is  published  online  is  controlled  with  monetary  based  subscriptions,  college  level 
education  can  be  expensive  and  limited,  and  even  the  Internet  is  censored  with  filters  by  some  countries  and 
service  providers.  How  can  the  world  learn  when  the  knowledge  and  history  can  only  be  accessed  by  some  and 
not  all?  Should  not  all  education  at  every  level  be  freely  available  to  anyone  willing  to  learn?  Why  can’t  all 
college  classes  be  broadcast  live  via  the  Internet  for  free  allowing  anyone  in  the  world  access  to  the  them?  How 
much  more  intelligent  would  many  Homo  sapiens  be  if  they  had  access  to  the  Ivy  League  type  curriculums  and 
other  educational  resources  where  access  is  limited?  Why  are  most  primary,  middle,  and  high  schools  free  and 
paid  for  by  the  government,  while  most  colleges  are  independent  private-sector  institutions  which  are  not  only 
limited  to  many  for  various  reasons,  but  are  also  focused  more  on  money  and  not  in  increasing  and  diffusing 
knowledge? 

Education  has  always  been  forced  onto  citizens  ever  since  Plato  first  popularized  compulsory  education.  Even 
today,  all  United  States  citizens,  beginning  as  early  as  age  5  until  18  years  of  age,  are  required  by  law  to  go  to 
some  form  of  schooling  either  at  a  public  school,  private  school,  or  homeschool  to  be  taught  the  government 
approved  standard  curriculum.  This  forced  education  can  create  a  sort  of  prison  for  some  students  and  potentially 
lead  to  anxiety,  stress,  and  even  depression.  Bullying  is  not  uncommon  and  is  very  often  unescapable  in  such  a 
confined  setting.  Education  can  also  be  a  tool  of  subversion  when  students  are  not  taught  the  truth  but  are  instead 
taught  lies  and  a  distorted  history  based  on  the  religious  or  political  ideology  of  the  teacher  or  school.  Would 
students  not  perhaps  have  more  interest  in  education  if  they  were  able  to  choose  what  they  wanted  to  study  and 
where  they  wanted  to  study  it?  What  would  students  be  like  if  more  schools  practiced  the  Montessori  educational 
approach  or  something  similar?  Will  Homo  sapiens  become  self-educated  through  the  Internet  and  abandon 
traditional  schools  entirely  in  the  future? 

Today  it  seems  that  many  individuals  know  more  and  more  about  less  and  less,  focusing  on  a  tiny  fraction  of  the 
whole  and  missing  out  on  the  larger  scope  of  things.  Their  knowledge  of  history  and  of  scientific  facts  are 
minimal  if  not  non-existent  unless  it  applies  to  their  daily  activities.  Many  Homo  sapiens  know  more  about  the 
previous  24  hours  than  about  anything  else,  and  often  what  they  do  know  in  regard  to  science  and  history  are 
useless  trivial  entertainment  related  facts.  Neil  Postman  wrote, 

“This  coincidence  suggests  that  the  new  technologies  had  turned  the  age-old  problem  of  information  on  its  head:  Where 
people  once  sought  infonnation  to  manage  the  real  contexts  of  their  lives,  now  they  had  to  invent  contexts  in  which  otherwise 
useless  infonnation  might  be  put  to  some  apparent  use.  The  crossword  puzzle  is  one  such  pseudo  context;  the  cocktail  party  is 
another;  the  radio  quiz  shows  of  the  1930's  and  1940's  and  the  modern  television  game  show  are  still  others;  and  the  ultimate, 
perhaps,  is  the  wildly  successful  “Trivial  Pursuit.”  In  one  fonn  or  another,  each  of  these  supplies  an  answer  to  the  question, 

“What  am  I  to  do  with  all  these  disconnected  facts?”  And  in  one  fonn  or  another,  the  answer  is  the  same:  Why  not  use  them 
for  diversion?  for  entertainment?  to  amuse  yourself,  in  a  game?... A  pseudo  context  is  a  structure  invented  to  give  fragmented 
and  inelevant  information  a  seeming  use.  But  the  use  the  pseudo  context  provides  is  not  action,  or  problem-solving,  or 
change.  It  is  the  only  use  left  for  infonnation  with  no  genuine  connection  to  our  lives.  And  that,  of  course,  is  to  amuse.  The 
pseudo  context  is  the  last  refuge,  so  to  say,  of  a  culture  overwhelmed  by  inelevance,  incoherence,  and  impotence.”  (676) 

The  Slaughter,  Slavery,  and  Forced  Assimilation  of  Indigenous  Homo  sapiens 

For  thousands  of  years  many  indigenous  Homo  sapiens  lived  in  peace  and  coexisted  with  nature  and  each  other, 
living  a  very  simplistic  lifestyle.  And  even  though  some  of  their  pseudo  religious  views  were  bizarre,  their 
politics  they  practiced  are  perhaps  somewhat  antiquated,  and  ultimately,  they  all  collapsed  for  one  reason  or 
another,  it  is  their  minimalist  lifestyle,  morals,  and  connection  with  nature  shown  in  their  respect  for  Earth, 


which  modem  societies  could  perhaps  leam  and  benefit  most  from.  Some  indigenous  viewed  civilization  itself 
and  societies  disconnection  with  nature  as  the  problems,  Theodora  Kroeber  wrote, 

"He  considered  the  white  man  to  be  fortunate,  inventive,  and  very,  very  clever;  but  childlike  and  lacking  in  a  desirable 
reserve,  and  in  a  true  understanding  of  Nature-her  mystic  face;  her  terrible  and  her  benign  power.” 

"Ishi  felt  quite  sure  that  he  knew  the  chief  causes  for  men's  sickening  in  civilization.  They  were,  briefly,  the  excessive  amount 
of  time  men  spent  cooped  up  in  automobiles,  in  offices,  and  in  their  own  houses.  It  is  not  a  man's  nature  to  be  too  much 
indoors...”  (656) 

When  the  Spanish,  French,  Portuguese,  English,  and  other  European  empires  sent  expeditions  to  the  New  World 
they  were  not  on  a  mission  of  peace  or  scientific  discovery,  they  were  on  one  of  conquest.  They  did  not  seek 
peace  with  the  Indigenous  Homo  sapiens  initially,  and  there  was  only  temporary  peace  obtained  briefly  at  times, 
and  this  was  usually  broken  on  the  part  of  the  European  not  the  indigenous.  Alcohol  was  introduced  to  the 
indigenous  which  had  a  devastating  impact  turning  many  into  drunkards,  as  they  had  built  up  no  tolerance  like 
the  Europeans  who  had  consumed  alcohol  for  thousands  of  years.  The  invaders  brought  with  them  not  only  new 
vices,  but  new  diseases  as  well  like  chicken  pox,  dysentery,  influenza,  malaria,  measles,  typhus,  smallpox, 
pneumonia,  tuberculosis,  typhoid,  and  others.  Before  even  making  contact  with  the  invaders  many  indigenous 
Homo  sapiens  were  killed  by  these  diseases  introduced  by  the  Spanish,  hence  these  diseases  did  much  of  the 
genocide  rather  than  the  actual  hands  of  the  conquistadors.  Christians  regarded  the  conquests  as  simply  another 
opportunity  to  convert  more  Homo  sapiens  and  gain  more  followers.  The  proselytizing  of  indigenous  Homo 
sapiens  throughout  the  world  resulted  in  many  older  and  alternative  religions  being  destroyed  and  lost  forever. 
Culture,  history,  and  knowledge  were  exterminated  all  in  the  name  of  conquest  and  Christianity.  Ina  Corrine 
Brown  wrote, 

"People  can  and  do  modify  and  change  their  social  patterns  but  when  whole  peoples  are  ruthlessly  separated  from  their  past 
the  result  is  almost  always  disorganization  and  deterioration.  We  have  seen  this  cultural  breakdown  in  peoples  who  somehow 
seemed  to  lose  the  will  to  live  and  who  literally  died  out  under  the  impact  of  conquest  that  took  all  the  meaning  out  of  life.  We 
have  seen  it  in  the  pathetic  deterioration  of  many  once  proud  Indian  tribes  whose  cup  of  life  was  broken  under  the  impact  of 
the  white  man.  We  have  seen  it,  too,  in  American  Negros,  robbed  of  their  African  heritage  and  prevented  from  accepting  foil 
the  new  heritage  that  was  being  forged  as  a  part  of  the  American  dream.  We  are  seeing  it  today  take  a  new  form  as  totalitarian 
governments  consciously  and  ruthlessly  go  about  making  other  peoples  over  in  their  own  image.”  (22) 

When  De  Soto  explored  America  between  1539  and  1542,  he  left  a  wake  of  destruction  and  bodies  in  his  path 
while  also  enslaving  the  mostly  peaceful  Mobilian  Indian  tribes  of  the  southeastern  United  States.  D.  H. 
Montgomery  wrote, 

"It  was  'a  roving  company  of  gallant  freebooters,'  in  search  of  fortune.  De  Soto  had  provided  bloodhounds  and  chains  to  hunt 
and  enslave  the  Indians... 

The  expedition  landed  at  Tampa  Bay,  and  began  its  march  of  exploration,  of  robbery,  and  of  murder.  The  soldiers  seized  the 
natives,  chained  them  in  couples  so  that  they  might  not  escape,  and  forced  them  to  carry  their  baggage  and  pound  their  com. 

The  chief  of  each  tribe  through  whose  country  they  passed  was  compelled  to  serve  as  a  guide  until  they  reached  the  next  tribe. 

If  an  Indian  refused  to  be  as  slave  or  a  beast  of  burden  for  these  insolent  Spaniards,  his  fate  was  pitiful.  They  set  him  up  as  a 
target,  and  riddled  his  body  with  bullets;  or  they  chopped  off  his  hands,  and  then  sent  him  home  to  exhibit  the  useless, 
bleeding  stumps  to  his  family. 

They  found  no  gold  worth  mentioning;  but  in  its  stead,  hunger,  suffering,  and  death.  They  deserved  what  they  found. ..they 
were  a  miserable  band,  half-naked,  half  starved,  looking  worse  than  the  savages  they  had  gone  out  to  subdue.”  (48) 

Although  colonialism  forcibly  assimilated  and  destroyed  many  ancient  cultures  of  the  Americas,  to  this  day 
many  Spaniards  refer  to  their  ancestors  as  discoverers,  and  there  is  still  a  major  holiday,  Columbus  Day, 
celebrated  in  Spain,  Italy,  and  most  United  States  cities.  There  are  many  monuments,  parks,  roads,  cities,  and 
other  things  throughout  the  world  named  after  Christopher  Columbus,  and  there  is  even  a  hospital  in  Madrid, 
Spain  commemorating  the  day  when  Columbus  reached  the  New  World,  ‘Hospital  Universitario  12  de  Octubre 
Some  Spaniards,  Americans,  French,  and  British,  regard  the  conquests  and  colonialism  of  their  ancestors  as  a 
good  and  justifiable  act.  But  the  true  nature  of  the  conquistadors  and  of  all  European  empires  of  the  colonialism 
era  which  followed,  was  that  it  was  nothing  more  than  an  inhumane  conquest  and  forced  assimilation  of  another 


society  and  culture.  In  some  schools  it  is  taught  that  Christopher  Columbus  was  on  a  scientific  mission  of 
discovery,  and  not  one  of  conquest,  they  do  not  focus  on  the  reality  and  truth  of  what  occurred  from  1492  and 
continues  to  have  a  rippling  effect  still  today  with  so  many  indigenous  Homo  sapiens  throughout  the  world. 
Theodora  Kroeber  wrote, 

“We  have  been  taught  to  regard  with  pride  the  courage  and  ingenuity  of  these  ancestors,  their  stubbornness  in  carving  out  a 
good  life  for  their  children.  It  is  neither  meet  nor  needful  to  withdraw  such  affectionate  respect  and  admiration;  it  is  perhaps 
well  to  remind  ourselves  that  the  best  and  gentlest  of  them  did  not  question  their  right  to  appropriate  land  belonging  to 
someone  else,  if  Indian-  the  legal  phrase  was  “justifiable  conquest.”  However  broad  and  real  governmental  and  popular 
approval  was,  this  invasion  was  like  the  classic  barbarian  invasions-forced  intrusion  upon  a  settled  population,  and  its 
replacement  by  the  intruders.  Such  invasions  have  occurred  many  times,  and  continue  to  occur  in  the  history  of  mankind,  but 
also  as  well  in  the  history  of  all  forms  of  life;  they  are  a  part  of  the  biological  urge  of  each  plant  and  animal  to  make  or  to  take 
a  place  for  itself  and  its  descendants.  Invasion,  then,  is  a  necessitous  act  in  the  Darwinian  sense  of  struggle  and  survival;  it  is 
instinctive,  primitive,  and  in  itself  inhumane.”  (98) 

And  Martin  Luther  King  Jr.  reiterated  this  message  when  he  wrote, 

“In  dealing  with  the  ambivalence  of  white  America,  we  must  not  overlook  another  form  of  racism  that  was  relentlessly 
pursued  on  American  shores:  the  physical  extermination  of  the  American  Indian.  The  South  American  example  of  absorbing 
the  indigenous  Indian  population  was  ignored  in  the  United  States,  and  systematic  destruction  of  a  whole  people  was 
undertaken.  The  common  phrase,  “The  only  good  Indian  is  a  dead  Indian,”  was  virtually  elevated  to  national  policy.  Thus  the 
poisoning  of  the  American  mind  was  accomplished  not  only  by  acts  of  discrimination  and  exploitation  but  by  the  exaltation 
of  murder  as  an  expression  of  the  courage  and  initiative  of  the  pioneer.  Just  as  Southern  culture  was  made  to  appear  noble  by 
ignoring  the  cruelty  of  slavery,  the  conquest  of  the  Indian  was  depicted  as  example  of  bravery  and  progress.”  (653) 

Some  of  the  original  colonist  respected  the  indigenous  and  attempted  to  live  peacefully  with  them,  in  fact  the 
indigenous  held  them  in  high  regard.  In  1635,  a  minister  named  Roger  Williams  defied  the  King  of  England  and 
sided  with  the  indigenous,  eventually  prevented  a  massacre  of  the  colonist  in  Boston.  D.  H.  Montgomery  wrote, 

“Mr.  Williams  denied  that  the  king  had  any  power  to  give  them  the  land,  because  it  belonged  first  of  all  to  the  Indians.  This 
was  a  new  and  startling  way  of  looking  at  things,  and  the  colonist  feared  that  free  utterance  of  this  king  might  provoke  the 
English  sovereign  to  take  away  their  charter.  Roger  Williams  was  ordered  (1635)  to  leave  the  colony.  Later,  an  attempt  was 
made  to  arrest  him  and  send  him  to  England.  Williams  escaped.  It  was  winter  and  the  weather  was  bitterly  cold.  The  fugitive 
took  refuge  among  the  Indians,  who  fed  and  sheltered  him.” 

“The  Pequots,  an  Indian  tribe  of  Connecticut,  were  plotting  a  massacre  of  the  white  settlers  of  that  part  of  the  country,  and 
were  trying  to  stir  up  the  Narragansetts  to  attack  Massachusetts.  Williams  used  his  influence  with  the  latter  tribe  to  such  good 
effect  that  they  refused  to  fight.  Thus  the  exiled  minister  was  probably  the  means  of  saving  the  people  of  Boston  and 
surrounding  towns  from  the  horrors  of  an  Indian  war.”  (68) 

In  1682,  the  original  Quakers  of  Pennsylvania  lived  peacefully  with  the  indigenous,  with  William  Penn  creating 
a  treaty  which  Voltaire  described  as,  “The  only  treaty  which  was  never  sworn  to,  and  never  broken.”  D.  H. 
Montgomery  wrote, 

“According  to  tradition  he  met  the  Red  Men  under  the  branches  of  a  wide-spreading  elm  in  what  was  then  the  vicinity  of 
Philadelphia.  There  solemn  promises  of  mutual  friendship  were  made.  In  accordance  however,  with  the  principles  of  the 
Quaker  faith,  no  oaths  were  taken.  Each  trusted  the  other's  simple  word.  That  treaty  was  “never  broken,”  and  for  sixty  years, 
or  as  long  as  the  Quakers  held  control,  the  people  of  Pennsylvania  lived  at  peace  with  the  natives.”  (69) 

So,  there  was  a  brief  period  in  American  history  when  some  of  the  colonist  coexisted  with  the  indigenous,  and 
these  colonists  wanted  a  simple  peaceful  lifestyle,  living  in  harmony  with  nature  like  the  indigenous  and  to  be 
unmolested  by  the  tyrants  they  fled  from  in  Europe.  But  as  further  history  shows,  eventually  more  pervasive 
tyrannical  greedy  colonist  with  unwarranted  fear  and  hostility  towards  the  indigenous  prevailed,  and  forced 
assimilation  was  inevitable.  The  treaties  from  this  point  were  meaningless  and  most  often  broken  by  the  colonist, 
and  yet,  even  still,  in  spite  of  all  the  death  and  destruction,  many  indigenous  still  assisted  the  Europeans,  saving 
their  lives  in  many  instances  from  starvation  and  other  aggressive  indigenous,  hospitably  welcoming  them  into 
their  lands.  Even  to  this  day,  most  indigenous  do  not  harbor  anger,  perhaps  sadness,  as  they  still  attempt  to 
coexist  with  the  descendants  of  their  conquerors. 


The  Maya  did  not  see  the  Spanish  conquistadors  as  friends  or  as  a  new  and  improved  future,  to  the  contrary  they 
in  fact  saw  it  as  a  vice,  and  as  the  beginning  of  the  end  to  their  culture  and  lifestyle.  The  conquerors  destroyed 
the  Maya  and  introduced  many  negative  societal  elements  which  were  previously  unknown  to  them.  J.  Eric 
Thompson  describes  the  first-hand  account  of  a  Mayan  scribe  regarding  the  Spanish  Conquest  in  writing, 

“Of  the  changes  resulting  from  the  Spanish  Conquest  the  Maya  Scribe  writes:  Before  the  coming  of  the  mighty  men  and 
Spaniards  there  was  no  robbery  by  violence,  there  was  no  greed,  and  striking  down  one's  fellow  man  in  his  blood,  at  the  cost 
of  the  poor  man,  at  the  expense  of  the  food  of  each  and  everyone.  [And  elsewhere]  It  was  the  beginning  of  tribute,  the 
beginning  of  church  dues,  the  beginning  of  strife  with  purse  snatching,  the  beginning  of  strife  with  guns,  the  beginning  of 
strife  by  trampling  of  people,  the  beginning  of  robbery  with  violence,  the  beginning  of  debts  enforced  by  false  testimony,  the 
beginning  of  individual  strife,  a  beginning  of  vexation.”  (27) 

Most  today  have  never  even  heard  of  Ishi,  nor  the  millions  of  other  indigenous  Homo  sapiens  the  world  over 
who  were  slaughtered  and  victimized  during  the  Caucasian  invasions.  Ishi  has  long  since  been  forgotten  by  most 
and  is  just  another  footnote  in  the  too  often  overlooked  censored  history  of  America  and  the  genocide  of 
indigenous  Homo  sapiens  by  the  Europeans.  Ishi  was  a  Yahi  from  California,  and  the  last  free  indigenous  to  be 
forcibly  assimilated  into  the  American  society,  although  there  may  have  been  others  who  hid  and  were  never 
known  about,  living  out  their  days  in  the  wilds  of  nature  alone.  The  Yahi  were  indigenous  Homo  sapiens  that, 
like  so  many  other  indigenous  throughout  the  world,  had  a  connection  with  nature  and  the  utmost  respect  for  it, 
along  with  a  strong  moral  character.  Theodora  Kroeber  described  them  as, 

“Indians  who  knew  their  land,  its  bounteousness,  its  varies  beauty,  its  fragility.  Who  used  it  well,  benefiting  man,  leaving 
unraped,  its  animals,  plants,  trees,  Earth,  streams,  beaches,  ocean.  Whose  way  was,  one  of  reason,  contentment,  Self- 
knowledge.” 

“The  California  Indian  was,  in  other  words,  a  true  provincial.  He  was  an  introvert,  reserved,  contemplative,  and  philosophical. 

He  lived  at  ease  with  the  supernatural  and  the  mystical  which  were  pervasive  in  all  aspects  of  life.  He  felt  no  need  to 
differentiate  mystical  truth  from  directly  evidential  or  “material”  truth,  or  the  supernatural  from  the  natural:  one  was  as 
manifest  as  the  other  within  his  system  of  values  and  perceptions  and  beliefs.  The  promoter,  the  boaster,  the  aggressor,  the 
egoist,  the  innovator,  would  have  been  looked  at  askance.  The  ideal  was  the  man  of  restraint,  dignity,  rectitude,  he  of  the 
Middle  Way.”  (91) 

In  August  1911,  Ishi  with  his  hair  burned  short  as  a  sign  of  mourning,  walked  out  of  the  wild  and  into  Oroville, 
California  where  he  was  promptly  locked  up  in  the  jail  for  the  insane.  Anthropologists  from  the  University  of 
California  heard  of  the  incident,  and  they  took  Ishi  back  to  the  University  where  he  lived  for  the  remaining  four 
years  and  seven  months  of  his  life,  eventually  dying  of  tuberculosis.  Hence,  in  the  end  he  finally  succumbed  like 
so  many  other  indigenous  before  him,  dying  as  a  result  of  a  disease  brought  by  the  invaders.  During  his  sojourn 
at  the  museum  he  was  studied  and  demonstrated  his  skills  of  arrowhead  making,  bow  stringing,  and  fire  starting 
on  Sunday  afternoons  for  public  audiences,  and  was  basically  used  as  a  living  museum  piece  while  also  working 
as  a  janitorial  assistant  at  the  museum  to  earn  a  very  modest  income.  (93) 

A  better  fate  perhaps  than  some  of  his  fellow  tribe  members  who  were  ambushed  and  murdered  in  cold  blood 
while  they  lay  asleep,  or  others  which  were  rounded  up  to  be  put  on  a  government  reservation  and  died  during 
the  process,  or  even  the  fate  of  the  millions  of  other  indigenous  Homo  sapiens  who  were  raped  and/or  murdered 
by  the  ruthless  and  barbaric  conquerors.  Theodora  Kroeber  described  detailed  several  such  incidents  when  she 
wrote, 


“It  was  the  early  'sixties  that  the  whole  white  population  of  the  Sacramento  Valley  was  in  an  uproar  of  rage  and  fear  over  the 
murder  for  five  white  children  by  hill  Indians-probably  Yahi.  But  the  soberly  estimated  numbers  of  kidnappings  of  Indian 
children  by  whites  in  California  to  be  sold  as  slaves  or  kept  as  cheap  help  was,  between  the  years  1852  and  1867,  from  three 
to  four  thousand',  every  Indian  woman,  girl,  and  girl-child  was  potentially  and  in  thousands  of  cases  actually  subject  to 
repeated  rape,  to  kidnapping,  and  to  prostitution.  Prostitution  was  unknown  to  aboriginal  California,  as  were  the  venereal 
diseases  which  accounted  for  from  forty  to  as  high  as  eighty  percent  of  Indian  deaths  during  the  first  twenty  years  following 
the  gold  rush.” 

“In  the  company  of  these  first  comers  were  the  inevitable  trigger-happy  few  whose  habit  had  become  to  shoot  an  Indian,  any 
Indian,  on  sight;  who  counted  coup  under  the  slogan,  The  only  good  Indian  is  a  dead  Indian,”  and  who  were  possessed  of  a 
the  special  skill  of  scalping,  something  previously  unknown  to  California's  aborigines.  There  was  one  such  of  whom 


Waterman  writes:  “On  good  authority  I  can  report  the  case  of  an  old  prospector-pioneer-miner-trapper  of  this  region  [Butte 
County],  who  had  on  his  bed  even  in  recent  years  a  blanket  lined  with  Indian  scalps.  These  had  been  taken  years  before.  He 
had  never  been  a  government  scout,  soldier,  or  officer  of  the  law.  The  Indians  he  had  killed  purely  on  his  own  account.  No 
reckoning  was  at  any  time  demanded  of  him.”” 

“Forced  migrations  account  for  some  hundred  of  Yana  deaths;  but  death  by  shooting  and  particularly  by  mass-murder 
shooting  interspersed  with  hangings  were  the  usual  and  popular  techniques  of  extermination.” 

“A  Captain  Starr  escorted  the  Indians  on  their  march.  He  left  Chico  with  four  hundred  and  sixty-one  Indians,  and  arrived  at 
Round  Valley  with  two  hundred  and  seventy-seven.  Two  were  unaccounted  for;  thirty-two  died  on  the  march;  and  a  hundred 
and  fifty  were  left  sick  along  the  trail  to  be  brought  in  later  if  they  should  recover  enough  to  continue  the  trip.  Those  Indians 
who  did  recover  returned  home,  some  reaching  Chico  ahead  of  the  troops.  Of  those  who  were  taken  all  the  way  to  Round 
Valley  little  is  known.  The  War  Records  quote  one  general  as  saying  that  it  was  impossible  to  keep  Indians  on  a  reservation.” 

“There  was  one  young  Yana  woman,  unusually  popular  with  the  white  people  who  knew  and  employed  her,  who  was  dragged 
by  force  out  of  the  white  man's  home  where  she  lived.  Her  old  aunt  and  uncle  who  were  there  with  her  were  also  taken,  and 
the  three  of  them  pumped  full  of  bullets  on  the  spot.  Curtin's  informant  had  counted  eleven  bullet  holes  in  the  breast  of  the 
young  woman.  The  man  who  killed  her,  and  who  was  well  “likkered  up,”  was  not  satisfied.  “I  don't  think  that  squaw  is  dead 
yet,”  he  is  reported  as  saying.  To  make  sure,  he  smashed  in  her  skull  with  his  revolver.” 

“Waiting  only  until  there  was  light  enough  for  his  men  to  see  where  they  were  shooting,  Anderson  directed  a  continuous 
stream  of  gunfire  down  from  above  onto  the  sleeping  village.  As  he  had  surmised,  the  ahi  ran  downstream  making  for  the 
open  ford  which  brought  them  under  Good's  fire  from  below.  The  terrified  Indians  leapt  into  Mill  Creek,  but  the  rapid  current 
was  a  sorry  protection.  They  became  targets  there  for  Good's  fun,  and  Mill  Creek  ran  red  with  the  blood  of  its  people. 

Anderson  reported  that  “many  dead  bodies  floated  down  the  rapid  current.. .A  few  Yahi  escaped,  the  small  child  Ishi  and  his 
mother  among  them.”  (97) 

Smallpox  was  intentionally  spread  among  the  indigenous  Homo  sapiens  of  the  Americas  in  1763  via  blankets 
given  as  a  gift  causing  a  pandemic  among  the  Ohio  Valley  and  Great  Lakes  tribes  and  ultimately  led  to  500,000 
to  1,500,000  deaths.  No  one  will  ever  know  the  exact  number  of  indigenous  Homo  sapiens  around  the  world  that 
died,  either  slaughtered  by  the  direct  hand  of  the  conquerors,  by  the  diseases  brought  with  them,  or  as  a  result  of 
the  forced  assimilation  which  followed.  Like  all  genocides  throughout  history  no  one  will  ever  know  the  exact 
total,  was  it  25,000,000  or  50,000,000  or  100,000,000  or  perhaps  even  more?  When  attempting  to  gather 
statistics  on  the  number  of  Yana  killed,  Theodora  Kroeber  describes  the  difficulty  with  trying  to  establish  exact 
numbers  in  saying, 

“...for  the  nature  of  the  available  source  material  can  but  rarely  yield  exact  figures.  Since  all  the  infonnation  is  from  white 
sources,  and  since  an  account  of  an  Indian  murder  of  a  white  was  more  acceptable  copy  than  the  reverse  event,  any 
inaccuracy  in  ration  will  minimize  the  extent  of  the  disproportion. ..the  accounts  say  “several,”  “many,”  “a  few”-  not  exact 
numbers  which  yield  exact  totals,  not  to  mention  those  deaths  of  which  no  formal  record  survives.”  (655) 

Even  recent  attempts  by  governments  to  assimilate  indigenous  Homo  sapiens  has  been  brutal,  like  the  ‘Sixties 
Scoop  ’  between  the  1960s  and  the  late  1980s  in  which  the  Canadian  government  took  an  estimated  20,000 
Aboriginal  children  from  their  families  and  placed  them  in  foster  homes.  Or  the  similar  action  taken  by 
Australian  Federal  and  State  government  agencies  and  church  missions  between  1905  and  1969  towards  the 
children  of  Australian  Aboriginal  and  Torres  Strait  Islander  descendants  who  were  removed  from  their  families, 
and  later  known  as  the  ‘Stolen  Generation  This  forced  assimilation  of  another  race  and  subsequent  elimination 
of  an  entire  culture  stems  from  nothing  more  than  ideology  and  has  been  used  to  justify  all  forms  of  tyranny  in 
the  past  and  even  the  present.  Aleksandr  Solzhenitsyn  wrote, 

"Ideology — that  is  what  gives  evildoing  its  long-sought  justification  and  gives  the  evildoer  the  necessary  steadfastness  and 
determination.  That  is  the  social  theory  which  helps  to  make  his  acts  seem  good  instead  of  bad  in  his  own  and  others'  eyes,  so 
that  he  won't  hear  reproaches  and  curses  but  will  receive  praise  and  honors.  That  was  how  the  agents  of  the  Inquisition 
fortified  their  wills:  by  invoking  Christianity;  the  conquerors  of  foreign  lands,  by  extolling  the  grandeur  of  their  Motherland; 
the  colonizers,  by  civilization;  the  Nazis,  by  race;  and  the  Jacobins  (early  and  late),  by  equality,  brotherhood,  and  the 
happiness  of  future  generations. 

Thanks  to  ideology,  the  twentieth  century  was  fated  to  experience  evildoing  on  a  scale  calculated  in  the  millions.  This  cannot 
be  denied,  nor  passed  over,  nor  suppressed.  How,  then,  do  we  dare  insist  that  evildoers  do  not  exist?  And  who  was  it  that 
destroyed  these  millions?  Without  evildoers  there  would  have  been  no  Archipelago."  (684) 


Many  Americans  have  no  real  conception  of  the  genocide  which  took  place,  they  are  blinded  to  reality  by 
‘Cowboys  and  Indians  ’  entertainment  presented  in  western  books,  TV,  and  movies  resulting  in  a  Gunsmoke, 

Lone  Ranger,  John  Wayne  type  mentality  viewing  the  indigenous  as  savages  out  to  kill  women  and  children. 
Others  give  only  slight  recognition  to  the  historical  facts  being  dismissive  and  brushing  it  off  as  a  mistake  that 
cannot  be  undone,  or  they  erroneously  believe  that  it  has  been  corrected.  Some  think  that  now  all  indigenous 
Homo  sapiens  in  the  United  States  live  a  great  life  on  a  reservation  somewhere,  that  they  are  free  and 
independent  of  the  United  States  government,  that  they  have  great  wealth  from  casinos  and  mineral  rights,  when 
in  reality  it  is  the  exact  opposite.  Since  1831  in  the  United  States,  the  U.S.  government  has  acted  as  the  trustee  of 
indigenous  Homo  sapiens  affairs,  with  their  lands  being  owned  and  managed  by  the  U.S.  government  and  nearly 
every  aspect  of  economic  development  being  controlled  by  federal  agencies.  Most  Americans  have  shunned  the 
indigenous  Homo  sapiens  in  the  United  States  and  have  no  idea  of  the  poverty-stricken  state  some  of  them  live 
in,  or  that  they  have  extremely  higher  rates  of  alcoholism  and  suicide.  Most  Americans  are  unaware  of  how  the 
U.  S.  government  still  exploits  them  even  today,  and  even  fewer  know  about  how  the  U.S.  government  has 
bilked  them  out  of  $48,000,000,000  since  1887,  but  only  compensated  them  $3,400,000,000  in  a  1996  lawsuit. 
(654).  Only  4  standing  U.S.  presidents  have  visited  indigenous  reservations  over  the  last  90  years.  Calvin 
Coolidge  traveled  to  South  Dakota’s  Pine  Ridge  reservation  in  1927,  three  years  after  he  signed  the  Indian 
Citizenship  Act  that  granted  some  indigenous  American  citizenship.  Franklin  Roosevelt  visited  North  Carolina’s 
Cherokee  Nation  in  1936,  then  in  1999,  Bill  Clinton  also  visited  Pine  Ridge  reservation,  and  in  June  2014 
Barack  Obama  visited  Standing  Rock  reservation.  Why  do  so  few  U.S.  Presidents  visit  indigenous  reservations? 

Even  today  there  are  prominent  symbols  of  racism  based  on  the  past  and  the  misconception  about  all  indigenous 
Homo  sapiens  being  great  warriors  and  wanting  to  fight.  In  1937,  the  Boston  Braves  moved  to  Washington  D.C. 
and  were  renamed  the  Washington  Redskins,  and  this  racist  name  is  still  used  today  contrary  to  major  opposition. 
Flow  can  such  a  racist  name  symbolize  the  football  team  which  is  representing  the  nation’s  capital?  As  of  2017, 
there  were  2,129  mascots  for  high  school,  college,  and  pro  teams  that  reference  Braves,  Chiefs,  Indians, 
Orangemen,  Raiders,  Redmen,  Reds,  Redskins,  Savages,  Squaws,  Tribe  and  Warriors,  Apaches,  Arapahoe, 
Aztecs,  Cherokees,  Chickasaws,  Chinooks,  Chippewas,  Choctaws,  Comanches,  Eskimos,  Mohawks,  Mohicans, 
Seminoles,  Sioux,  and  Utes.  (317) 


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SOURCE:  National  Library  of  Medicine  /  TOXMAP  -  Brown  shaded  areas  are  Native  Lands  -  Although  the  entire  continent 
of  North  America  was  once  land  inhabited  by  and  belonging  to  indigenous  Homo  sapiens,  currently  very  little  remains  in  the 
United  States.  -  https://toxmap.nlm.nih.gov/toxmap/ 


In  the  United  States,  indigenous  Homo  sapiens  also  still  struggle  with  many  social  and  economic  issues. 
Diabetes,  cancer,  heart  disease,  poor  dental  health,  infectious  disease,  alcohol  and  substance  abuse,  domestic  and 
community  violence,  and  mental  illness  are  all  prominent  afflictions  within  the  indigenous  Homo  sapiens 
population  of  the  United  States.  Even  in  today’s  modem  and  thriving  American  society  some  indigenous  Homo 
sapiens  do  not  have  access  to  adequate  housing,  sanitation,  health  care,  food,  education,  and  other  necessities 
which  are  available  to  most  all  other  United  States  citizens.  How  can  indigenous  Homo  sapiens  in  the  United 
States  be  lacking  so  many  basic  necessities  in  a  nation  which  has  such  abundant  resources?  The  U.S. 
Commission  on  Civil  Rights  2003  report,  ‘A  Quiet  Crisis  Federal  Funding  and  Unmet  Needs  in  Indian  Country 
concluded, 

"The  federal  government’s  failure  to  avail  Native  Americans  of  services  and  programs  available  to  other  Americans  violates 
their  civil  rights.  This  report  demonstrates  that  funding  for  services  critical  to  Native  Americans — including  health  care,  law 
enforcement,  and  education — is  disproportionately  lower  than  funding  for  services  to  other  populations.  For  example,  the 
federal  government’s  rate  of  spending  on  health  care  for  Native  Americans  is  50  percent  less  than  for  prisoners  or  Medicaid 
recipients,  and  60  percent  less  than  is  spent  annually  on  health  care  for  the  average  American.  Underfunding  violates  the 
basic  tenets  of  the  trust  relationship  between  the  government  and  Native  peoples  and  perpetuates  a  civil  rights  crisis  in  Indian 
Country. 

For  more  than  40  years,  the  U.S.  Commission  on  Civil  Rights  has  documented  the  dismal  conditions  in  Native  communities. 

Sadly,  conditions  in  Indian  Country  are  current -day  reflections  of  some  of  the  Commission’s  earliest  works,  despite  continued 
funding  and  promises  to  improve.  To  what  degree  the  federal  government  has  failed  to  live  up  to  its  obligations  and  the 
implications  of  that  failure  are  questions  to  which  the  Commission  now  addresses  itself.  In  every  area  reviewed — health, 
housing,  law  enforcement,  education,  food  distribution — funding  and  services  are  inadequate,  as  they  have  been  historically. 

Some  observers  have  labeled  the  economic  condition  in  Indian  Country  “termination  by  funding  cuts, ”28  as  funding  has  so 
severely  limited  the  ability  of  tribal  governments  to  provide  the  services  needed  to  sustain  life  on  reservations." 

“According  to  members  of  the  Senate  Indian  Affairs  Committee,  roughly  90,000  Indian  families  are  homeless  or  under¬ 
housed;  more  than  30  percent  of  reservation  households  are  crowded;  18  percent  are  severely  crowded;  and  one  in  five  Indian 
houses  lacks  complete  plumbing  facilities.  Roughly  percent  of  Native  American  homes  are  without  telephones,  while  only  6 
percent  of  non-Native  households  lack  telephone  service.  Some  Native  American  communities  lack  even  the  infrastructure 
for  telephone  installation,  hampering  basic  communication.  Overall,  approximately  40  percent  of  on-reservation  housing  is 
considered  inadequate  as  compared  with  roughly  6  percent  nationwide.  For  Native  Hawaiians,  the  situation  is  even  more  dire: 

36  percent  of  homes  are  overcrowded,  and  49  percent  of  Native  Hawaiians  experience  housing  problems.  Regional  variations 
exist  and  are  associated  with  geographic  isolation,  proximity  to  urban  economies,  and  private  ownership  of  land.  For 
example,  in  Alaska,  Arizona,  and  New  Mexico,  the  rate  of  overcrowding  and  substandard  housing  is  more  than  60  percent. 

Basic  housing  provisions  that  are  taken  for  granted  elsewhere  in  the  nation  are  often  absent  on  reservations.  For  example, 
fewer  than  50  percent  of  homes  on  reservations  are  connected  to  a  public  sewer  system.  Twenty  percent  of  homes  must  resort 
to  other  means  of  sewage  disposal,  often  resulting  in  “honeybucket”  methods  in  which  household  waste  and  sewage  are 
collected  into  large  receptacles  that  are  later  dumped  into  lagoons  beyond  the  boundaries  of  the  village  or  tribe.  Settlements 
that  use  this  system  often  suffer  serious  contamination  and  severe  bacterial  and  viral  infection  from  the  waste  and  sewage 
washing  back  into  the  communities  after  heavy  rainfall;  this  system  also  results  in  the  poisoning  of  crops.” 

“Another  significant  role  of  IHS  is  the  construction  and  maintenance  of  sanitation  facilities,  including  water  supplies,  sewage 
disposal,  and  solid  waste  sites,  in  individual  homes  and  communities.  Adequate  sanitation  facilities  play  a  large  role  in 
disease  prevention.  Currently,  however,  approximately  21,500  Native  American  homes  (nearly  8  percent)  lack  safe  water.  In 
comparison,  the  same  is  true  for  1  percent  of  all  U.S.  homes.” 

“In  addition  to  being  the  victims  of  crime  more  often,  Native  Americans  are  also  overrepresented  in  jails  and  prisons. 

American  Indians  are  incarcerated  at  a  rate  38  percent  higher  than  the  national  per  capita  rate.  Alaska  Natives  are  incarcerated 
at  nearly  twice  the  rate  of  their  representation  in  the  state  population.  The  number  of  Native  American  youth  in  the  federal 
prison  system  has  increased  50  percent  since  1994.  Many  Native  Americans  attribute  disproportionate  incarceration  rates  to 
unfair  treatment  by  the  criminal  justice  system,  including  racial  profiling,  disparities  in  prosecution,  and  lack  of  access  to 
legal  representation.  Because  of  burgeoning  crime  and  lack  of  prevention  programs,  jails  in  Indian  Country  regularly  operate 
beyond  capacity.  In  2001,  the  10  largest  jails  were  at  142  percent  capacity,  and  nearly  a  third  of  all  tribal  facilities  were 
operating  above  150  percent  capacity.  According  to  a  DOJ  study,  in  some  Native  jails  resources  are  so  scarce  that  inmates  do 
not  have  blankets,  mattresses,  or  basic  hygiene  items,  such  as  soap  and  toothpaste.” 

"Unemployment  and  poverty  have  continuously  plagued  the  vast  majority  of  Native  American  communities.  On  some 
reservations,  unemployment  levels  have  reached  85  percent.  According  to  the  2000  census,  average  unemployment  on 
reservations  is  13.6  percent,  more  than  twice  the  national  rate.  Likewise,  31.2  percent  of  reservation  inhabitants  live  in 
poverty,  and  the  national  poverty  rate  for  Native  Americans  is  24.5  percent.  1 3  By  contrast,  the  national  poverty  rate  in  the 


United  States  between  1999  and  2001  was  11.6  percent.  Having  reached  crisis  proportions,  disparities  in  impoverishment  and 
unemployment  offer  further  evidence  of  the  federal  government’s  failure  to  protect  the  rights  of  and  promote  equal 
opportunities  for  Native  Americans." 

"Native  Americans  suffer  food  insecurity  and  hunger  at  twice  the  rate  of  the  general  population.  USD  A  found  that  from  1995 
to  1997,  22.2  percent  of  Native  American  households  were  food  insecure,  meaning  they  did  not  have  enough  food  to  meet 
even  their  basic  needs.  In  fact,  the  situation  was  so  severe  that  USDA  determined  that  from  1995  to  1997,  one  or  more 
members  of  these  households  suffered  from  moderate  to  severe  hunger,  with  8.6  percent  of  households  experiencing  both 
food  insecurity  and  hunger."  (585) 

For  the  last  500  years  indigenous  Homo  sapiens  throughout  the  world  have  been  victims  of  modern  society’s 
forced  assimilation,  which  is  nothing  more  than  a  continuous  disintegration  and  extinction  of  cultures  still 
ongoing  in  some  parts  of  the  world.  To  see  the  continuous  struggle  for  land,  justice,  and  equality  which  so  many 
indigenous  Homo  sapiens  face  one  need  only  watch  Nettie  Wild's  1998  documentary  'A  Place  Called  Chiapas'. 
Poverty,  alcoholism,  rape,  malnutrition,  suicide,  disease,  violence  and  brutality,  imprisonment,  and  other  issues 
affect  many  of  the  more  than  370,000,000  indigenous  Homo  sapiens  throughout  the  world.  In  2010,  the  first  ever 
United  Nations  publication  on  the  state  of  the  world’s  indigenous  Homo  sapiens  was  released,  it  stated, 

"In  the  United  States,  a  Native  American  is  600  times  more  likely  to  contract  tuberculosis  and  62  per  cent  more  likely  to 
commit  suicide  than  the  general  population." 

"While  indigenous  peoples  make  up  around  370  million  of  the  world’s  population  -  some  5  per  cent  -  they  constitute  around 
one-third  of  the  world’s  900  million  extremely  poor  rural  people.  Every  day,  indigenous  communities  allover  the  world  face 
issues  of  violence  and  brutality,  continuing  assimilation  policies,  dispossession  of  land,  marginalization,  forced  removal  or 
relocation,  denial  of  land  rights,  impacts  of  large-scale  development,  abuses  by  military  forces  and  a  host  of  other  abuses.: 

"Indigenous  peoples  experience  disproportionately  high  levels  of  maternal  and  infant  mortality,  malnutrition,  cardiovascular 
illnesses,  HIV/AIDS  and  other  infectious  diseases  such  as  malaria  and  tuberculosis." 

"Suicide  rates  of  indigenous  peoples,  particularly  among  youth,  are  considerably  higher  in  many  countries,  for  example,  up  to 
11  times  the  national  average  for  the  Inuit  in  Canada." 

"Indigenous  peoples  account  for  most  of  the  world’s  cultural  diversity.  Throughout  the  world,  there  are  approximately  370 
million  indigenous  peoples  occupying  20  per  cent  of  the  earth’s  territory.  It  is  also  estimated  that  they  represent  as  many  as 
5,000  different  indigenous  cultures.  The  indigenous  peoples  of  the  world  therefore  account  for  most  of  the  world’s  cultural 
diversity,  even  though  they  constitute  a  numerical  minority." 

"Violence,  forced  assimilation,  abuse.  Despite  all  the  positive  developments  in  international  human  rights  standard-setting, 
indigenous  peoples  continue  to  face  serious  human  rights  abuses  on  a  day-to-day  basis.  Issues  of  violence  and  brutality, 
continuing  assimilation  policies,  marginalization,  dispossession  of  land,  forced  removal  or  relocation,  denial  of  land  rights, 
impacts  of  large-scale  development,  abuses  by  military  forces  and  armed  conflict,  and  a  host  of  other  abuses,  are  a  reality  for 
indigenous  communities  around  the  world.  Examples  of  violence  and  brutality  have  been  heard  from  every  comer  of  the 
world,  most  often  perpetrated  against  indigenous  persons  who  are  defending  their  rights  and  their  lands,  territories  and 
communities. 

Violence  against  women.  An  indigenous  woman  is  more  likely  to  be  raped,  with  some  estimates  showing  that  more  than  one 
in  three  indigenous  women  are  raped  during  their  lifetime. 

Systemic  racism.  Indigenous  peoples  frequently  raise  concerns  about  systemic  discrimination  and  outright  racism  from  the 
State  and  its  authorities.  This  discrimination  manifests  itself  in  a  number  of  ways  such  as  frequent  and  unnecessary 
questioning  by  the  police,  condescending  attitudes  of  teachers  to  students  or  rudeness  from  a  receptionist  in  a  government 
office.  At  their  most  extreme,  these  forms  of  discrimination  lead  to  gross  violations  of  human  rights,  such  as  murder,  rape  and 
other  fonns  of  violence  or  intimidation.  These  forms  of  discrimination  are  often  either  difficult  to  quantify  and  verify  or  are 
simply  not  documented  by  the  authorities,  or  not  disaggregated  based  on  ethnicity." 

"Despite  some  progress,  little  change.  Despite  efforts  over  the  last  40  years  to  improve  conditions  and  to  increase  recognition 
of  indigenous  rights  through  law  and  policy,  litigation,  national  dialogue  and  enhanced  leadership  opportunities,  full 
accommodation  of  indigenous  rights  remains  elusive." 

"There  are  around  300,000  Forest  Peoples  -  also  referred  to  as  “Pygmies”  or  “Batwa”  -  in  the  Central  African  rainforest. 

These  peoples  are  now  facing  unprecedented  pressures  on  their  lands,  forest  resources  and  societies,  as  forests  are  logged, 
cleared  for  agriculture  or  turned  into  exclusive  wildlife  conservation  areas.  They  are  becoming  outcasts  on  the  edge  of 
dominant  society  as  they  settle  in  villages  and  are  increasingly  dependent  on  the  cash  economy,  but  are  unable  to  enjoy  the 


rights  accorded  to  other  citizens  and  are  marginalized  from  decision-making.  As  these  pressures  intensify,  Pygmy  peoples  are 
suffering  increasing  poverty,  racial  discrimination,  violence  and  cultural  collapse.  Throughout  Central  Africa,  their  traditional 
way  of  life  is  disappearing,  and  their  incomparable  knowledge  of  the  forest  is  being  lost." 

"The  Maori  comprise  less  than  15  per  cent  of  the  New  Zealand  population,  yet  account  for  40  per  cent  of  all  court  convictions 
and  half  the  prison  population." 

"Ninety  per  cent  of  the  timber  being  extracted  in  the  Peruvian  Amazon  is  illegal  and  originates  from  protected  areas 
belonging  to  indigenous  communities  or  set  aside  for  indigenous  peoples  who  live  involuntary  isolation." 

"Almost  a  quarter  of  Native  Americans  and  Alaska  Natives  live  under  the  poverty  line  in  the  United  States,  compared  to 
about  12.5  per  cent  of  the  total  population." 

"Native  Americans  and  Alaska  Natives  have  higher  death  rates  than  other  Americans  from  tuberculosis  (600per  cent  higher), 
alcoholism  (510  per  cent  higher),  motor  vehicle  crashes  (229  per  cent  higher),  diabetes  (189per  cent  higher),  unintentional 
injuries  (152  per  cent  higher),  homicide  (61  per  cent  higher)  and  suicide  (62  percent  higher)." 

"While  indigenous  peoples  in  Canada  represent  only  3  per  cent  of  the  total  population,  they  make  up  aroundl9  per  cent  of 
federal  prisoners."  (494) 


Migrants,  Refugees  and  Asylum  Seekers 

The  United  Nations  Refugee  Agency  reported  that  in  1997  there  were  33,900,000  forcibly  displaced  Homo 
sapiens  worldwide,  by  2016  this  number  increased  to  65,600,000.  (672)  Migrants,  refugees,  and  asylum  seekers 
are  forcibly  displaced  as  a  result  of  violence,  persecution,  war,  natural  disaster,  and  global  warming.  During  their 
migration  or  when  reaching  their  destination  country,  they  are  too  often  subjected  to  xenophobia  and  racism 
resulting  in  discrimination,  and  some  becoming  victims  of  violent  and  even  deadly  attacks  from  oppositionist 
anxiously  awaiting  their  arrival  in  the  host  country. 

Contemporary  Slavery 

Slavery  has  been  abolished  de  jure  in  all  countries,  but  de  facto  slavery  in  the  form  of  involuntary  servitude, 
serfdom,  domestic  servants  held  in  captivity,  debt  bondage,  sexual  slavery,  child  soldiers,  and  forced  marriage 
still  take  place  worldwide.  The  2016  Global  Slavery  Index  estimated  that  45,800,000  Homo  sapiens  worldwide 
are  victims  of  some  form  of  contemporary  slavery,  with  58%  of  them  residing  in  either  India,  China,  Pakistan, 
Bangladesh,  and  Uzbekistan.  18,354,700  slaves  reside  in  India  alone,  making  it  by  far  the  nation  with  the  most 
contemporary  slaves.  (266)  Additionally,  there  are  also  millions  of  adult  laborers  working  in  sweatshops  in  some 
impoverished  countries  which  lack  labor  laws  or  safety  standards.  These  workers  are  exploited  and  made  to 
work  long  hours  under  horrendous  conditions  for  extremely  low  wages,  usually  earning  less  than  $1.00  an  hour 
making  items  which  often  are  sold  for  an  absurd  price. 

Most  individuals  around  the  world  are  not  even  aware  of  the  trafficking  and  exploitation  of  millions  of  Homo 
sapiens  worldwide  which  occurs,  and  many  politicians  and  governments  turn  a  blind  eye  to  the  practice.  How 
can  such  advanced  and  civilized  nations  like:  the  United  States,  Germany,  the  Netherlands,  Belgium, 

Switzerland,  Bulgaria,  Greece,  Turkey,  Brazil,  Italy,  Ireland,  Spain,  United  Kingdom,  Brazil,  China,  and  others 
allow  this  sort  of  social  injustice  to  even  occur  within  their  own  borders? 


Current  World  Slave  Trade,  Trafficking  of  Homo  sapiens ,  and  other  Exploitation  of  Homo  sapiens 

COUNTRY/REGION 

DESCRIPTION 

Afhaanistan 

Afghanistan  is  a  source  transit,  and  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to 
forced  labor  and  sex  trafficking,  although  domestic  trafficking  is  more  prevalent  than  transnational 
trafficking;  Afghan  men  are  subjected  to  forced  labor  and  debt  bondage  in  Iran,  Pakistan,  Greece, 
Turkey,  and  the  Gulf  states;  Afghan  women  and  girls  are  forced  into  prostitution  and  domestic 
servitude  in  Pakistan,  Iran,  and  India,  while  women  and  girls  from  the  Philippines,  Pakistan,  Iran 
Tajikistan,  and  China  are  reportedly  sexually  exploited  in  Afghanistan;  children  are  increasingly 
subjected  to  forced  labor  in  carpet-making  factories,  domestic  servitude,  forced  begging,  and 
commercial  sexual  exploitation;  some  children  are  sold  to  settle  debts. 

Albania 

Albania  is  a  source  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to  sex  trafficking  and  forced 
labor;  Albanian  victims  of  sexual  exploitation  are  trafficked  within  Albania  and  in  Greece,  Italy 
Macedonia,  Kosovo,  Belgium,  the  Netherlands,  Germany,  Switzerland,  Ireland,  and  the  UK;  some 
Albanian  women  become  sex  trafficking  victims  after  accepting  offers  of  legitimate  jobs;  Albanian 
children  are  forced  to  beg  orperfonn  other  forms  of  forced  labor;  Filipino  victims  of  labor  trafficking 
were  identified  in  Albania  during  2012. 

Algeria 

Algeria  is  a  transit  and,  to  a  lesser  extent,  a  destination  and  source  country  for  women  subjected  to 
forced  labor  and  sex  trafficking  and,  to  a  lesser  extent,  men  subjected  to  forced  labor;  criminal 
networks,  sometimes  extending  to  sub-Saharan  Africa  and  to  Europe,  are  involved  in  human 
smuggling  and  trafficking  in  Algeria;  sub-Saharan  adults  enter  Algeria  voluntarily  but  illegally,  often 
with  the  aid  of  smugglers,  for  onward  travel  to  Europe,  but  some  of  the  women  are  forced  into 
prostitution,  domestic  service,  and  begging;  some  sub-Saharan  men,  mostly  from  Mali,  are  forced  into 
domestic  servitude;  some  Algerian  women  and  children  are  also  forced  into  prostitution  domestically. 

Angola 

Angola  is  a  source  and  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to  sex  trafficking 
and  forced  labor  in  agriculture,  construction,  domestic  service,  and  diamond  mines;  some  Angolan 
girls  are  forced  into  domestic  prostitution  into  domestic  prostitution,  while  some  Angolan  boys  are 
taken  to  Namibia  as  forced  laborers  or  are  forced  to  be  cross-border  couriers;  women  and  children  are 
also  forced  into  domestic  service  in  South  Africa,  the  Democratic  Republic  of  the  Congo,  Namibia, 
and  European  countries;  Vietnamese,  Brazilian,  and  Chinese  women  are  trafficked  to  Angola  for 
prostitution,  while  Chinese,  Southeast  Asian,  Namibian,  and  possibly  Congolese  migrants  are 
subjected  to  forced  labor  in  Angola's  construction  industry. 

Antigua  and  Barbuda 

Current  situation:  Antigua  and  Barbuda  is  a  destination  and  transit  country  for  adults  and  children 
subjected  to  sex  trafficking  and  forced  labor;  forced  prostitution  has  been  reported  in  bars,  taverns,  and 
brothels,  while  forced  labor  occurs  in  domestic  service  and  the  retail  sector. 

Bahrain 

Bahrain  is  a  destination  country  for  men  and  women  subjected  to  forced  labor  and  sex  trafficking; 
unskilled  and  domestic  workers  from  India,  Pakistan,  Nepal,  Sri  Lanka,  Bangladesh,  Indonesia, 
Thailand,  the  Philippines,  Ethiopia,  Ghana,  and  Eritrea  migrate  willingly  to  Bahrain,  but  some  face 
conditions  of  forced  labor  through  the  withholding  of  passports,  restrictions  on  movement, 
nonpayment,  threats,  and  abuse;  many  Bahraini  labor  recruitment  agencies  and  some  employers  charge 
foreign  workers  exorbitant  fees  that  make  them  vulnerable  to  forced  labor  and  sexual  exploitation 
because  they  are  not  protected  under  labor  laws;  women  from  Thailand,  the  Philippines,  Morocco, 
Jordan,  Syria,  Lebanon,  China,  Vietnam,  Russia,  Ukraine,  and  Eastern  European  countries  are  forced 
into  prostitution  in  Bahrain. 

Belarus 

Belarus  is  a  source,  transit,  and  destination  country  for  women,  men,  and  children  subjected  to  sex 
trafficking  and  forced  labor;  more  victims  are  exploited  within  Belarus  than  abroad;  Belarusians 
exploited  abroad  are  primarily  trafficked  to  Germany,  Poland,  Russian,  and  Turkey  but  also  other 
European  countries,  the  Middle  East,  Japan,  Kazakhstan,  and  Mexico;  Moldovans,  Russians, 
Ukrainians,  and  Vietnamese  are  exploited  in  Belarus;  state-sponsored  forced  labor  is  a  continuing 
problem;  students  are  forced  to  do  farm  labor  without  pay  and  military  conscripts  are  forced  to 
perform  unpaid  non-military  work;  the  government  has  retained  a  decree  forbidding  workers  in  state- 
owned  wood  processing  factories  from  leaving  their  jobs  without  their  employers’  permission. 

Belize 

Belize  is  a  source,  destination,  and  transit  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to  forced 
labor  and  sex  trafficking;  the  coerced  prostitution  of  women  and  children  by  family  members  has  not 
led  to  arrests;  child  sex  tourism,  involving  primarily  US  citizens,  is  on  the  rise;  sex  trafficking  and 
forced  labor  of  Belizean  and  foreign  women  and  LGBT  individuals  occurs  in  bars,  nightclubs, 
brothels,  and  domestic  service;  workers  from  Central  America,  Mexico,  and  Asia  may  fall  victim  to 
forced  labor  in  restaurants,  shops,  agriculture,  and  fishing. 

Bolivia 

Bolivia  is  a  source  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to  forced  labor  and  sex  trafficking 
domestically  and  abroad;  indigenous  children  are  particularly  vulnerable;  Bolivia  is  a  source  country 
for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to  forced  labor  and  sex  trafficking  domestically  and  abroad; 
rural  and  poor  Bolivians,  most  of  whom  are  indigenous,  and  LGBT  youth  are  particularly  vulnerable; 
Bolivians  perform  forced  labor  domestically  in  mining,  ranching,  agriculture,  and  domestic  service, 
and  a  significant  number  are  in  forced  labor  abroad  in  sweatshops,  agriculture,  domestic  service,  and 
the  infonnal  sector;  women  and  girls  are  sex  trafficked  within  Bolivia  and  in  neighboring  countries, 
such  as  Argentina,  Peru,  and  Chile;  a  limited  number  of  women  from  nearby  countries  are  sex 
trafficked  in  Bolivia. 

Botswana 

Botswana  is  a  source,  transit,  and  destination  country  for  women  and  children  subjected  to  sex 
trafficking  and  forced  labor;  young  Batswana  serving  as  domestic  workers,  sometimes  sent  by  their 
parents,  may  be  denied  education  and  basic  necessities  or  experience  confinement  and  abuse  indicative 
of  forced  labor;  Batswana  girls  and  women  also  are  forced  into  prostitution  domestically;  adults  and 

children  of  San  ethnicity  were  reported  to  be  in  forced  labor  on  farms  and  at  cattle  posts  in  the 
country’s  rural  west. 

Bulgaria 

Bulgaria  is  a  source  and,  to  a  lesser  extent,  a  transit  and  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and 
children  subjected  to  sex  trafficking  and  forced  labor;  Bulgaria  is  one  of  the  main  sources  of  human 
trafficking  in  the  EU;  women  and  children  are  increasingly  sex  trafficked  domestically,  as  well  as  in 
Europe,  Russia,  the  Middle  East,  and  the  US;  adults  and  children  become  forced  laborers  in 
agriculture,  construction,  and  the  service  sector  in  Europe,  Israel,  and  Zambia;  Romanian  girls  are  also 
subjected  to  sex  trafficking  in  Bulgaria. 

Burkina  Faso 

Burkina  Faso  is  a  source,  transit,  and  destination  country  for  women  and  children  subjected  to  forced 
labor  and  sex  trafficking;  Burkinabe  children  are  forced  to  work  as  farm  hands,  gold  panners  and 
washers,  street  vendors,  domestic  servants,  and  beggars  or  in  the  commercial  sex  trade,  with  some 
transported  to  nearby  countries;  to  a  lesser  extent,  Burkinabe  women  are  recruited  for  legitimate  jobs 
in  the  Middle  East  or  Europe  and  subsequently  forced  into  prostitution;  women  from  other  West 

African  countries  are  also  lured  to  Burkina  Faso  for  work  and  subjected  to  forced  prostitution,  forced 
labor  in  restaurants,  or  domestic  servitude. 

Burma 

Burma  is  a  source  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  trafficked  for  the  purpose  of  forced  labor  and 
for  women  and  children  subjected  to  sex  trafficking;  Burmese  adult  and  child  labor  migrants  travel  to 
East  Asia,  the  Middle  East,  South  Asia,  and  the  US,  where  men  are  forced  to  work  in  the  fishing, 
manufacturing,  forestry,  and  construction  industries  and  women  and  girls  are  forced  into  prostitution, 
domestic  servitude,  or  forced  labor  in  the  gannent  sector;  some  Burmese  economic  migrants  and 
Rohingya  asylum  seekers  have  become  forced  laborers  on  Thai  fishing  boats;  some  military  personnel 
and  armed  ethnic  groups  unlawfully  conscript  child  soldiers  or  coerce  adults  and  children  into  forced 
labor;  domestically,  adults  and  children  from  ethnic  areas  are  vulnerable  to  forced  labor  on  plantations 
and  in  mines,  while  children  may  also  be  subject  to  forced  prostitution,  domestic  service,  and  begging. 

Burundi 

Burundi  is  a  source  country  for  children  and  possibly  women  subjected  to  forced  labor  and  sex 
trafficking;  business  people  recruit  Burundian  girls  for  prostitution  domestically,  as  well  as  in  Rwanda, 
Kenya,  Uganda,  and  the  Middle  East,  and  recruit  boys  and  girls  for  forced  labor  in  Burundi  and 
Tanzania;  children  and  young  adults  are  coerced  into  forced  labor  in  farming,  mining,  informal 
commerce,  fishing,  or  collecting  river  stones  for  construction;  sometimes  family,  friends,  and 
neighbors  are  complied  in  exploiting  children,  at  times  luring  them  in  with  offers  of  educational  or  job 
opportunities. 

Cambodia 

Cambodia  is  a  source,  transit,  and  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to 
forced  labor  and  sex  trafficking;  Cambodian  men,  women,  and  children  migrate  to  countries  within  the 
region  and,  increasingly,  the  Middle  East  for  legitimate  work  but  are  subjected  to  sex  trafficking, 
domestic  servitude,  or  forced  labor  in  fishing,  agriculture,  construction,  and  factories;  Cambodian  men 
recruited  to  work  on  Thai-owned  fishing  vessels  are  subsequently  subjected  to  forced  labor  in 
international  waters  and  are  kept  at  sea  for  years;  poor  Cambodian  children  are  vulnerable  and,  often 
with  the  families’  complicity,  are  subject  to  forced  labor,  including  domestic  servitude  and  forced 
begging,  in  Thailand  and  Vietnam;  Cambodian  and  ethnic  Vietnamese  women  and  girls  are  trafficked 
from  rural  areas  to  urban  centers  and  tourist  spots  for  sexual  exploitation;  Cambodian  men  are  the 
main  exploiters  of  child  prostitutes,  but  men  from  other  Asian  countries,  and  the  West  travel  to 
Cambodia  for  child  sex  tourism. 

Central  African  Republic 

Central  African  Republic  (CAR)  is  a  source,  transit,  and  destination  country  for  children  subjected  to 
forced  labor  and  sex  trafficking,  women  subjected  to  forced  prostitution,  and  adults  subjected  to  forced 
labor;  most  victims  appear  to  be  CAR  citizens  exploited  within  the  country,  with  a  smaller  number 
transported  back  and  forth  between  the  CAR  and  nearby  countries;  armed  groups  operating  in  the 

CAR,  including  those  aligned  with  the  former  SELEKA  Government  and  the  Lord’s  Resistance  Army, 
continue  to  recruit  and  re-recruit  children  for  military  activities  and  labor;  children  are  also  subject  to 
domestic  servitude,  commercial  sexual  exploitation,  and  forced  labor  in  agriculture,  mines,  shops,  and 
street  vending;  women  and  girls  are  subject  to  domestic  servitude,  sexual  slavery,  commercial  sexual 
exploitation,  and  forced  marriage. 

China 

China  is  a  source,  transit,  and  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to  sex 
trafficking  and  forced  labor;  Chinese  adults  and  children  are  forced  into  prostitution  and  various  forms 
of  forced  labor,  including  begging  and  working  in  brick  kilns,  coal  mines,  and  factories;  women  and 
children  are  recruited  from  rural  areas  and  taken  to  urban  centers  for  sexual  exploitation,  often  lured 
by  criminal  syndicates  or  gangs  with  fraudulent  job  offers;  state-sponsored  forced  labor,  where 
detainees  work  for  up  to  four  years  often  with  no  remuneration,  continues  to  be  a  serious  concern; 
Chinese  men,  women,  and  children  also  may  be  subjected  to  conditions  of  sex  trafficking  and  forced 
labor  worldwide,  particularly  in  overseas  Chinese  communities;  women  and  children  are  trafficked  to 
China  from  neighboring  countries,  as  well  as  Africa  and  the  Americas,  for  forced  labor  and 

prostitution. 

Comoros 

Comoros  is  a  source  country  for  children  subjected  to  forced  labor  and,  reportedly,  sex  trafficking 
domestically,  and  women  and  children  are  subjected  to  forced  labor  in  Mayotte;  it  is  possibly  a  transit 
and  destination  country  for  Malagasy  women  and  girls  and  a  transit  country  for  East  African  women 
and  girls  exploited  in  domestic  service  in  the  Middle  East;  Comoran  children  are  forced  to  labor  in 
domestic  service,  roadside  and  street  vending,  baking,  fishing,  and  agriculture;  some  Comoran 
students  at  Koranic  schools  are  exploited  for  forced  agricultural  or  domestic  labor,  sometimes  being 
subjected  to  physical  and  sexual  abuse;  Comoros  may  be  particularly  vulnerable  to  transnational 
trafficking  because  of  inadequate  border  controls,  government  corruption,  and  the  presence  of 
international  criminal  networks. 

The  Democratic  Republic  of 
the  Congo 

The  Democratic  Republic  of  the  Congo  is  a  source,  destination,  and  possibly  a  transit  country  for  men, 
women,  and  children  subjected  to  forced  labor  and  sex  trafficking;  the  majority  of  this  trafficking  is 
internal,  and  much  of  it  is  perpetrated  by  armed  groups  and  rogue  government  forces  outside  official 
control  in  the  country's  unstable  eastern  provinces;  Congolese  adults  are  subjected  to  forced  labor, 
including  debt  bondage,  in  unlicensed  mines,  and  women  may  be  forced  into  prostitution;  Congolese 
women  and  girls  are  subjected  to  forced  marriages  where  they  are  vulnerable  to  domestic  servitude  or 
sex  trafficking,  while  children  are  forced  to  work  in  agriculture,  mining,  mineral  smuggling,  vending, 
portering,  and  begging;  Congolese  women  and  children  migrate  to  countries  in  Africa,  the  Middle 

East,  and  Europe  where  some  are  subjected  to  forced  prostitution,  domestic  servitude,  and  forced  labor 
in  agriculture  and  diamond  mining;  indigenous  and  foreign  anned  groups,  including  the  Lord’s 
Resistance  Army,  abduct  and  forcibly  recruit  Congolese  adults  and  children  to  serve  as  laborers, 
porters,  domestics,  combatants,  and  sex  slaves;  some  elements  of  the  Congolese  national  army 
(FARDC)  also  forced  adults  to  carry  supplies,  equipment,  and  looted  goods,  but  no  cases  of  the 

FARDC  recruiting  child  soldiers  were  reported  in  2014  -  a  significant  change. 

The  Republic  of  the  Congo 

The  Republic  of  the  Congo  is  a  source  and  destination  country  for  children,  men,  and  women, 
subjected  to  forced  labor  and  sex  trafficking;  most  trafficking  victims  are  from  Benin,  the  Democratic 
Republic  of  the  Congo  (DRC),  and,  to  a  lesser  extent,  other  neighboring  countries  and  are  subjected  to 
domestic  servitude  and  market  vending  by  West  African  and  Congolese  nationals;  adults  and  children, 
the  majority  from  the  DRC,  are  also  sex  trafficked  in  Congo,  mainly  Brazzaville;  internal  trafficking 
victims,  often  from  rural  areas,  are  exploited  as  domestic  servants  or  forced  to  work  in  quarries, 
bakeries,  fishing,  and  agriculture. 

Costa  Rica 

Costa  Rica  is  a  source,  transit,  and  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to  sex 
trafficking  and  forced  labor;  Costa  Rican  women  and  children,  as  well  as  those  from  Nicaragua,  the 
Dominican  Republic,  and  other  Latin  American  countries,  are  sex  trafficked  in  Costa  Rica;  child  sex 
tourism  is  a  particular  problem  with  offenders  coming  from  the  US  and  Europe;  men  and  children 
from  Central  America,  including  indigenous  Panamanians,  and  Asia  are  exploited  in  agriculture, 
construction,  fishing,  and  commerce;  Nicaraguans  transit  Costa  Rica  to  reach  Panama,  where  some  are 
subjected  to  forced  labor  or  sex  trafficking. 

Cuba 

Cuba  is  a  source  country  for  adults  and  children  subjected  to  sex  trafficking  and  forced  labor;  child  sex 
trafficking  and  child  sex  tourism  occur  in  Cuba,  while  some  Cubans  are  forced  into  prostitution  in 

South  America  and  the  Caribbean;  allegations  have  been  made  that  some  Cubans  have  been  forced  or 
coerced  to  work  at  Cuban  medical  missions  abroad;  assessing  the  scope  of  trafficking  within  Cuba  is 
difficult  because  of  the  lack  of  information. 

Djibouti 

Djibouti  is  a  transit,  source,  and  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to  forced 
labor  and  sex  trafficking;  economic  migrants  from  East  Africa  en  route  to  Yemen  and  other  Middle 

East  locations  are  vulnerable  to  exploitation  in  Djibouti;  some  women  and  girls  may  be  forced  into 
domestic  servitude  or  prostitution  after  reaching  Djibouti  City,  the  Ethiopia-Djibouti  trucking  corridor, 
or  Obock  -  the  main  crossing  point  into  Yemen;  Djiboutian  and  foreign  children  may  be  forced  to  beg, 
to  work  as  domestic  servants,  or  to  commit  theft  and  other  petty  crimes. 

Egypt 

Egypt  is  a  source,  transit,  and  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to  sex 
trafficking  and  forced  labor;  Egyptian  children,  including  the  large  population  of  street  children  are 
vulnerable  to  forced  labor  in  domestic  service,  begging  and  agriculture  or  may  be  victims  of  sex 
trafficking  or  child  sex  tourism,  which  occurs  in  Cairo,  Alexandria,  and  Luxor;  some  Egyptian  women 
and  girls  are  sold  into  “temporary”  or  “summer”  marriages  with  Gulf  men,  through  the  complicity  of 
their  parents  or  marriage  brokers,  and  are  exploited  for  prostitution  or  forced  labor;  Egyptian  men  are 
subject  to  forced  labor  in  neighboring  countries,  while  adults  from  South  and  Southeast  Asia  and  East 
Africa  -  and  increasingly  Syrian  refugees  -  are  forced  to  work  in  domestic  service,  construction, 
cleaning,  and  begging  in  Egypt;  women  and  girls,  including  migrants  and  refugees,  from  Asia,  sub- 
Saharan  Africa,  and  the  Middle  East  are  sex  trafficked  in  Egypt;  the  Egyptian  military  cracked  down 
on  criminal  group’s  smuggling,  abducting,  trafficking,  and  extorting  African  migrants  in  the  Sinai 

Peninsula,  but  the  practice  has  reemerged  along  Egypt’s  western  border  with  Libya. 

Equatorial  Guinea 

Equatorial  Guinea  is  a  source  country  for  children  subjected  to  sex  trafficking  and  destination  country 
for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to  forced  labor;  Equatorial  Guinean  girls  may  be  encouraged 
by  their  parents  to  engage  in  the  sex  trade  in  urban  centers  to  receive  groceries,  gifts,  housing,  and 
money;  children  are  also  trafficked  from  nearby  countries  for  work  as  domestic  servants,  market 
laborers,  ambulant  vendors,  and  launderers;  women  are  trafficked  to  Equatorial  Guinea  from 

Cameroon,  Benin,  other  neighboring  countries,  and  China  for  forced  labor  or  prostitution. 

Eritrea 

Eritrea  is  a  source  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  trafficked  for  the  purposes  of  forced  labor 
domestically  and,  to  a  lesser  extent,  sex  and  labor  trafficking  abroad;  the  country’s  national  service 
program  is  often  abused,  with  conscripts  detained  indefinitely  and  subjected  to  forced  labor;  Eritrean 
migrants,  often  fleeing  national  service,  face  strict  exit  control  procedures  and  limited  access  to 
passports  and  visas,  making  them  vulnerable  to  trafficking;  Eritrean  secondary  school  children  are 
required  to  take  part  in  public  works  projects  during  their  summer  breaks  and  must  attend  military  and 
educational  camp  in  their  final  year  to  obtain  a  high  school  graduation  certificate  and  to  gain  access  to 
higher  education  and  some  jobs;  some  Eritreans  living  in  or  near  refugee  camps,  particularly  in  Sudan, 
are  kidnapped  by  criminal  groups  and  held  for  ransom  in  the  Sinai  Peninsula  and  Libya,  where  they 
are  subjected  to  forced  labor  and  abuse. 

Gabon 

Gabon  is  primarily  a  destination  and  transit  country  for  adults  and  children  from  West  and  Central 
African  countries  subjected  to  forced  labor  and  sex  trafficking;  boys  are  forced  to  work  as  street 
vendors,  mechanics,  or  in  the  fishing  sector,  while  girls  are  subjected  to  domestic  servitude  or  forced 
to  work  in  markets  or  roadside  restaurants;  West  African  women  are  forced  into  domestic  servitude  or 
prostitution;  men  are  reportedly  forced  to  work  on  cattle  farms;  some  foreign  adults  end  up  in  forced 
labor  in  Gabon  after  initially  seeking  the  help  of  human  smugglers  to  help  them  migrate  clandestinely; 
traffickers  operate  in  loose,  ethnic -based  criminal  networks,  with  female  traffickers  recruiting  and 
facilitating  the  transport  of  victims  from  source  countries;  in  some  cases,  families  turn  child  victims 
over  to  traffickers,  who  promise  paid  jobs  in  Gabon. 

The  Gambia 

The  Gambia  is  a  source  and  destination  country  for  women  and  children  subjected  to  forced  labor  and 
sex  trafficking;  Gambian  women,  girls,  and,  to  a  lesser  extent,  boys  are  exploited  for  prostitution  and 
domestic  servitude;  women,  girls,  and  boys  from  West  African  countries  are  trafficked  to  The  Gambia 
for  commercial  sexual  exploitation,  particularly  by  European  sex  tourists;  boys  in  some  Koranic 
schools  are  forced  into  street  vending  or  begging;  some  Gambian  children  have  been  identified  as 
victims  of  forced  labor  in  neighboring  West  African  countries. 

Ghana 

Ghana  is  a  source,  transit,  and  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to  forced 
labor  and  sex  trafficking;  the  trafficking  of  Ghanians,  particularly  children,  internally  is  more  common 
than  the  trafficking  of  foreign  nationals;  Ghanian  children  are  subjected  to  forced  labor  in  fishing, 
domestic  service,  street  hawking,  begging,  portering,  mining,  quarrying,  herding,  and  agriculture,  with 
girls,  and  to  a  lesser  extent  boys,  forced  into  prostitution;  Ghanian  women,  sometimes  lured  with 
legitimate  job  offers,  and  girls  are  sex  trafficked  in  West  Africa,  the  Middle  East,  and  Europe;  Ghanian 
men  fraudulently  recruited  for  work  in  the  Middle  East  are  subjected  to  forced  labor  or  prostitution, 
and  a  few  Ghanian  adults  have  been  identified  as  victims  of  false  labor  in  the  US;  women  and  girls 
from  Vietnam,  China,  and  neighboring  West  African  countries  are  sex  trafficked  in  Ghana;  the  country 
is  also  a  transit  point  for  sex  trafficking  from  West  Africa  to  Europe. 

Guinea-Bissau 

Guinea-Bissau  is  a  source  country  for  children  subjected  to  forced  labor  and  sex  trafficking;  the  extent 
to  which  adults  are  trafficked  for  forced  labor  or  forced  prostitution  is  unclear;  boys  are  forced  into 
street  vending  in  Guinea-Bissau  and  manual  labor,  agriculture,  and  mining  in  Senegal,  while  girls  may 
be  forced  into  street  vending,  domestic  service,  and,  to  a  lesser  extent,  prostitution  in  Guinea  and 
Senegal;  some  Bissau-Guinean  boys  at  Koranic  schools  are  forced  into  begging  by  religious  teachers. 

Guinea 

Guinea  is  a  source,  transit,  and,  to  a  lesser  extent,  a  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and  children 
subjected  to  forced  labor  and  sex  trafficking;  the  majority  of  trafficking  victims  are  Guinean  children, 
and  trafficking  is  more  prevalent  among  Guineans  than  foreign  national  migrants;  Guinean  girls  are 
subjected  to  domestic  servitude  and  commercial  sexual  exploitation,  while  boys  are  forced  to  beg  or  to 
work  as  street  vendors,  shoe  shiners,  or  miners;  Guinea  is  a  source  country  and  transit  point  for  West 
African  children  forced  to  work  as  miners  in  the  region;  Guinean  women  and  girls  are  subjected  to 
domestic  servitude  and  sex  trafficking  in  West  Africa,  the  Middle  East,  the  US,  and  increasingly 

Europe,  while  Thai,  Chinese,  and  Vietnamese  women  are  forced  into  prostitution  and  some  West 
Africans  are  forced  into  domestic  servitude  in  Guinea. 

Guyana 

Guyana  is  a  source  and  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to  sex  trafficking 
and  forced  labor  -  children  are  particularly  vulnerable;  women  and  girls  from  Guyana,  Venezuela, 
Suriname,  Brazil,  and  the  Dominican  Republic  are  forced  into  prostitution  in  Guyana’s  interior  mining 
communities  and  urban  areas;  forced  labor  is  reported  in  mining,  agriculture,  forestry,  domestic 

service,  and  shops;  Guyanese  nationals  are  also  trafficked  to  Suriname,  Jamaica,  and  other  Caribbean 
countries  for  sexual  exploitation  and  forced  labor. 

Haiti 

Haiti  is  a  source,  transit,  and  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to  forced 
labor  and  sex  trafficking;  most  of  Haiti’s  trafficking  cases  involve  children  in  domestic  servitude 
vulnerable  to  physical  and  sexual  abuse;  dismissed  and  runaway  child  domestic  servants  often  end  up 
in  prostitution,  begging,  or  street  crime;  other  exploited  populations  included  low-income  Haitians, 
child  laborers,  and  women  and  children  living  in  IDP  camps  dating  to  the  2010  earthquake;  Haitian 
adults  are  vulnerable  to  fraudulent  labor  recruitment  abroad  and,  along  with  children,  may  be  subjected 
to  forced  labor  in  the  Dominican  Republic,  elsewhere  in  the  Caribbean,  South  America,  and  the  US; 
Dominicans  are  exploited  in  sex  trafficking  and  forced  labor  in  Haiti. 

Iran 

Iran  is  a  source,  transit,  and  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to  sex 
trafficking  and  forced  labor;  organized  groups  sex  traffic  Iranian  women  and  children  in  Iran  and  to  the 
UAE  and  Europe;  the  transport  of  girls  from  and  through  Iran  en  route  to  the  Gulf  for  sexual 
exploitation  or  forced  marriages  is  on  the  rise;  Iranian  children  are  also  forced  to  work  as  beggars, 
street  vendors,  and  in  domestic  workshops;  Afghan  boys  forced  to  work  in  construction  or  agriculture 
are  vulnerable  to  sexual  abuse  by  their  employers;  Pakistani  and  Afghan  migrants  being  smuggled  to 
Europe  often  are  subjected  to  forced  labor,  including  debt  bondage. 

Jamaica 

Jamaica  is  a  source  and  destination  country  for  children  and  adults  subjected  to  sex  trafficking  and 
forced  labor;  sex  trafficking  of  children  and  adults  occurs  on  the  street,  in  night  clubs,  bars,  massage 
parlors,  and  private  homes;  child  sex  tourism  is  a  problem  in  resort  areas;  Jamaicans  have  been 
subjected  to  sexual  exploitation  or  forced  labor  in  the  Caribbean,  Canada,  the  US,  and  the  UK,  while 
foreigners  have  endured  conditions  of  forced  labor  in  Jamaica  or  aboard  foreign-flagged  fishing 
vessels  operating  in  Jamaican  waters;  a  high  number  of  Jamaican  children  are  reported  missing. 

North  Korea 

North  Korea  is  a  source  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  who  are  subjected  to  forced  labor  and 
sex  trafficking;  many  North  Korean  workers  recruited  to  work  abroad  under  bilateral  contracts  with 
foreign  governments,  most  often  Russia  and  China,  are  subjected  to  forced  labor  and  do  not  have  a 
choice  in  the  work  the  government  assigns  them,  are  not  free  to  change  jobs,  and  face  government 
reprisals  if  they  try  to  escape  or  complain  to  outsiders;  tens  of  thousands  of  North  Koreans,  including 
children,  held  in  prison  camps  are  subjected  to  forced  labor,  including  logging,  mining,  and  farming; 
many  North  Korean  women  and  girls,  lured  by  promises  of  food,  jobs,  and  freedom,  have  migrated  to 
China  illegally  to  escape  poor  social  and  economic  conditions  only  to  be  forced  into  prostitution, 
domestic  service,  or  agricultural  work  through  forced  marriages. 

Kuwait 

Kuwait  is  a  destination  country  for  men  and  women  subjected  to  forced  labor  and,  to  a  lesser  degree, 
forced  prostitution;  men  and  women  migrate  from  South  and  Southeast  Asia,  Egypt,  the  Middle  East, 
and  increasingly  Africa  to  work  in  Kuwait,  most  of  them  in  the  domestic  service,  construction,  and 
sanitation  sectors;  although  most  of  these  migrants  enter  Kuwait  voluntarily,  upon  arrival  some  are 
subjected  to  conditions  of  forced  labor  by  their  sponsors  and  labor  agents,  including  debt  bondage; 
Kuwait’s  sponsorship  law  restricts  workers’  movements  and  penalizes  them  for  running  away  from 
abusive  workplaces,  making  domestic  workers  particularly  vulnerable  to  forced  labor  in  private 
homes. 

Laos 

Laos  is  a  source  and,  to  a  lesser  extent,  transit  and  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and  children 
subjected  to  forced  labor  and  sex  trafficking;  Lao  economic  migrants  may  encounter  conditions  of 
forced  labor  or  sexual  exploitation  in  destination  countries,  most  often  Thailand;  Lao  women  and  girls 
are  exploited  in  Thailand’s  commercial  sex  trade,  domestic  service,  factories,  and  agriculture;  a  small, 
possibly  growing,  number  of  Lao  women  and  girls  are  sold  as  brides  in  China  and  South  Korea  and 
subsequently  sex  trafficked;  Lao  men  and  boys  are  victims  of  forced  labor  in  the  Thai  fishing, 
construction,  and  agriculture  industries;  some  Lao  children,  as  well  as  Vietnamese  and  Chinese  women 
and  girls,  are  subjected  to  sex  trafficking  in  Laos;  other  Vietnamese  and  Chinese,  and  possibly 

Burmese,  adults  and  girls  transit  Laos  for  sexual  and  labor  exploitation  in  neighboring  countries, 
particularly  Thailand. 

Lebanon 

Lebanon  is  a  source  and  destination  country  for  women  and  children  subjected  to  forced  labor  and  sex 
trafficking  and  a  transit  point  for  Eastern  European  women  and  children  subjected  to  sex  trafficking  in 
other  Middle  Eastern  countries;  women  and  girls  from  South  and  Southeast  Asia  and  an  increasing 
number  from  East  and  West  Africa  are  recruited  by  agencies  to  work  in  domestic  service  but  are 
subject  to  conditions  of  forced  labor;  under  Lebanon’s  artiste  visa  program,  women  from  Eastern 
Europe,  North  Africa,  and  the  Dominican  Republic  enter  Lebanon  to  work  in  the  adult  entertainment 
industry  but  are  often  forced  into  the  sex  trade;  Lebanese  children  are  reportedly  forced  into  street 
begging  and  commercial  sexual  exploitation,  with  small  numbers  of  Lebanese  girls  sex  trafficked  in 
other  Arab  countries;  Syrian  refugees  are  vulnerable  to  forced  labor  and  prostitution. 

Lesotho 

Lesotho  is  a  source,  transit,  and  destination  country  for  women  and  children  subjected  to  forced  labor 

and  sex  trafficking  and  for  men  subjected  to  forced  labor;  in  Lesotho  and  South  Africa,  Basotho 
women  and  children  are  subjected  to  domestic  servitude,  and  Basotho  children  increasingly  endure 
commercial  sexual  exploitation;  some  Basotho  men  who  voluntarily  migrate  to  South  Africa  for  work 
become  victims  of  forced  labor  in  agriculture  and  mining  or  are  coerced  into  committing  crimes; 
foreign  nationals  continue  to  traffic  fellow  citizens  in  Lesotho. 

Libya 

Libya  is  a  destination  and  transit  country  for  men  and  women  from  sub-Saharan  Africa  and  Asia 
subjected  to  forced  labor  and  forced  prostitution;  migrants  who  seek  employment  in  Libya  as  laborers 
and  domestic  workers  or  who  transit  Libya  en  route  to  Europe  are  vulnerable  to  forced  labor;  private 
employers  also  exploit  migrants  from  detention  centers  as  forced  laborers  on  farms  and  construction 
sites,  returning  them  to  detention  when  they  are  no  longer  needed;  some  sub-Saharan  women  are 
reportedly  forced  to  work  in  Libyan  brothels,  particularly  in  the  country’s  south;  since  2013,  militia 
groups  and  other  infonnal  armed  groups,  including  some  affiliated  with  the  government,  are  reported 
to  conscript  Libyan  children  under  the  age  of  18;  large-scale  violence  driven  by  militias,  civil  unrest, 
and  increased  lawlessness  increased  in  2014,  making  it  more  difficult  to  obtain  information  on  human 
trafficking. 

Malaysia 

Malaysia  is  a  destination  and,  to  a  lesser  extent,  a  source  and  transit  country  for  men,  women,  and 
children  subjected  to  forced  labor  and  women  and  children  subjected  to  sex  trafficking;  Malaysia  is 
mainly  a  destination  country  for  foreign  workers  who  migrate  willingly  from  countries,  including 
Indonesia,  Bangladesh,  the  Philippines,  Nepal,  Burma,  and  other  Southeast  Asian  countries,  but 
subsequently  encounter  forced  labor  or  debt  bondage  in  agriculture,  construction,  factories,  and 
domestic  service  at  the  hands  of  employers,  employment  agents,  and  labor  recruiters;  women  from 
Southeast  Asia  and,  to  a  much  lesser  extent,  Africa,  are  recruited  for  legal  work  in  restaurants,  hotels, 
and  salons  but  are  forced  into  prostitution;  refugees,  including  Rohingya  adults  and  children,  are  not 
legally  permitted  to  work  and  are  vulnerable  to  trafficking;  a  small  number  of  Malaysians  are 
trafficked  internally  and  subjected  to  sex  trafficking  abroad. 

Maldives 

Maldives  is  a  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to  forced  labor  and  sex 
trafficking  and  a  source  country  for  women  and  children  subjected  to  labor  and  sex  trafficking; 
primarily  Bangladeshi  and  Indian  migrants  working  both  legally  and  illegally  in  the  construction  and 
service  sectors  face  conditions  of  forced  labor,  including  fraudulent  recruitment,  confiscation  of 
identity  and  travel  documents,  nonpayment  and  withholding  of  wages,  and  debt  bondage;  a  small 
number  of  women  from  Asia,  Eastern  Europe,  and  former  Soviet  states  are  trafficked  to  Maldives  for 
sexual  exploitation;  Maldivian  women  may  be  subjected  to  sex  trafficking  domestically  or  in  Sri 

Lanka;  some  Maldivian  children  are  transported  to  the  capital  for  domestic  service,  where  they  may 
also  be  victims  of  sexual  abuse  and  forced  labor. 

Mali 

Mali  is  a  source,  transit,  and  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to  forced 
labor  and  sex  trafficking;  internal  trafficking  is  more  prevalent  than  transnational  trafficking,  but 
foreign  women  and  girls  are  forced  into  domestic  servitude,  agricultural  labor,  and  support  roles  in 
gold  mines,  as  well  as  subjected  to  sex  trafficking;  Malian  boys  are  forced  to  work  in  agricultural 
settings,  gold  mines,  the  informal  commercial  sector  and  to  beg  within  Mali  and  neighboring 
countries;  Malians  and  other  Africans  who  travel  through  Mali  to  Mauritania,  Algeria,  or  Libya  in 
hopes  of  reaching  Europe  are  particularly  at  risk  of  becoming  victims  of  human  trafficking;  men  and 
boys,  primarily  of  Songhai  ethnicity,  are  subjected  to  debt  bondage  in  the  salt  mines  of  Taoudenni  in 
northern  Mali;  some  members  of  Mali's  Tamachek  community  are  subjected  to  hereditary  slavery- 
related  practices;  Malian  women  and  girls  are  victims  of  sex  trafficking  in  Gabon,  Libya,  Lebanon, 
and  Tunisia;  the  recruitment  of  child  soldiers  by  armed  groups  in  northern  Mali  decreased. 

The  Marshall  Islands 

The  Marshall  Islands  is  a  source  and  destination  country  for  Marshallese  women  and  girls  and  women 
from  East  Asia  subjected  to  sex  trafficking;  Marshallese  and  foreign  women  are  forced  into 
prostitution  in  businesses  frequented  by  crew  members  of  fishing  and  transshipping  vessels  that  dock 
in  Majuro;  some  Chinese  women  are  recruited  to  the  Marshall  Islands  with  promises  of  legitimate 
work  and  are  subsequently  forced  into  prostitution. 

Mauritania 

Mauritania  is  a  source  and  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to  forced  labor 
and  sex  trafficking;  adults  and  children  from  traditional  slave  castes  are  subjected  to  slavery-related 
practices  rooted  in  ancestral  master-slave  relationships;  Mauritanian  boy  students  called  talibes  are 
trafficked  within  the  country  by  religious  teachers  for  forced  begging;  Mauritanian  girls,  as  well  as 
girls  from  Mali,  Senegal,  The  Gambia,  and  other  West  African  countries,  are  forced  into  domestic 
servitude;  Mauritanian  women  and  girls  are  forced  into  prostitution  domestically  or  transported  to 
countries  in  the  Middle  East  for  the  same  purpose,  sometimes  through  forced  marriages. 

Mauritius 

Mauritius  is  a  source,  transit,  and  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to 
forced  labor  and  sex  trafficking;  Mauritian  girls  are  induced  or  sold  into  prostitution,  often  by  peers, 
family  members,  or  businessmen  offering  other  forms  of  employment;  Mauritian  adults  have  been 

identified  as  labor  trafficking  victims  in  the  UK,  Belgium,  and  Canada,  while  Mauritian  women  from 
Rodrigues  Island  are  also  subject  to  domestic  servitude  in  Mauritius;  Malagasy  women  transit 

Mauritius  en  route  to  the  Middle  East  for  jobs  as  domestic  servants  and  subsequently  are  subjected  to 
forced  labor;  Cambodian  men  are  victims  of  forced  labor  on  foreign  fishing  vessels  in  Mauritius’ 
territorial  waters;  other  migrant  workers  from  East  and  South  Asia  and  Madagascar  are  also  subject  to 
forced  labor  in  Mauritius’  manufacturing  and  construction  sectors. 

Namibia 

Namibia  is  a  country  of  origin  and  destination  for  children  and,  to  a  lesser  extent,  women  subjected  to 
forced  labor  and  sex  trafficking;  victims,  lured  by  promises  of  legitimate  jobs,  are  forced  to  work  in 
urban  centers  and  on  commercial  farms;  traffickers  exploit  Namibian  children,  as  well  as  children  from 
Angola,  Zambia,  and  Zimbabwe,  for  forced  labor  in  agriculture,  cattle  herding,  domestic  service, 
fishing,  and  street  vending;  children  are  also  forced  into  prostitution,  often  catering  to  tourists  from 
southern  Africa  and  Europe;  San  and  Zemba  children  are  particularly  vulnerable;  foreign  adults  and 
Namibian  adults  and  children  are  reportedly  subjected  to  forced  labor  in  Chinese-owned  retail, 
construction,  and  fishing  operations. 

Pakistan 

Pakistan  is  a  source,  transit,  and  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to  forced 
labor  and  sex  trafficking;  the  largest  human  trafficking  problem  is  bonded  labor  in  agriculture, 
brickmaking  and,  to  a  lesser  extent,  fishing,  mining  and  carpet-making;  children  are  bought,  sold, 
rented,  and  placed  in  forced  begging  rings,  domestic  service,  small  shops,  brick-making  factories,  or 
prostitution;  militant  groups  also  force  children  to  spy,  fight,  or  die  as  suicide  bombers,  kidnapping  the 
children  or  getting  them  from  poor  parents  through  sale  or  coercion;  women  and  girls  are  forced  into 
prostitution  or  marriages;  Pakistani  adults  migrate  to  the  Gulf  States  and  African  and  European  states 
for  low-skilled  jobs  and  sometimes  become  victims  of  forced  labor,  debt  bondage,  or  prostitution; 
foreign  adults  and  children,  particularly  from  Afghanistan,  Bangladesh,  and  Sri  Lanka,  may  be  subject 
to  forced  labor,  and  foreign  women  may  be  sex  trafficked  in  Pakistan,  with  refugees  and  ethnic 
minorities  being  most  vulnerable. 

Papua  New  Guinea 

Papua  New  Guinea  is  a  source  and  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to  sex 
trafficking  and  forced  labor;  foreign  and  Papua  New  Guinean  women  and  children  are  subjected  to  sex 
trafficking,  domestic  servitude,  forced  begging,  and  street  vending;  parents  may  sell  girls  into  forced 
marriages  to  settle  debts  or  as  peace  offerings  or  trade  them  to  another  tribe  to  forge  a  political 
alliance,  leaving  them  vulnerable  to  forced  domestic  service,  or,  in  urban  areas,  they  may  prostitute 
their  children  for  income  or  to  pay  school  fees;  Chinese,  Malaysian,  and  local  men  are  forced  to  labor 
in  logging  and  mining  camps  through  debt  bondage  schemes;  migrant  women  from  Indonesia, 

Malaysia,  Thailand,  China,  and  the  Philippines  are  subjected  to  sex  trafficking  and  domestic  servitude 
at  logging  and  mining  camps,  fisheries,  and  entertainment  sites. 

Qatar 

Qatar  is  a  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to  forced  labor,  and,  to  a  much 
lesser  extent,  forced  prostitution;  the  predominantly  foreign  workforce  migrates  to  Qatar  legally  for 
low-  and  semi-skilled  work  but  often  experiences  situations  of  forced  labor,  including  debt  bondage, 
delayed  or  nonpayment  of  salaries,  confiscation  of  passports,  abuse,  hazardous  working  conditions, 
and  squalid  living  arrangements;  foreign  female  domestic  workers  are  particularly  vulnerable  to 
trafficking  because  of  their  isolation  in  private  homes  and  lack  of  protection  under  Qatari  labor  laws; 
some  women  who  migrate  for  work  are  also  forced  into  prostitution. 

Russia 

Russia  is  a  source,  transit,  and  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  who  are  subjected  to 
forced  labor  and  sex  trafficking;  with  millions  of  foreign  workers,  forced  labor  is  Russia’s 
predominant  human  trafficking  problem  and  sometimes  involves  organized  crime  syndicates;  workers 
from  Russia,  other  European  countries,  Central  Asia,  and  East  and  Southeast  Asia,  including  North 
Korea  and  Vietnam,  are  subjected  to  forced  labor  in  the  construction,  manufacturing,  agricultural, 
textile,  grocery  store,  maritime,  and  domestic  service  industries,  as  well  as  in  forced  begging,  waste 
sorting,  and  street  sweeping;  women  and  children  from  Europe,  Southeast  Asia,  Africa,  and  Central 

Asia  are  subject  to  sex  trafficking  in  Russia;  Russian  women  and  children  are  victims  of  sex 
trafficking  domestically  and  in  Northeast  Asia,  Europe,  Central  Asia,  Africa,  the  US,  and  the  Middle 
East. 

Saint  Vincent  and  the 
Grenadines 

Saint  Vincent  and  the  Grenadines  is  a  source,  transit,  and  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and 
children  subjected  to  forced  labor  and  sex  trafficking;  some  children  under  18  are  pressured  to  engage 
in  sex  acts  in  exchange  for  money  or  gifts;  foreign  workers  may  experience  forced  labor  and  are 
particularly  vulnerable  when  employed  by  small,  foreign-owned  companies;  adults  and  children  are 
vulnerable  to  forced  labor  domestically,  especially  in  the  agriculture  sector. 

Saudi  Arabia 

Saudi  Arabia  is  a  destination  country  for  men  and  women  subjected  to  forced  labor  and,  to  a  lesser 
extent,  forced  prostitution;  men  and  women  from  South  and  East  Asia,  the  Middle  East,  and  Africa 
who  voluntarily  travel  to  Saudi  Arabia  as  domestic  servants  or  low-skilled  laborers  subsequently  face 
conditions  of  involuntary  servitude,  including  nonpayment  and  withholding  of  passports;  some 

migrant  workers  are  forced  to  work  indefinitely  beyond  the  tenn  of  their  contract  because  their 
employers  will  not  grant  them  a  required  exit  visa;  female  domestic  workers  are  particularly 
vulnerable  because  of  their  isolation  in  private  homes;  women,  primarily  from  Asian  and  African 
countries,  are  believed  to  be  forced  into  prostitution  in  Saudi  Arabia,  while  other  foreign  women  were 
reportedly  kidnapped  and  forced  into  prostitution  after  running  away  from  abusive  employers;  children 
from  South  Asia,  East  Africa,  and  Yemen  are  subjected  to  forced  labor  as  beggars  and  street  vendors  in 
Saudi  Arabia,  facilitated  by  criminal  gangs. 

The  Solomon  Islands 

The  Solomon  Islands  is  a  source  and  destination  country  for  local  adults  and  children  and  Southeast 
Asian  men  and  women  subjected  to  forced  labor  and  forced  prostitution;  women  from  China, 

Indonesia,  Malaysia,  and  the  Philippines  are  recruited  for  legitimate  work  and  upon  arrival  are  forced 
into  prostitution;  men  from  Indonesia  and  Malaysia  recruited  to  work  in  the  Solomon  Islands’  mining 
and  logging  industries  may  be  subjected  to  forced  labor;  local  children  are  forced  into  prostitution  near 
foreign  logging  camps,  on  fishing  vessels,  at  hotels,  and  entertainment  venues;  some  local  children  are 
also  sold  by  their  parents  for  marriage  to  foreign  workers  or  put  up  for  “informal  adoption”  to  pay  off 
debts  and  then  find  themselves  forced  into  domestic  servitude  or  forced  prostitution. 

South  Sudan 

South  Sudan  is  a  source  and  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to  forced 
labor  and  sex  trafficking;  South  Sudanese  women  and  girls,  particularly  those  who  are  internally 
displaced,  orphaned,  refugees,  or  from  rural  areas,  are  vulnerable  to  forced  labor  and  sexual 
exploitation,  often  in  urban  centers;  children  may  be  victims  of  forced  labor  in  construction,  market 
vending,  shoe  shining,  car  washing,  rock  breaking,  brick  making,  delivery  cart  pulling,  and  begging; 
girls  are  also  forced  into  marriages  and  subsequently  subjected  to  sexual  slavery  or  domestic  servitude; 
women  and  girls  migrate  willingly  from  Uganda,  Kenya,  Ethiopia,  Eritrea,  and  the  Democratic 

Republic  of  the  Congo  to  South  Sudan  with  the  promise  of  legitimate  jobs  and  are  forced  into  the  sex 
trade;  inter-ethnic  abductions  and  abductions  by  criminal  groups  continue,  with  abductees 
subsequently  forced  into  domestic  servitude,  herding,  or  sex  trafficking;  in  2014,  the  recruitment  and 
use  of  child  soldiers  increased  significantly  within  government  security  forces  and  was  also  prevalent 
among  opposition  forces. 

Sri  Lanka 

Sri  Lanka  is  primarily  a  source  and,  to  a  lesser  extent,  a  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and 
children  subjected  to  forced  labor  and  sex  trafficking;  some  Sri  Lankan  adults  and  children  who 
migrate  willingly  to  the  Middle  East,  Southeast  Asia,  and  Afghanistan  to  work  in  the  construction, 
garment,  and  domestic  service  sectors  are  subsequently  subjected  to  forced  labor  or  debt  bondage 
(incurred  through  high  recruitment  fees  or  money  advances);  some  Sri  Lankan  women  are  forced  into 
prostitution  in  Jordan,  Maldives,  Malaysia,  Singapore,  and  other  countries;  within  Sri  Lanka,  women 
and  children  are  subjected  to  sex  trafficking,  and  children  are  also  forced  to  beg  and  work  in  the 
agriculture,  fireworks,  and  fish-drying  industries;  a  small  number  of  women  from  Asia,  Central  Asia, 
Europe,  and  the  Middle  East  have  been  forced  into  prostitution  in  Sri  Lanka  in  recent  years. 

Sudan 

Sudan  is  a  source,  transit,  and  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  who  are  subjected  to 
forced  labor  and  sex  trafficking;  Sudanese  women  and  girls,  particularly  those  from  rural  areas  or  who 
are  internally  displaced,  or  refugees  are  vulnerable  to  domestic  servitude  in  country,  as  well  as 
domestic  servitude  and  sex  trafficking  abroad;  migrants  from  East  and  West  Africa,  South  Sudan, 

Syria,  and  Nigeria  smuggled  into  or  through  Sudan  are  vulnerable  to  exploitation;  Ethiopian,  Eritrean, 
and  Filipina  women  are  subjected  to  domestic  servitude  in  Sudanese  homes,  and  East  African  and 
possibly  Thai  women  are  forced  into  prostitution  in  Sudan;  Sudanese  children  continue  to  be  recruited 
and  used  as  combatants  by  government  forces  and  armed  groups. 

Suriname 

Suriname  is  a  source,  transit,  and  destination  country  for  women  and  children  subjected  to  sex 
trafficking  and  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to  forced  labor;  women  and  girls  from  Suriname, 
Guyana,  Brazil,  and  the  Dominican  Republic  are  subjected  to  sex  trafficking  in  the  country,  sometimes 
in  interior  mining  camps;  migrant  workers  in  agriculture  and  on  fishing  boats  and  children  working  in 
infonnal  urban  sectors  and  gold  mines  are  vulnerable  to  forced  labor;  traffickers  from  Suriname 
exploit  victims  in  the  Netherlands. 

Syria 

As  conditions  continue  to  deteriorate  due  to  Syria’s  civil  war,  human  trafficking  has  increased;  Syrians 
remaining  in  the  country  and  those  that  are  refugees  abroad  are  vulnerable  to  trafficking;  Syria  is  a 
source  and  destination  country  for  men,  women  and  children  subjected  to  forced  labor  and  sex 
trafficking;  Syrian  children  continue  to  be  forcibly  recruited  by  government  forces,  pro-regime 
militias,  armed  opposition  groups,  and  terrorist  organizations  to  serve  as  soldiers,  human  shields,  and 
executioners;  ISIL  forces  Syrian  women  and  girls  and  Yazidi  women  and  girls  taken  from  Iraq  to 
marry  its  fighters,  where  they  experience  domestic  servitude  and  sexual  violence;  Syrian  refugee 
women  and  girls  are  forced  into  exploitive  marriages  or  prostitution  in  neighboring  countries,  while 
displaced  children  are  forced  into  street  begging  domestically  and  abroad. 

Tanzania 

Tanzania  is  a  source,  transit,  and  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to  forced 

labor  and  sex  trafficking;  the  exploitation  of  young  girls  in  domestic  servitude  continues  to  be 
Tanzania’s  largest  human  trafficking  problem;  Tanzanian  boys  are  subject  to  forced  labor  mainly  on 
farms  but  also  in  mines  and  quarries,  in  the  informal  commercial  sector,  in  factories,  in  the  sex  trade, 
and  possibly  on  small  fishing  boats;  Tanzanian  children  and  adults  are  subjected  to  domestic  servitude, 
other  forms  of  forced  labor,  and  sex  trafficking  in  other  African  countries,  the  Middle  East,  Europe, 
and  the  US;  internal  trafficking  is  more  prevalent  than  transnational  trafficking  and  is  usually 
facilitated  by  friends,  family  members,  or  intermediaries  with  false  offers  of  education  or  legitimate 
jobs;  trafficking  victims  from  Burundi,  Kenya,  South  Asia,  and  Yemen  are  forced  to  work  in 

Tanzania’s  agricultural,  mining,  and  domestic  service  sectors  or  may  be  sex  trafficked. 

Thailand 

Thailand  is  a  source,  transit,  and  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to  forced 
labor  and  sex  trafficking;  victims  from  Burma,  Cambodia,  Laos,  China,  Vietnam,  Uzbekistan,  and 

India,  migrate  to  Thailand  in  search  of  jobs  but  are  forced,  coerced,  or  defrauded  into  labor  in 
commercial  fishing,  fishing-related  industries,  factories,  domestic  work,  street  begging,  or  the  sex 
trade;  some  Thai,  Burmese,  Cambodian,  and  Indonesian  men  forced  to  work  on  fishing  boats  are  kept 
at  sea  for  years;  sex  trafficking  of  adults  and  children  from  Thailand,  Laos,  Vietnam,  and  Burma 
remains  a  significant  problem;  Thailand  is  a  transit  country  for  victims  from  China,  Vietnam, 
Bangladesh,  and  Burma  subjected  to  sex  trafficking  and  forced  labor  in  Malaysia,  Indonesia, 

Singapore,  Russia,  South  Korea,  the  US,  and  countries  in  Western  Europe;  Thai  victims  are  also 
trafficked  in  North  America,  Europe,  Africa,  Asia,  and  the  Middle  East. 

Timor-Leste 

Timor-Leste  is  a  source  and  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to  forced 
labor  and  sex  trafficking;  Timorese  women  and  girls  from  rural  areas  are  lured  to  the  capital  with 
promises  of  legitimate  jobs  or  education  prospects  and  are  then  forced  into  prostitution  or  domestic 
servitude,  and  other  women  and  girls  may  be  sent  to  Indonesia  for  domestic  servitude;  Timorese 
family  members  force  children  into  bonded  domestic  or  agricultural  labor  to  repay  debts;  foreign 
migrant  women  are  vulnerable  to  sex  trafficking  in  Timor-Leste,  while  men  and  boys  from  Burma, 
Cambodia,  and  Thailand  are  forced  to  work  on  fishing  boats  in  Timorese  waters  under  inhumane 
conditions. 

Trinidad  and  Tobago 

Trinidad  and  Tobago  is  a  destination,  transit,  and  possible  source  country  for  adults  and  children 
subjected  to  sex  trafficking  and  forced  labor;  women  and  girls  from  Venezuela,  the  Dominican 

Republic,  Guyana,  and  Colombia  have  been  subjected  to  sex  trafficking  in  Trinidad  and  Tobago’s 
brothels  and  clubs;  some  economic  migrants  from  the  Caribbean  region  and  Asia  are  vulnerable  to 
forced  labor  in  domestic  service  and  the  retail  sector;  the  steady  flow  of  vessels  transiting  Trinidad  and 
Tobago’s  territorial  waters  may  also  increase  opportunities  for  forced  labor  for  fishing;  international 
crime  organizations  are  increasingly  involved  in  trafficking,  and  boys  are  coerced  to  sell  drugs  and 
guns;  corruption  among  police  and  immigration  officials  impedes  anti-trafficking  efforts. 

Tunisia 

Tunisia  is  a  source,  destination,  and  possible  transit  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to 
forced  labor  and  sex  trafficking;  Tunisia’s  increased  number  of  street  children,  rural  children  working 
to  support  their  families,  and  migrants  who  have  fled  unrest  in  neighboring  countries  are  vulnerable  to 
human  trafficking;  organized  gangs  force  street  children  to  serve  as  thieves,  beggars,  and  drug 
transporters;  Tunisian  women  have  been  forced  into  prostitution  domestically  and  elsewhere  in  the 
region  under  false  promises  of  legitimate  work;  East  and  West  African  women  may  be  subjected  to 
forced  labor  as  domestic  workers. 

Turkmenistan 

Turkmenistan  is  a  source  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to  forced  labor  and  sex 
trafficking;  Turkmen  who  migrate  abroad  are  forced  to  work  in  the  textile,  agriculture,  construction, 
and  domestic  service  industries,  while  women  and  girls  may  also  be  sex  trafficked;  in  2014,  men 
surpassed  women  as  victims;  Turkey  and  Russia  are  primary  trafficking  destinations,  followed  by  the 
Middle  East,  South  and  Central  Asia,  and  other  parts  of  Europe;  Turkmen  also  experience  forced  labor 
domestically  in  the  informal  construction  industry;  participation  in  the  cotton  harvest  is  still  mandatory 
for  some  public  sector  employees. 

Ukraine 

Ukraine  is  a  source,  transit,  and  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to  forced 
labor  and  sex  trafficking;  Ukrainian  victims  are  sex  trafficked  within  Ukraine  as  well  as  in  Russia, 
Poland,  Iraq,  Spain,  Turkey,  Cyprus,  Greece,  Seychelles,  Portugal,  the  Czech  Republic,  Israel,  Italy, 
South  Korea,  Moldova,  China,  the  United  Arab  Emirates,  Montenegro,  UK,  Kazakhstan,  Tunisia,  and 
other  countries;  small  numbers  of  foreigners  from  Moldova,  Russia,  Vietnam,  Uzbekistan,  Pakistan, 
Cameroon,  and  Azerbaijan  were  victims  of  labor  trafficking  in  Ukraine;  Ukrainian  recruiters  most 
often  target  Ukrainians  from  rural  areas  with  limited  job  prospects  using  fraud,  coercion,  and  debt 
bondage. 

Uzbekistan 

Uzbekistan  is  a  source  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to  forced  labor  and  women 
and  children  subjected  to  sex  trafficking;  government-compelled  forced  labor  of  adults  remained 
endemic  during  the  2014  cotton  harvest;  despite  a  decree  banning  the  use  of  persons  under  18,  children 

were  mobilized  to  harvest  cotton  by  local  officials  in  some  districts;  in  some  regions,  local  officials 
forced  teachers,  students,  private  business  employees,  and  others  to  work  in  construction,  agriculture, 
and  cleaning  parks;  Uzbekistani  women  and  children  are  victims  of  sex  trafficking  domestically  and  in 
the  Middle  East,  Eurasia,  and  Asia;  Uzbekistani  men  and,  to  a  lesser  extent,  women  are  subjected  to 
forced  labor  in  Kazakhstan,  Russia,  and  Ukraine  in  the  construction,  oil,  agriculture,  retail,  and  food 
sectors. 

Venezuela 

Venezuela  is  a  source  and  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to  sex 
trafficking  and  forced  labor;  Venezuelan  women  and  girls,  sometimes  lured  from  poor  interior  regions 
to  urban  and  tourist  areas,  are  trafficked  for  sexual  exploitation  within  the  country,  as  well  as  in  the 
Caribbean;  Venezuelan  children  are  exploited,  frequently  by  their  families,  in  domestic  servitude; 
people  from  South  America,  the  Caribbean,  Asia,  and  Africa  are  sex  and  labor  trafficking  victims  in 
Venezuela;  thousands  of  Cuban  citizens,  particularly  doctors,  who  work  in  Venezuela  on  government 
social  programs  in  exchange  for  the  provision  of  resources  to  the  Cuban  Government  experience 
conditions  of  forced  labor. 

Yemen 

Yemen  is  a  source  and,  to  a  lesser  extent,  transit  and  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and  children 
subjected  to  forced  labor  and  women  and  children  subjected  to  sex  trafficking;  trafficking  activities 
grew  in  Yemen  in  2014,  as  the  country’s  security  situation  deteriorated  and  poverty  worsened;  armed 
groups  increased  their  recruitment  of  Yemeni  children  as  combatants  or  checkpoint  guards,  and  the 
Yemeni  military  and  security  forces  continue  to  use  child  soldiers;  some  other  Yemeni  children,  mostly 
boys,  migrate  to  Yemeni  cities  or  Saudi  Arabia  and,  less  frequently  Oman,  where  they  end  up  as 
beggars,  drug  smugglers,  prostitutes,  or  forced  laborers  in  domestic  service  or  small  shops;  Yemeni 
children  increasingly  are  also  subjected  to  sex  trafficking  in  country  and  in  Saudi  Arabia;  tens  of 
thousands  of  Yemeni  migrant  workers  deported  from  Saudi  Arabia  and  thousands  of  Syrian  refugees 
are  vulnerable  to  trafficking;  additionally,  Yemen  is  a  destination  and  transit  country  for  women  and 
children  from  the  Horn  of  Africa  who  are  looking  for  work  or  receive  fraudulent  job  offers  in  the  Gulf 
states  but  are  subjected  to  sexual  exploitation  or  forced  labor  upon  arrival;  reports  indicate  that  adults 
and  children  are  still  sold  or  inherited  as  slaves  in  Yemen. 

Zimbabwe 

Zimbabwe  is  a  source,  transit,  and  destination  country  for  men,  women,  and  children  subjected  to 
forced  labor  and  sex  trafficking;  Zimbabwean  women  and  girls  from  towns  bordering  South  Africa, 
Mozambique,  and  Zambia  are  subjected  to  forced  labor,  including  domestic  servitude,  and  prostitution 
catering  to  long-distance  truck  drivers;  Zimbabwean  men,  women,  and  children  experience  forced 
labor  in  agriculture  and  domestic  servitude  in  rural  areas;  family  members  may  recruit  children  and 
other  relatives  from  rural  areas  with  promises  of  work  or  education  in  cities  and  towns  where  they  end 
up  in  domestic  servitude  and  sex  trafficking;  Zimbabwean  women  and  men  are  lured  into  exploitative 
labor  situations  in  South  Africa  and  other  neighboring  countries. 

World 

The  International  Labour  Organization  conservatively  estimated  that  20.9  million  people  in  2012  were 
victims  of  forced  labor,  representing  the  full  range  of  human  trafficking  (also  referred  to  as  “modern- 
day  slavery”)  for  labor  and  sexual  exploitation;  about  one-third  of  reported  cases  involved  crossing 
international  borders,  which  is  often  associated  with  sexual  exploitation;  trafficking  in  persons  is  most 
prevalent  in  southeastern  Europe,  Eurasia,  and  Africa  and  least  frequent  in  EU  member  states,  Canada, 
the  US,  and  other  developed  countries  (2012). 

SOURCE:  CIA  WORLD  FACT  BOOK  2017  https://www.cia.aov/librarv/nublications/the-world-factbook/fields/2196.html 

Children 

UNICEF  estimates  the  current  number  of  child  laborers  aged  5  to  17  at  168,000,000  children,  down  1/3  from  a 
2000  estimate  of  246,000,000  children.  (267)  If  consumers  made  more  conscience  buying  decisions  about  where 
the  products  are  made  and  by  what  companies,  ultimately  avoiding  products  from  those  countries  and  companies 
that  condone  child  labor  and  sweatshops,  would  this  not  help  to  make  a  difference?  If  the  governments  of 
western  nations  enacted  regulations  to  stop  companies  from  engaging  in  child  labor  overseas  while  also  banning 
the  importation  of  products  which  are  manufactured  by  children  and  in  sweatshops,  would  this  help  in 
eliminating  child  labor  and  sweatshops? 

Daily,  in  every  country  around  the  world  children  are  victims  of  violence.  The  World  Health  Organization 
reports  that  every  5  minutes  a  child  dies  as  a  result  of  violence,  and  that  1,000,000,000  children  have 
experienced  physical,  sexual,  or  psychological  violence  in  the  past  year.  (681)  If  better  morals  were  instilled  into 
society  through  example  and  education,  in  addition  to  more  laws  being  enacted  and  rigorously  enforced,  could 
this  not  help  to  eliminate  child  violence? 


Although  child  marriage  is  rapidly  declining  in  the  United  States,  a  verified  167,000  children  in  38  U.S.  States, 
some  as  young  as  10,  were  married  between  2000  and  2010,  and  many  were  married  to  adult  men  often  with  a 
significant  age  difference.  As  the  other  12  states  and  Washington,  D.C.  could  not  provide  data,  the  non-profit 
Unchained  at  Last  using  the  verified  data  estimated  the  total  for  all  50  states  to  be  248,000  children.  (487)  How 
can  child  marriage  still  be  legal  and  condoned  or  simply  ignored  by  so  many  in  the  United  States? 

Many  children  in  Western  societies  are  now  raised  in  isolation  and  separate  from  their  parents  starting  at  birth. 
Newborns  are  often  placed  in  a  cradle  located  in  a  separate  room  and  monitored  with  an  electronic  device.  They 
are  not  carried  naturally,  but  rather  in  a  stroller.  They  are  fed  formula  made  with  dairy  based  ingredients  and  not 
breastmilk.  And  some  are  even  educated  solely  by  television,  the  Internet,  or  in  government  or  private  schools. 
These  children  are  separated  from  their  parents  at  birth  and  pushed  out  of  the  nest  as  soon  as  possible,  all  for  the 
convenience  of  the  parent.  They  are  raised  by  technology,  a  babysitter,  and  without  direct  love  from  the  parents. 
There  are  even  videos  and  apps  which  specifically  target  infants  and  children,  not  to  educate  them,  but  rather  to 
occupy  them  and  make  profits  from.  How  would  Homo  sapiens  develop  if  they  were  not  introduced  so  early  in 
life  to  the  Internet,  television,  apps,  and  other  things  they  cannot  comprehend,  but  were  instead  exposed  to  nature 
for  the  first  few  years? 

Many  children  are  also  not  allowed  to  be  themselves  or  develop  naturally,  with  so  many  children  being  forced  to 
imitate  the  parents  and  follow  a  path  set  out  for  them  by  the  parent  which  tries  to  make  the  child  over  in  their 
own  image,  (e.g.  the  father  is  a  businessman  and  thus  the  child  must  carry  on  the  legacy  of  being  a 
businessperson)  Children  are  often  objectified  and  are  basically  like  a  doll  to  some  parents  which  have  their 
children’s  ears  pierced  or  dressing  them  in  ridiculous  outfits.  They  are  often  labeled  as  something  unrealistic  like 
a  princess  or  they  are  called  special,  the  best,  or  another  faux  classification  which  too  often  sets  them  up  for 
future  disappointment  when  they  come  to  the  realization  that  they  are  not  what  they’ve  been  labeled. 

Boxing,  football,  ice  hockey,  and  other  barbaric  contact  sports  have  all  been  linked  to  long-term  brain  damage,  a 
wide  range  of  physical  injuries,  and  even  permanent  disabilities,  so  why  are  youth  encouraged  to  participate? 
Why  are  so  many  male  children  given  guns  and  military  toys  with  which  to  mimic  acts  of  war?  Is  it  not  enough 
evidence  that  violent  toys  beget  real  violence,  when  children  are  being  shot  in  the  streets  by  police  officers 
because  they  are  holding  a  toy  gun?  Why  are  so  many  female  children  given  a  baby  doll  to  play  with  and  pretend 
they  are  mothers,  and  later  given  a  sexualized  Barbie  type  doll  to  play  with?  How  different  would  the  world  be  if 
Homo  sapiens  were  educated  from  youth  with  more  scientific  and  historical  facts  versus  being  brainwashed  by 
religious  or  other  negative  sources?  How  much  different  would  the  world  be  if  more  Homo  sapiens  were  taught 
to  live  simply  and  try  to  help  others  instead  of  being  taught  to  spend  a  lifetime  focusing  on  materialism  and 
greed?  What  would  the  world  be  like  if  it  were  similar  to  that  proposed  in  Richard  Evans  Farson's 
1978  ‘ Birthrights  ’  where  children  vote,  work,  choose  their  education  and  guardians,  and  have  other  adult 
privileges  and  rights? 

Women 

Women  have  been  oppressed  by  men  since  time  immemorial,  and  have  only  recently  begun  to  gain  rights, 
freedoms,  and  equality  in  most  parts  of  the  world  which  most  men  have  had  for  centuries.  For  thousands  of  years 
women  have  been  sexually  assaulted,  sexually  harassed,  raped,  physically  abused,  murdered,  degraded, 
humiliated,  intimidated,  objectified,  and  made  to  feel  inferior  to  men.  They  have  been  enslaved  and  also  forced 
into  marriage,  pregnancy,  and  prostitution.  From  foot  binding  to  the  burqa  women’s  physical  appearances  have 
often  been  controlled  by  men  for  thousands  of  years,  and  in  a  few  places  in  the  world  this  control  is  still  exerted 
even  today.  Too  often  in  today’s  society  women  are  objectified  through  sex  and  beauty,  and  this  objectification  is 
prevalent  in  everything  from  entertainment  to  the  marketing  of  products.  Women  are  sold  a  lie  by  corporations 
which  promote  an  image  of  artificial  beauty  through  fashion  and  cosmetics,  while  being  discouraged  to  accept 
their  natural  unaltered  form  of  beauty.  Women  are  often  paid  less  wages  than  men  for  the  same  exact  job,  while 
also  being  discriminated  against  in  the  workplace  by  not  being  given  leadership  roles  or  other  promotions.  Their 
reproductive  rights  are  oppressed  by  religions,  politicians,  and  doctors  which  attempt  to  control  them  through 


antiquated  laws,  deception,  and  fearmongering  tactics  based  on  their  ideology  and  not  what  a  woman  truly  wants 
or  needs.  In  2016,  of  the  73,700,000  children  in  the  United  States  17,200,000  were  living  with  the  mother  only, 
compared  with  3,000,000  which  lived  with  the  father  only.  (675) 

Over  the  last  24  years,  there  has  been  a  huge  rise  in  the  number  of  caesarean  sections  with  many  not  being 
medically  justifiable,  but  being  done  instead  either  because  of  fear  of  pain,  the  misconception  that  a  caesarean 
section  is  safer  for  the  baby,  convenience  for  either  the  health  professionals  or  the  mother  and  family,  or  for 
cultural  reasons  based  on  luck  and  fate.  Based  on  the  data  from  121  countries  between  1990  and  2014,  the  global 
average  caesarean  section  rate  has  increased  from  6.7%  to  19.1%.  The  highest  caesarean  section  rates  were  in 
Latin  America  and  the  Caribbean  region  with  40.5%  of  children  being  bom  by  caesarean  section,  32.3%  in  North 
America,  31.1%  in  Oceania,  25%  in  Europe,  and  19.2%  in  Asia.  (693)  Male  chauvinism,  modem  societies 
demand  for  labor,  and  lack  of  family  or  any  other  form  of  support  too  often  puts  a  heavy  burden  on  women  and 
children  as  well.  In  many  societies  around  the  world,  and  more  especially  in  western  societies,  women  are 
expected  to  be  up  and  about  during  pregnancy  or  during  their  menstrual  cycle,  times  when  most  women  could 
possibly  use  more  rest  and  support  from  their  male  counterparts.  Globally,  only  44%  of  newborns  are  put  to  the 
breast  within  the  first  hour  after  birth,  and  the  overall  rate  of  infants  under  6  months  of  age  which  are  exclusively 
breastfeed  is  only  40%.  (488)  Breast  feeding  in  public  is  often  shunned  in  many  western  societies,  and  women  are 
often  considered  abnormal  if  they  want  to  practice  traditional  natural  birth  outside  a  hospital  setting.  Many 
women  do  not  breastfeed  or  stop  breastfeeding  perhaps  early  than  they  should  because  of  the  necessity  to  return 
to  work,  and  because  dairy  based  infant  formulas  are  now  so  widely  available  and  often  encouraged  over 
breastmilk.  If  breastfeeding  can  reduce  malnutrition  rates  and  bolster  a  child's  brain  development,  why  then  isn't 
the  practice  being  encouraged  more  by  governments  through  education  and  longer  paid  maternity  leave?  The 
Yana  treated  women  giving  birth  or  menstruating  quite  differently,  which  Theodora  Kroeber  describes  as, 

“Nowhere  was  it  expected,  or  indeed  allowed,  that  the  mother  should  at  once  be  up  and  back  to  work.  She  was  kept  to  her  bed 
and  to  a  special  diet,  cared  for  by  her  mother  or  another  older  woman  and  by  her  husband  until  the  infant's  cord  had  healed 
and  dropped  off,  by  which  time  the  mother  would  nonnally  have  the  milk  flow  and  nursing  established.  Whoever  was  caring 
for  her  helped  her  also  in  this,  gently  sucking  off  the  colostrum  if  the  baby  did  not  do  so,  and  giving  the  baby  a  little  acorn 
gruel  to  suck  at  until  he  learned  to  nurse  properly.  The  “strong  woman”  tradition  of  northern  European  peasantry,  in  which  the 
mother  “has”  her  baby  out  in  the  field  and  returns  forthwith  to  scything  or  other  field  work  in  which  she  was  engaged  up  to 
the  actual  moment  of  birth,  not  only  was  unknown  to  our  Indians;  the  idea  of  such  a  procedure  would  have  disgusted  and 
outraged  their  sense  of  propriety  and  their  understanding  of  medicine  and  healing.” 

“For  six  days  each  month-the  ritual  if  not  the  actual  length  of  her  period-a  woman  was  required  to  withdraw  to  a  separate 
house  and  more  or  less  to  stay  on  her  bed;  there  was  the  length  of  a  moon's  waxing  and  waning  to  be  spent  in  retirement  and 
rest  following  the  birth  of  her  baby,  during  which  she  was  considered  at  most  convalescent.”  (310) 

The  global  participation  rate  of  women  in  national  governments  is  around  23%,  and  currently  only  around  20% 
of  the  United  States  Senate  and  House  of  Representatives  are  women,  with  the  first  being  elected  in  the  early  20th 
century.  Worldwide  many  government  positions  are  now  held  by  women  the  for  the  first  time  due  to  a  dramatic 
political  shift  which  began  in  the  21st  century,  a  positive  change  which  will  hopefully  only  continue.  In  Bolivia, 
53%  of  the  parliament  are  women  and  39%  of  the  French  parliament  are  women.  In  2016,  Faith  Spotted  Eagle 
became  the  first  indigenous  Homo  sapiens  of  the  United  States  to  receive  an  electoral  vote  for  President  of  the 
United  States,  in  addition  to  also  being  one  of  the  first  of  two  women  to  receive  a  presidential  electoral  vote. 
Women  are  now  more  involved  in  businesses,  organizations,  and  governments  throughout  the  world  than  ever 
before,  and  one  could  argue  that  they  have  made  far  more  positive  changes  for  the  world  in  the  short  span  of  50 
years  than  men  have  throughout  all  of  history.  Perhaps  more  women  will  enter  leadership  roles  and  become  the 
majority  in  power  giving  society  the  motherly  type  love  it  needs  to  correct  itself,  instead  of  the  violent  and 
tyrannical  shadow  which  men  have  cast  over  the  world  during  the  last  10,000  years.  Many  women  live  life  with 
more  love,  empathy,  and  passion  than  most  men,  and  this  could  perhaps  be  the  qualities  which  not  only  reverse 
the  current  path  of  self-destruction  which  Homo  sapiens  are  going  down,  but  also  help  in  creating  a  new  path  of 
coexistence  on  Earth.  Will  this  increasing  participation  of  women  in  businesses,  organizations,  and  governments 
ultimately  be  the  salvation  Homo  sapiens  and  planet  Earth  need?  What  would  the  governments  of  the  world  be 
like  if  women  had  equality  worldwide  and  held  half  or  more  of  all  government  positions? 


Figure  2. 

Female-to-Male  Earnings  Ratio  and  Median  Earnings  of  Full-Time,  Year-Round  Workers 
15  Years  and  Older  by  Sex:  1960  to  2015 


Ratio  in  percent 


Recession 


Note:  The  data  for  201 3  and  beyond  reflect  the  implementation  of  the  redesigned  income  questions.  The  data  points  are  placed  at 
the  midpoints  of  the  respective  years.  Data  on  earnings  of  full-time,  year-round  workers  are  not  readily  available  before  1960. 

For  more  information  on  recessions,  see  Appendix  A.  For  information  on  confidentiality  protection,  sampling  error,  nonsampling  error, 
and  definitions,  see  <www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/cps/techdocs/cpsmarl  6. pdf>. 

Source:  U.S.  Census  Bureau,  Current  Population  Survey,  1961  to  2016  Annual  Social  and  Economic  Supplements. 


Family  and  Individualism 

The  traditional  family  unit  that  existed  1 00  years  ago  is  now  nearly  nonexistent  and  has  been  replaced  by 
individualism  and  detachment,  along  with  less  and  less  households  having  both  parents.  In  the  United  States 
between  1960  and  2016,  the  percentage  of  children  living  in  families  with  two  parents  decreased  from  88%  to 
69%.  (675)  Families  and  friends  now  seem  to  communicate  more  with  text  messaging  than  actual  real 
conversation,  and  too  often  one  observes  families  dining  out  at  a  restaurant  with  each  family  member  engrossed 
in  a  mobile  device  playing  a  game,  surfing  the  Internet,  or  engaged  in  social  media.  Families  today  appear  as  just 
individuals  living  in  groups  with  everyone  doing  separate  things  while  being  forced  to  come  together  at  set 
intervals  during  the  day,  week,  or  year.  This  pointless  forced  socialization  in  not  only  families,  but  also  with 
other  members  of  society  can  be  seen  throughout  history.  Henry  David  Thoreau  wrote, 

"Society  is  commonly  too  cheap.  We  meet  at  very  short  intervals,  not  having  had  time  to  acquire  any  new  value  for  each 
other.  We  meet  at  meals  three  times  a  day,  and  give  each  other  a  new  taste  of  that  old  musty  cheese  that  we  are.  We  have  had 
to  agree  on  a  certain  set  of  rules,  called  etiquette  and  politeness,  to  make  this  frequent  meeting  tolerable  and  that  we  need  not 
come  to  open  war.  We  meet  at  the  post-office,  and  at  the  sociable,  and  about  the  fireside  every  night;  we  live  thick  and  are  in 
each  other's  way,  and  stumble  over  one  another,  and  I  think  that  we  thus  lose  some  respect  for  one  another.  Certainly  less 
frequency  would  suffice  for  all  important  and  hearty  communications."  (648) 

Some  Homo  sapiens  have  been  taught  from  an  early  age  to  be  more  individualistic,  self-centered,  and  ignore 
everyone  and  everything  else  in  the  world  around  them.  While  some  other  Homo  sapiens  have  the  mentality  that 
they  are  here  for  only  a  few  short  years  and  are  going  to  die  anyway,  so  they  may  as  well  be  happy  and  do 
whatever  they  want,  no  matter  the  consequences  to  the  environment  and  society.  This  disregard  for  not  only 
others,  but  for  the  Earth  itself  and  future  generations  is  an  extremely  selfish  and  asinine  way  of  thinking  and 
acting.  Many  neighbors  do  not  even  know  each  other,  but  instead  live  next  to  each  other  without  ever  even 
speaking.  Ina  Corrine  Brown  said, 


LIn  the  Modem  Western  world,  the  interdependence  of  human  beings  is  obscured  but  our  emphasis  on  individualism  and  by 


the  impersonal  nature  of  many  of  the  relationships  characteristic  of  an  urban,  industrial,  money  economy.  Only  in  times  of 
personal  or  community  disaster  do  many  people  become  aware  of  the  extent  of  their  dependence  on  others  and  that  there  are 
necessities  which  money  cannot  buy.  Yet  there  is  a  real  sense  in  which  we  become  human  only  in  association  with  other 
people,  and  persons  who  attempt  to  live  in  complete  isolation  are  usually  those  who  already  are  to  some  degree  detached  from 
reality.”  (23) 

Frivolous  Entertainment  and  Idolization 

Many  Homo  sapiens  have  replaced  the  wonder  and  amazement  of  nature,  science,  and  the  pursuit  of  knowledge 
with  artificially  created  time  consuming  technology  and  entertainment  resulting  in  a  plugged-in  society  that  is 
extremely  out  of  touch  with  not  only  nature,  science,  and  the  pursuit  of  knowledge,  but  often  with  society  itself. 
This  has  also  led  to  an  entertained  society  with  many  Homo  sapiens  being  good  at  some  repetitive  pointless 
game  which  gives  them  a  false  sense  of  satisfaction  and  accomplishment,  but  which  is  mostly  clueless  about  the 
reality  of  the  world  around  them  while  also  making  them  apathetic  regarding  environmental  and  social  issues. 
And  while  this  pacified  society  may  be  good  for  some  businesses  and  politicians,  it  has  ultimately  led  to  the 
dumbing  down  of  many  in  society.  Neil  Postman  wrote, 

“Tyrants  of  all  varieties  have  always  known  about  the  value  of  providing  the  masses  with  amusements  as  a  means  of 
pacifying  discontent.”  (677) 

Technology  and  the  Internet  can  be  a  positive  thing  for  society  when  it  is  used  properly  and  in  moderation, 
otherwise  it  can  have  detrimental  effects  on  the  members  of  society.  Some  Homo  sapiens  are  so  absorbed  with 
technology  and  the  Internet  to  the  point  of  addiction  and  are  unable  to  unplug,  ultimately  becoming  nothing  more 
than  drones  which  make  billions  of  dollars  for  websites  and  gaming  companies  through  advertising  and  in-app 
purchases.  Future  generations  may  look  at  their  ancestors  and  wonder  how  they  were  force  fed  a  diet  of  synthetic 
reality,  and  why  they  so  willingly  submitted  to  it  with  little  to  no  resistance.  Many  Homo  sapiens  spend  hours 
each  day  on  social  media,  surfing  the  web,  watching  videos,  and  gaming,  but  will  not  spend  1,  2,  or  even  3  hours 
a  week  devoting  time  to  volunteering  and  making  a  positive  impact  on  society  or  the  Earth.  How  clean  would  the 
Earth  be  if  all  Homo  sapiens  spent  1  hour  each  week  picking  up  the  garbage  which  litters  Earth?  How  much 
more  educated  would  children  be  if  more  adults  tutored  or  mentored  a  child  in  need  a  few  hours  a  week? 

Much  of  the  so  called  educational  TV,  documentary  films,  and  other  related  media  today  is  based  on  popularity, 
fantasy,  and  sensationalism,  not  education,  science,  or  content  which  encourages  good  morals  or  shows  the 
actual  reality  of  the  world.  Over  the  last  15  years,  pseudo  reality  shows  have  taken  center  stage  and  consist  of 
content  that  is  the  farthest  thing  from  reality,  and  the  acting  is  so  bad  that  it  is  plainly  obvious  that  it  only  fools 
the  gullible  which  tune  in  and  peipetuate  this  ridiculousness.  Many  of  these  reality  shows  are  nothing  more  than 
a  camera  following  around  an  ignorant  narcissistic  has-been  celebrity  or  are  based  on  the  fantasy  of  becoming  a 
star.  Many  television  shows  and  networks  which  have  a  theme  of  science  and  history  mostly  broadcast  series 
based  on  a  hoax,  myth,  pseudo-science,  pseudo  history,  conspiracy,  or  entertaining  fiction,  not  real  science  and 
accurate  history.  Skewed  history  and  selective  facts  or  scientific  data  are  intermixed  with  entertaining  aliens, 
psychics,  ghosts,  or  mythological  elements  to  a  gullible  audience  eager  to  believe  and  perpetuate  the  entertaining 
lie. 

The  idolization  of  entertainers,  religious  figures,  political  leaders,  or  any  individual  is  senseless  and  pointless. 
Homo  sapiens  give  awards  and  accolades  to  so  many  who  are  the  least  deserving  of  them,  and  those  who  receive 
none  are  ignored  or  even  persecuted  during  their  lifetime  only  to  be  vindicated  later  and  then  revered  long  after 
they  are  dead.  Why  are  scientist  like  Fritz  Haber  who  invented  and  advocated  for  chemical  weapons,  or  Hermann 
Staudinger  who  invented  plastic,  or  Egas  Moniz  who  developed  the  lobotomy  awarded  a  Nobel  Prize  for  work 
that  has  had  such  a  negative  impact  on  humanity  and  the  Earth,  while  other  far  more  deserving  individuals  may 
or  may  not  even  be  nominated  and  will  never  receive  one?  Albert  Einstein  said. 


'Let  every  man  be  respected  as  an  individual  and  no  man  idolized.”  (5 1 ) 


The  Mainstream  News  Media 


Much  of  the  mainstream  news  media  presents  nothing  more  than  entertainment  through  sensationalism  and 
dramatic  presentation  which  targets  a  gullible  audience  that  tunes  in  to  anxiously  await  updates  on  pseudo 
breaking  news  stories,  often  which  contain  little  substance  or  purpose  other  than  to  entertain  and  gain  ratings. 
Most  of  the  mainstream  news  media  often  do  not  focus  on  truly  important  social  and  environmental  issues,  but 
instead  place  an  emphasis  on  the  deaths  of  famous  Homo  sapiens,  sports,  politics,  weather,  entertainment, 
business,  celebrities,  trends,  shopping,  advertising  new  products,  food,  pets,  health,  extreme  murders,  crime, 
violence,  drugs,  religion,  or  some  other  morbid  and  meaningless  story  which  contains  no  real  value.  And  while 
most  of  these  topics  are  important  and  should  be  covered  to  some  extent,  by  making  them  the  entire  focal  point 
of  the  news,  it  has  led  to  so  few  mainstream  news  agencies  focusing  on  or  even  covering  other  crucial  subject 
matter,  such  as  global  warming,  nature,  environmental  issues,  indigenous  issues,  pollution,  war,  human  rights, 
science,  education,  or  other  pertinent  subjects  which  are  actually  affecting  the  world  and  desperately  need 
attention  brought  to  them.  When  and  if  these  subjects  are  ever  covered  by  the  mainstream  news  media  it  is 
usually  very  brief. 

Some  of  the  mainstream  news  media  as  well  as  the  entertainment  industry  have  used  love,  fear,  hate,  worry, 
sadness,  and  other  emotions  to  manipulate  the  masses  by  feeding  on  these  emotions  to  create  an  illusory  and 
impossible  fantasy  world  that  often  eliminates  reality.  Some  of  the  mainstream  news  media  often  presents  stories 
with  a  very  biased  perspective,  which  can  have  vast  influence  on  public  opinion,  rather  than  simply  being  factual 
and  informative  about  the  truly  important  social  and  environmental  issues  affecting  the  entire  world.  Many 
mainstream  news  sources  are  extremely  redundant,  with  most  all  mainstream  news  agencies  focusing  on  the 
same  exact  news  stories  only  being  slightly  reworded  or  being  told  from  a  different  biased  perspective.  The  24/7 
news  networks  run  the  same  20  minutes  of  news  stories  repeated  for  hours  on  end  until  they  finally  change,  and 
then  repeat  the  endless  repetition  of  news  again,  often  focusing  on  only  one  news  story  for  hours  and  even  days 
at  a  time,  while  ignoring  the  hundreds  of  other  news  stories  which  also  matter.  With  this  type  of  reporting,  one 
might  be  led  to  believe  they  are  in  a  small  world  where  nothing  of  any  real  importance  is  going  on  other  than  the 
same  irrelevant  sensationalist  new  stories,  when  in  fact  it  is  just  the  opposite.  News  stories  are  usually 
abandoned  after  being  reported  on  once,  and  often  little  to  no  updates  on  the  progression  of  a  news  story  or 
outcome  is  given  and  no  closure  to  a  developing  news  story  is  ever  provided.  Most  of  the  the  mainstream  news 
media  is  more  concerned  about  being  the  first  to  report  the  news  than  with  actually  getting  the  facts  first  and 
making  an  accurate  report.  Even  with  Internet  resources  like  Snopes,  Crosscheck,  The  Skeptics  Society, 
PolitiFact,  and  others  exposing  the  truth,  inaccurate  news  and  rumors  are  still  ever  present.  How  much  more 
reliable  would  the  mainstream  news  be  if  they  used  these  and  other  accurate  resources  to  fact  check  all  of  their 
news  stories,  instead  of  reporting  lies  based  on  sensationalism  and  instant  information? 

Negativity  and  crime  seem  to  dominate  much  of  the  mainstream  news,  leading  some  to  believe  that  with  all  the 
murder  and  mayhem  being  reported  that  the  world  it  is  a  far  more  dangerous  place  than  it  actually  is,  and  can 
result  in  a  paranoid  society  buying  more  guns,  putting  more  locks  on  their  doors,  and  isolating  themselves  even 
further  from  the  outside  world.  If  one  were  to  look  at  the  actual  crime  statistics  issued  by  the  Federal  Bureau  of 
Investigation  (FBI),  they  would  see  that  violent  crimes  as  well  as  property  crimes  have  actually  decreased 
dramatically.  Nationwide  violent  crimes  (murder  and  nonnegligent  manslaughter,  legacy  rape,  revised  rape, 
robbery,  and  aggravated  assault)  have  fallen  from  their  peak  in  1992  of  1,932,274  incidents  to  1,197,987  in  2014, 
and  property  crime  (burglary,  larceny-theft,  and  motor  vehicle  theft)  have  fallen  from  their  peak  in  1991  of 
12,961,116  incidents  to  8,277,829  incidents  in  2014.  (685)  Whereas  the  frequently  underreported  white-collar 
crimes  (Ponzi  schemes,  fraud,  insider  trading,  bribery,  labor  racketeering,  embezzlement,  cybercrime,  money 
laundering,  forgery,  and  identity  theft)  have  increased  by  847%  from  325,519  crimes  in  2001  to  3,083,379 
crimes  in  2015  being  reported  to  the  Federal  Trade  Commission  (FTC).  (686)  Because  of  the  sensationalism  and 
negative  spin  which  is  often  put  on  news  content,  along  with  the  alarmist  attitude  which  is  projected  through 
overdramatizing  issues,  many  Homo  sapiens  have  an  unwarranted  phobia  regarding  some  issues  based  on 
rumors  and  false  information.  Most  doomsday  and  worst -case  scenarios  which  are  often  proposed  will  never 
happen,  and  they  are  used  by  some  mainstream  news  media  organizations  to  create  hype  and  gain  ratings.  If 
news  were  based  more  on  reality  and  the  facts,  would  this  not  lead  to  more  contemplation  about  valid  and 


positive  change  regarding  environmental  and  social  issues,  instead  of  irrelevant  speculations  and  pointless 
gossip?  Neil  Postman  wrote, 

“What  is  happening  here  is  that  television  is  altering  the  meaning  of  “being  infonned”  by  creating  a  species  of  information 
that  might  properly  be  called  disinformation.  I  am  using  this  word  almost  in  the  precise  sense  in  which  it  is  used  by  spies  in 
the  CIA  or  KGB.  Disinformation  does  not  mean  false  information.  It  means  misleading  information-misplaced,  irrelevant, 
fragmented  or  superficial  information-information  that  creates  the  illusion  of  knowing  something  but  which  in  fact  leads  one 
away  from  knowing.  In  saying  this,  I  do  not  mean  to  imply  that  television  news  deliberately  aims  to  deprive  Americans  of  a 
coherent,  contextual  understanding  of  their  world.  I  mean  to  say  that  when  news  is  packaged  as  entertainment,  that  is  the 
inevitable  result.  And  in  saying  that  the  television  news  show  entertain  but  does  not  inform,  I  am  saying  something  far  more 
serious  than  that  we  are  being  deprived  of  authentic  infonnation.  I  am  saying  we  are  losing  our  sense  of  what  it  means  to  be 
well  informed.  Ignorance  is  always  correctable.  But  what  shall  we  do  if  we  take  ignorance  to  be  knowledge?”  (687) 

There  is  now  a  tendency  to  label  anything  as  ‘fake  news  ’  by  those  being  criticized  or  whom  disagree,  even 
though  there  are  undeniable  facts  present  and  there  is  nothing  fake  whatsoever  about  it.  The  problem  is  not  that 
there  is  inaccurate  news  or  misinformation,  this  issue  has  been  prevalent  since  the  beginning  of  civilization  and 
gossip  first  began  to  spread.  The  problem  is  that  many  Homo  sapiens  are  gullible  and  perhaps  lack  education  and 
logical  thought  with  which  to  decipher  the  inaccurate  news  from  real  news,  in  addition  to  simply  not 
factchecking  the  news  themselves.  Yellow  journalism  will  most  likely  always  be  present  so  long  as  there  is  an 
uneducated  gullible  audience  which  craves  such  gibberish,  along  with  some  mainstream  news  media 
organizations  which  base  news  stories  on  sensationalism  while  presenting  the  news  in  an  entertaining  way  to 
gain  ratings.  Neil  Postman  wrote, 

“The  problem  is  not  that  television  presents  us  with  entertaining  subject  matter  but  that  all  subject  matter  is  presented  as 
entertaining,  which  is  another  issue  altogether. 

To  say  it  still  another  way:  Entertainment  is  the  supra-ideology  of  all  discourse  on  television.  No  matter  what  is  depicted  or 
from  what  point  of  view,  the  overarching  presumption  is  that  it  is  there  for  our  amusement  and  pleasure.  That  is  why  even  on 
news  shows  which  provide  us  daily  with  fragments  of  tragedy  and  barbarism,  we  are  urged  by  the  newscasters  to  “join  them 
tomorrow.”  What  for?  One  would  think  that  several  minutes  of  murder  and  mayhem  would  suffice  as  material  for  a  month  of 
sleepless  nights.  We  accept  the  newscasters'  invitation  because  we  know  that  the  “news”  is  not  to  be  taken  seriously,  that  it  is 
all  in  dun,  so  to  say.  Everything  about  a  news  show  tells  us  this-the  good  looks  and  amiability  of  the  cast,  their  pleasant 
banter,  the  exciting  music  that  opens  and  closes  the  show,  the  vivid  film  footage,  the  attractive  commercials-all  these  and 
more  suggest  that  what  we  have  just  seen  is  no  cause  for  weeping.  A  news  show,  to  put  it  plainly,  is  a  format  for 
entertainment,  not  education,  reflection  or  catharsis.  And  we  must  not  judge  too  harshly  those  who  have  framed  it  in  this  way. 

They  are  not  assembling  the  news  to  be  read,  or  broadcasting  it  to  be  heard.  They  are  televising  the  news  to  be  seen.”  (678) 

Real  news  is  nothing  more  than  facts  and  not  opinions  which  can  often  be  biased.  Freedom  of  speech,  opinions, 
and  debate  are  excellent,  and  they  are  a  vital  part  of  democracy,  but  only  in  the  right  forum,  and  so  long  as  it  is 
not  labeled  as  news.  If  news  is  based  on  opinions  and  is  biased  creating  a  one-sided  presentation  of  the  issues 
while  ignoring  most  of  the  facts,  then  it  will  never  truly  be  news,  it  will  just  be  pointless  gossip  and  slander 
interwoven  with  select  facts  to  support  it.  If  the  public  looks  to  the  mainstream  news  media  as  a  source  for  facts 
and  information,  then  it  should  be  delivering  this,  otherwise  they  are  misleading  the  public  and  causing  mass 
confusion,  hysteria,  and  unnecessary  paranoia  through  the  spreading  of  misinformation.  Most  Homo  sapiens  do 
not  have  the  time  nor  the  desire  to  fact-check  everything  in  the  news,  nor  should  they  be  expected  to  fact-check  a 
news  organization  whose  main  goal  and  mission  should  be  to  do  exactly  this,  and  this  precisely  why  it  is 
essential  that  the  mainstream  news  media  provide  factual  and  relevant  information.  If  the  public  cannot  depend 
on  the  news  media  organizations  for  this  service,  what  good  are  they  other  than  to  be  a  source  of  entertainment 
and  opinions?  Shouldn’t  they  be  labeled  as  entertainment  or  opinionated,  and  not  news?  Perhaps  if  more  news 
was  presented  like  PBS  Frontline,  PBS  NewsFIour,  National  Public  Radio,  BBC  News,  the  Associated  Press, 
France  24,  and  a  few  others  do,  then  this  would  help  in  reporting  the  facts  more  accurately.  Unfortunate  these 
exemplary  news  organizations  receive  so  little  funding  in  comparison  with  their  corporate  counterparts.  Perhaps 
if  the  mainstream  news  was  based  less  on  what  information  the  public  wants,  and  more  on  vital  information  they 
need,  then  the  public  would  be  far  more  informed  about  the  real  environmental  and  social  issues  which  are 
occurring  in  the  world  and  initiate  more  positive  changes. 


Although  there  are  a  growing  number  of  alternative  news  sources  since  the  advent  of  the  Internet,  adding  to  the 


few  reliable  mainstream  news  sources,  they  are  still  overshadowed  by  the  rest  of  the  mainstream  news  media 
which  is  now  dominated  by  coiporations.  When  corporations  and  entertainment  related  companies  have  taken 
control  of  most  of  the  mainstream  news  media  sources,  they  have  truly  lost  their  value  of  being  a  reputable  news 
organization.  In  1983,  90%  of  United  States  media  was  owned  by  more  than  50  different  companies,  in  2017 
only  6  media  conglomerates:  Comcast,  Newscorp,  Disney,  Viacom,  Time  Warner,  and  CBS  controlled  that  same 
90%.  Many  mainstream  news  agencies  are  nothing  more  than  a  business,  and  their  reporting  and  access  to  their 
news  content  are  based  around  money  and  how  much  profit  can  be  made.  When  news  organizations  don’t  want 
to  progress  with  technology  and  offer  their  content  for  free  and  instead  require  a  paid  subscription,  they  have  lost 
their  value  of  being  a  true  news  agency  as  they  are  basing  access  to  news  and  information  on  money,  while 
focusing  more  on  the  profiting  of  money  from  news  and  information  rather  than  being  an  informative  news 
source  which  spreads  truth.  The  Aljazeera  September  2016  broadcast  'US  elections  and  the  media:  How  did  we 
get  here?'  reported  that  lax  regulation  in  addition  to  an  absence  of  a  strong  public  broadcasting  system,  like  in 
some  other  countries,  has  strongly  affected  the  coverage  of  US  politics.  And  the  March  2017  report  ‘Occupation 
of  the  American  Mind  ’  details  the  information  wars  being  waged  by  Israel  and  its  supporters  over  the  last  50 
years  to  distort  the  truth  about  the  Israeli-Palestinian  conflict  and  win  over  the  hearts  and  minds  of  Americans. 

In  parts  of  the  world  which  have  truly  important  news  being  reported  on  the  media  is  often  censored.  One  need 
only  view  the  Reporters  Without  Borders  yearly  World  Press  Freedom  Index  to  see  how  freedom  of  speech 
especially  through  the  news  media  is  silenced  in  so  many  countries  around  the  world,  and  even  in  some 
democratic  nations.  Between  1992  and  July  2017,  there  were  1,737  journalists  which  died  either  as  a  result  of 
being  murdered,  caught  in  crossfire,  or  another  deadly  incident  from  covering  a  war  or  other  dangerous 
assignment.  (414)  How  much  truth  was  either  permanently  hidden,  delayed,  or  altered  as  a  result  of  a  journalists 
being  murdered  for  reporting  the  truth?  Suppressing  the  facts  and  knowledge  until  it  is  relevant  based  on 
ideology  or  popularity  is  not  news,  it  is  the  control  of  news  and  the  truth  and  does  nothing  more  than  hinder 
change  and  progress. 

The  reality  of  a  situation  is  often  censored  by  the  news  to  shield  the  public  from  the  what  is  deemed  to  be  too 
graphic  or  from  what  is  considered  inappropriate,  and  although  the  Internet  has  broken  down  this  barrier, 
censorship  it  is  still  prevalent  within  most  mainstream  news  organizations.  This  content  which  is  labeled  as  too 
graphic  or  inappropriate  has  helped  to  initiate  change  throughout  history  when  viewers  see  the  actual  horrors  of  a 
situation  like  war,  starving  children,  natural  disasters,  etc.  As  the  old  adages  go  ‘if  something  is  out  of  sight,  it  is 
thus  out  of  mind  ’  whereas  ‘a  picture  is  worth  a  thousand  words  ’,  and  when  Homo  sapiens  see  the  reality  of  a 
situation  through  a  visual  presentation  it  cannot  be  denied  or  debated.  How  about  an  evening  news  summary  of 
worldwide  news  and  the  continuous  depredations  done  by  Homo  sapiens,  instead  of  the  current  happy  face 
which  is  put  on  the  news?  Perhaps  if  news  was  based  more  on  the  facts  presented  with  real  pictures  uncensored, 
and  Homo  sapiens  witnessed  the  real  devastation  which  is  occurring  in  the  world  instead  of  being  censored  from 
it,  more  would  actually  care  and  initiate  positive  change,  instead  of  just  being  aware  of  the  issue.  How  about  a 
section  in  news  which  is  presented  in  an  almanac  fashion  and  has  nothing  but  statistical  facts  on  environmental 
and  social  issues  showing  the  actual  reality  of  these  issues?  (e.g.  pollution  levels,  number  of  children  dying  every 
minute,  amount  of  oil  being  consumed,  casualties  of  war,  gallons  of  toxic  waste  spilled,  etc.)  Why  does  the 
mainstream  news  media  too  often  focus  on  one  or  a  few  Homo  sapiens  dying  or  being  rescued,  while  millions  of 
other  Homo  sapiens  are  dying  around  the  world  and  need  rescuing  also? 

‘Saturday  Night  Live  ’  has  been  showing  the  reality  of  the  world  through  comedy  since  1975,  along  with  others 
which  followed  later  like  ‘The  Daily  Show  with  Jon  Stewart  ’,  ‘The  Colbert  Report  ’,  and  ‘The  Soup  all  of  which 
will  be  sadly  missed  by  a  cult  following.  Their  broadcasts  will  most  certainly  go  down  in  history  for  having 
shown  the  reality  of  the  world,  while  also  serving  as  a  reminder  of  how  truly  absurd,  ignorant,  and  insane  some 
Homo  sapiens  truly  were.  Newer  shows  like  ‘Last  Week  Tonight  with  John  Oliver’,  ‘Full Frontal  with  Samantha 
Bee  ’,  ‘The  Jim  Jefferies  Show  ’  and  ‘The  Joel  McHale  Show  with  Joel  McHale  ’  continue  this  tradition  for  the  few 
million  who  tune  in  to  watch. 


CHAPTER  II. 

Homo  sapiens  Excessive  Footprint 


World  Population 

The  chemical  and  advanced  scientific  revolutions  helped  to  create  a  rapid  population  explosion  over  the  last  90 
years,  and  although  abortion  and  contraception  are  utilized  by  some  around  the  world,  with  an  estimated 
43,800,000  abortions  conducted  in  2008,  the  population  of  Homo  sapiens  continues  to  grow  exponentially.  (413) 
The  United  Nations  estimated  the  world  population  of  Homo  sapiens  at  7,300,000,000  in  July  2015,  and  they 
predict  a  steady  decline  in  the  population  growth  rate  in  the  near  future  due  to  the  ongoing  global  demographic 
transition  towards  civilization,  education,  and  modernization.  If  the  growth  rate  declines  to  zero  in  the  near 
future  the  world  could  have  a  stable  population  of  around  1 1,000,000,000.  However,  underestimated 
technological  and  medical  advancements  in  addition  to  the  possible  conversion  by  many  to  a  vegan-based  diet 
could  allow  for  even  longer  lifespans,  and  the  total  future  population  could  be  far  greater.  Future  growth  in 
population  will  also  mean  increased  energy,  food,  and  water  consumption  resulting  in  additional  environmental 
stress  and  impact.  Perhaps  the  more  important  population  issue  in  the  future  will  not  be  how  many  Homo  sapiens 
inhabit  the  planet,  but  for  how  long.  Already  there  are  Homo  sapiens  which  have  lived  117  years,  so  it  is  not 
preposterous  to  think  that  they  could  possibly  live  even  longer  in  the  future.  How  much  of  a  footprint  would 
Homo  sapiens  leave  on  Earth  if  the  average  lifespan  were  150  or  even  200  years  in  duration?  How  much 
additional  food,  water,  energy,  and  other  resources  would  this  longer  living  generation  consume?  Will  modem  or 
future  Homo  sapiens  perhaps  practice  more  restraint  when  it  comes  to  procreation? 


YEAR 

WORLD  POPULATION 

35,000  BCE 

3,000,000 

10,000  BCE 

15,000,000  (Agricultural  Revolution) 

1804 

1,000,000,000 

1927 

2,000,000,000  (Chemical  Revolution) 

1960 

3,000,000,000  (Advanced  Scientific  Revolution) 

1974 

4,000,000,000 

1987 

5,000,000,000 

1999 

6,000,000,000 

2015 

7,300,000,000 

2030 

8,500,000,000 

2050 

9,700,000,000 

2100 

11,200,000,000 

SOURCE:  Wikipedia  and  United  Nations  (72) 

It  should  also  be  noted  that  of  the  7,300,000,000  Homo  sapiens  in  the  world  1/3  of  them  reside  in  only  two 
countries,  1,300,000,000  in  China  and  1,200,000,000  in  India.  If  these  two  countries  had  similar  populations  like 
the  next  most  populated  nation,  the  United  States  with  321,000,000  the  world  population  would  be  around 
5,500,000,000.  3%  of  the  world’s  population  lived  in  cities  in  1800,  by  2010,  50%  lived  in  cities,  and  this 
number  is  forecasted  to  reach  70%  by  2050.  If  this  trend  continues,  less  Homo  sapiens  will  inhabit  the  remote 
ecosystems  and  this  could  perhaps  help  with  the  conservation  of  many  areas  allowing  these  remote  areas  to  be 
rehabilitated  and  in  reverting  back  to  more  of  a  wild  natural  state.  Although,  another  consideration  is  the  fact  that 
many  once  small  communities  which  only  had  a  few  hundred  or  less  inhabitants  now  have  thousands,  and  the 
communities  which  had  a  few  thousand  now  have  tens  of  thousands  or  more,  so  in  essence  the  once  small 
communities  are  becoming  larger  modem  cities. 


The  United  States  had  so  few  indigenous  Homo  sapiens  living  on  its  bountiful  lands  before  the  conquest  of  the 
Americas,  as  did  so  many  other  areas  of  the  world.  Then  came  the  European  invasion  of  greed  and  tyranny 
which  encroached  on,  depredated,  and  finally  assimilated  the  indigenous  Homo  sapiens.  California  is  a  good 
example  of  this  difference  in  that  California's  current  population  is  38,000,000  and  growing,  and  before  the 
Europeans  invaded  and  exploited  the  lands  of  California  there  were  only  150,000  indigenous  encroached  that 
inhabited  all  of  California  living  in  perfect  harmony  with  nature  on  land  which  most  Europeans  erroneously 
thought  was  an  uninhabitable  wasteland.  (94) 

There  have  been  population  declines  in  history  mostly  due  to  famine,  war,  disease,  or  natural  disaster,  but  now 
most  of  the  current  deaths  in  the  western  civilized  world  are  self-inflicted  and  preventable,  as  they  mainly  result 
from  anthropogenic  activities  and  lifestyle  choices.  In  fact,  a  2015  WHO  report  concluded  that  fertility  rates 
worldwide  are  declining  which  has  resulted  in  world  population  growth  slowing  nearly  everywhere  globally 
except  Africa.  (413)  Some  scientists  warn  that  past  evidence  combined  with  statistical  probabilities  means  that  an 
inevitable  catastrophic  natural  disaster  at  some  point  in  the  future  will  occur,  (e.g.  extraterrestrial  object  impact, 
volcanic  activities,  etc.)  Others  think  that  a  virus  will  ultimately  emerge  or  evolve  resulting  in  a  deadly 
worldwide  pandemic.  Will  these  natural  checks  and  balances  disrupt  the  world  population  growth  as  they  did 
during  the  Antonine  Plague,  Plague  of  Justinian,  Black  Death  pandemic,  and  others  throughout  history?  Some 
think  that  disease,  famine,  natural  disasters,  and  the  like  are  just  natural  checks  and  balances,  and  they  postulate 
that  if  Homo  sapiens  would  not  attempt  to  save  everyone  then  the  population  could  be  held  in  check  naturally 
while  also  strengthening  Homo  sapiens  genes  and  developing  more  natural  resistance.  Disease,  famine,  and 
natural  disasters  keep  flora  and  fauna  species  in  check,  so  why  should  it  be  thought  that  Homo  sapiens  would  be 
treated  any  different  than  the  other  species  on  Earth?  Will  civilization  itself  through  political  change,  education, 
and  modernization  stabilize  the  world  population?  What  would  the  world  be  like  with  1 1,000,000,000  Homo 
sapiens  or  possibly  even  more?  Could  the  future  cities  of  Earth  have  a  population  of  500,000,000  or  more,  with 
citizens  packed  into  layers  of  buildings  rising  above  and  descending  below  the  surface  of  Earth?  How  much  and 
what  kind  of  nature  would  be  left  in  a  world  of  this  sort?  Could  the  population  of  Earth  be  dramatically  reduced 
in  the  near  future  to  only  100,000,000  Homo  sapiens  or  less  because  of  space  exploration  and  colonization? 


SOURCE:  NASA  -  World  population  density  in  2000.  https://neo.sci. gsfc.nasa.gov/view.php?datasetId=SEDAC  POP 


Mass  Consumption 


'Live  simply  so  others  may  simply  live',  is  a  statement  that  holds  true  more  so  today  than  of  any  other  time  in  the 
past.  There  are  a  very  small  percentage  of  Homo  sapiens  in  the  world  which  currently  live  a  very  simple  non¬ 
impactful  minimalist  lifestyle  upon  Earth,  utilizing  only  what  they  need  and  recycling  everything  until  it  has  no 
more  usefulness.  This  lifestyle  can  be  seen  in  more  past  than  present  cultures  around  the  world,  J.  Eric  S. 
Thompson  mentioned  how  frugal  the  Maya  are  in  writing, 

“The  Maya  is  frugal-he  has  to  be-but  nowhere  else  in  the  world  have  I  seen  such  patched  clothes,  with  one  neat  patch  on 
another  until,  without  exaggeration,  it  was  almost  impossible  to  identity  more  than  the  smallest  areas  of  the  original 
garment.”  (422) 

Whereas  Henry  David  Thoreau  describes  the  exact  opposite  in  Western  society  in  writing, 

"Who  could  wear  a  patch,  or  two  extra  seams  only,  over  the  knee?  Most  behave  as  if  they  believed  that  their  prospects  for  life 
would  be  ruined  if  they  should  do  it.  It  would  be  easier  for  them  to  hobble  to  town  with  a  broken  leg  than  with  a  broken 
pantaloon.  Often  if  an  accident  happens  to  a  gentleman's  legs,  they  can  be  mended;  but  if  a  similar  accident  happens  to  the 
legs  of  his  pantaloons,  there  is  no  help  for  it;  for  he  considers,  not  what  is  truly  respectable,  but  what  is  respected.” 

"...perhaps  we  are  led  oftener  by  the  love  of  novelty  and  a  regard  for  the  opinions  of  men,  in  procuring  it,  than  by  a  true 
utility."  (638) 

In  today’s  Western  society,  consumption  is  generally  regarded  as  a  defining  indicator  as  to  how  well  the  society 
is  progressing  and  doing  economically,  but  it  is  also  an  indicator  of  the  depredations  Homo  sapiens  have  inflicted 
upon  the  Earth.  Science,  technological  advancements,  and  the  invention  of  automated  machinery  have  all 
contributed  to  making  the  production  of  products  easier  and  the  consumption  even  greater.  The  vast  majority  of 
society  have  a  'throw  away  and  buy  a  new  one'  mentality  in  regard  to  consumption  and  have  no  conception  of 
moderation,  and  thus  they  engage  in  extreme  indulgence.  There  seems  to  be  no  real  mass  consensus  or  effort  to 
reuse,  recycle,  and  conserve  anything  being  used,  unless  it  is  monetarily  advantageous  or  absolutely  necessary. 
Through  narrow-mindedness,  unscrupulous  behavior,  and  uneducated  decision-making  Homo  sapiens  have  acted 
very  imprudent  towards  Earth  with  their  lifestyle  choices  and  habits.  Is  a  high  rate  of  consumption  truly  a 
distinguishing  characteristic  of  an  advanced  society  as  many  think,  or  is  it  simply  nothing  more  than  greed  and 
indulgence  and  a  clear  indicator  that  society  has  become  decadent?  Can  the  consumption  of  everything  be 
reduced  by  Homo  sapiens  simply  not  indulging  and  leading  a  more  moderate  lifestyle?  Ward  Chesworth  wrote, 

"Opulent  materialism  can  only  be  sustained  for  the  relatively  few  in  society  -  the  king  and  his  court,  the  tyrant  and  his 
favourites,  the  president  and  his  bagmen.  The  eighteenth  century  radical,  Tom  Paine,  believed  that  the  prototype  of  them  all 
was  the  thief  and  his  gang.  The  rest  of  us  aspire  to  the  more  modest  version  of  opulence  called  affluence.  The  problem  is  that 
the  most  fortunate  part  of  the  human  population  has  now  attained  an  affluence  that  approaches  historical  opulence.  The 
affluence  of  a  Canadian  or  American  for  example,  is  roughly  the  equivalent  of  10  to  15  inhabitants  of  the  third  world,  in 
terns  of  life-time  consumption  and  waste  generation.  All  10  to  15  hope  to  enjoy  our  level  of  luxury  someday,  and  indeed  the 
Brundtland  report  states  its  goal  to  be  exactly  that.  If  achieved,  it  would  scar  the  biosphere  so  badly  that  the  downfall  of  the 
civilization  we  currently  enjoy  would  be  assured.  Ten  thousand  years  of  trial  and  error,  reaching  back  before  Sumer,  would 
simply  be  another  failed  experiment.  And  even  if  the  goal  is  not  achieved,  as  seems  more  likely,  the  stress  between  the  haves 
and  the  have-nots  would  leave  little  chance  for  the  development  of  a  stable  world  community."  (670) 

The  idea  of  a  moderate  lifestyle  can  be  seen  in  many  ancient  cultures,  this  was  the  theme  during  much  of  ancient 
Greek  culture  and  especially  we  can  see  a  moderate  lifestyle  in  the  Maya  culture.  J.  Eric  S.  Thompson  wrote, 

“As  we  shall  see,  Maya  character,  with  its  emphasis  on  moderation,  discipline,  co-operation,  patience,  and  consideration  for 
others,  made  possible  outstanding  achievements  in  the  intellectual  field. 

Maya  philosophy  is  best  summarized  in  the  motto,  'Nothing  in  excess,'  which  was  inscribed  over  the  temple  of  Delphi. 

Harmonious  living,  moderation,  and  a  full  comprehension  of  that  spirit  of  toleration  for  the  foibles  of  one's  neighbors 
contained  in  the  expression  'live  and  let  live'  characterize  the  present-day  Maya.  The  development  of  a  somewhat  similar 
philosophy  has  been  considered  one  of  the  great  achievements  of  Athenian  culture,  and  rightly  has  been  put  before  material 
progress. 

Quiet  compromise  and  the  spirit  of  live  and  let  live  were  too  deeply  ingrained  in  his  and  his  neighbors'  characters  to  let  him 


doubt  the  result.  Everyone,  and  all  the  trees,  the  crops,  and  the  animals  had  their  rights.  One  must  not  violate  these  rights  or 
try  to  take  more  than  was  his  due.  All  such  matters  should  be  looked  at  from  the  other  point  of  view  as  well  as  one's  own. 


It  must  be  remembered  that  the  Maya  did  not  set  the  human  race  so  far  apart  from  the  rest  of  created  life  as  we  do,  but  then 
the  Maya  had,  and  still  has,  a  deeper  sense  of  his  relative  unimportance  in  creation.”  (26) 

Watching  Robert  J.  Flaherty's  1922  documentary  'Nanook  of  the  North'  one  can  see  exactly  how  simple  the 
indigenous  Homo  sapiens  lifestyle  once  was  and  still  is  for  some  even  today.  The  Maya  had  no  beasts  of  burden 
and  no  wheel,  they  used  not  a  single  nail  in  constructing  their  dwellings,  and  yet  they  built  great  temples  and 
homes  in  which  they  lived.  There  are  very  few  remains  from  past  societies  of  the  last  1 0,000  years,  for  the  most 
part  there  are  stone  buildings  or  other  artifacts  that  have  weathered  nature  and  time.  But  over  the  last  300  years, 
there  has  been  an  increase  in  not  only  the  amount  of  garbage,  but  also  the  type.  To  think  of  all  the  mass 
quantities  of  clothes,  shoes,  dishes,  and  other  items  these  ancient  societies  must  have  made  and  utilized,  and  how 
little  remains  on  the  earth  today  that  was  not  preserved,  usually  by  chance,  this  is  truly  how  Homo  sapiens 
should  leave  Earth  when  they  die.  Homo  sapiens  of  past  societies  had  fewer  possessions,  all  of  which  were 
handcrafted  out  of  natural  bio-degradable  materials  and  were  also  made  to  be  more  durable  lasting  the  lifetime  of 
the  possessor  and  even  to  be  passed  on  to  their  descendants.  Possessions  today  are  more  based  on  social  status, 
trend,  or  indulgence,  all  of  which  revolve  around  the  generation  of  profits  from  the  sale  of  these  items,  ultimately 
creating  an  endless  cycle  of  pollution,  garbage,  and  waste  of  resources.  The  excessive  hoarding  of  things  based 
on  unnecessary  preparedness,  aesthetical  obsession,  or  object  idolization  all  feed  into  the  trillions  of  dollars’ 
worth  of  meaningless,  worthless,  unproductive,  and  polluting  commerce. 

What  is  even  more  appalling  is  the  amount  of  food  which  is  purchased  and  never  consumed  only  to  be  ultimately 
discarded  and  wasted  while  others  around  the  world  are  dying  of  starvation  and  malnutrition  related  diseases. 

The  United  Nations  World  Food  Programme  estimates  that  795,000,000  million  Homo  sapiens  worldwide  go  to 
bed  on  an  empty  stomach  each  night.  Many  western  societies  waste  an  abundant  amount  of  food,  and 
1,600,000,000  tonnes  of  food,  or  1/3  of  all  the  food  produced  worldwide  is  discarded  or  goes  to  waste  amounting 
to  $990,000,000,000.  One-fourth  of  the  food  being  lost  or  wasted  globally  could  feed  870,000,000  Homo 
sapiens  in  the  world.  (189)  The  surplus  of  food  being  discarded,  from  grocery  stores  and  restaurants,  is 
sometimes  now  being  distributed  to  low  income  individuals  and  families  through  food  banks,  but  food  continues 
to  be  wasted  in  so  many  forms  and  could  be  recycled  even  further.  In  agricultural  operations  and  in  grocery 
stores,  billions  of  pounds  of  perfectly  edible  food  is  discarded  because  of  the  size,  a  bruise,  or  other  blemish  in 
an  effort  to  make  the  marketplace  more  aesthetically  appealing  and  inviting  for  consumers.  Allot  of  food  is 
purchased  and  simply  left  to  rot  in  many  Western  society  kitchen  pantries.  Much  food  is  discarded  simply 
because  consumers  have  a  misconception  about  an  expiration  date  and  a  freshness  date  thinking  that  the 
freshness  date  means  the  date  it  must  be  consumed  by,  when  in  actuality  it  is  when  the  food  tastes  freshest  by 
and  has  nothing  to  do  with  edibility.  Some  consumers  discard  food  because  of  freezer  bum  thinking  that  the  food 
is  spoiled,  but  again  it  is  still  very  edible.  Vast  amounts  of  food  are  wasted  because  of  the  large  portions  served  at 
restaurants  with  many  consumers  not  taking  the  leftovers  home  to  consume  later  or  give  to  a  less  fortunate 
individual.  Could  many  of  these  issues  not  be  corrected  by  better  individual  food  management  habits?  Could  not 
all  soon  to  expire  food  be  given  to  a  food  hank  or  directly  to  individuals  by  placing  an  ad  on  Craigslist  free 
section  or  on  social  media,  instead  of  discarding  it  into  the  trash?  Flow  much  money  could  households  save  if 
they  had  more  access  to  all  the  perfectly  edible  food  being  discarded?  Flow  many  millions  of  pumpkins  are 
carved  every  year  for  Halloween  and  not  consumed?  Why  don't  consumers  instead  make  a  pie  or  other  pumpkin 
based  dish?  How  many  millions  of  chicken  eggs  are  boiled  and  dyed  each  year  during  Easter  and  never 
consumed?  How  much  food  is  wasted  making  an  offering  during  a  religious  ceremony?  How  much  food  is  not 
simply  washed  and  instead  is  discarded  when  it  touches  the  floor  or  another  undesired  surface?  How  much  food 
could  be  saved  through  better  eating  habits?  (e.g.  not  discarding  leftovers,  or  using  a  kitchen  utensil  to  scrape  the 
sides  of  a  food  container,  or  adding  a  small  amount  of  water  to  a  partially  sealed  food  container  to  get  the  tad  of 
food  stuck  to  the  sides  of  the  container) 

Carl  Haub  estimates  that  107,602,707,791  births  have  occurred  since  the  dawn  of  modem  Homo  sapiens  around 
52,000  years  ago  (700),  yet  most  of  the  environmental  damage  has  been  done  mainly  during  the  last  200  years  by 
only  15,000,000,000  or  so  of  the  total  number  of  Homo  sapiens  to  have  ever  inhabited  the  Earth.  The  lifestyle 


the  inhabitants  of  a  planet  lead  and  the  materials  which  are  chosen  to  create  things,  makes  the  difference  in 
leaving  barely  a  footprint  or  any  sign  one  ever  inhabited  the  planet  like  a  few  pottery  sherds,  maybe  a  wall  of  an 
adobe  house,  or  a  painting  on  a  cave  wall,  versus  leaving  a  footprint  of  synthetically  made  unnatural  non- 
biodegradable  things  that  will  take  thousands  to  perhaps  millions  of  years  to  decompose.  That  isn't  to  say  that  the 
Homo  sapiens  which  have  inhabited  Earth  throughout  all  eras  of  history  haven’t  done  some  damage  to  the  Earth 
in  their  own  way,  slashing  and  burning  forest  for  agriculture,  cutting  down  forests  to  build  cities  and  ships, 
draining  swamps  for  agriculture,  overkill  of  species,  etc.  But  the  scale  at  which  it  has  occurred  in  modem  times 
is  infinitely  vaster  with  the  help  of  science  and  technology,  and  these  tools  and  chemicals  with  which  to 
depredate  the  Earth  have  only  continued  to  increase  in  severity  over  time.  Paleontologists  and  anthropologists 
have  speculated  that  Homo  sapiens  have  been  causing  mass  extinctions  for  50,000  or  more  years.  Evidence  is 
emerging  which  shows  a  strong  correlation  with  the  arrival  of  Homo  sapiens  in  North  and  South  America, 
Australia,  and  other  areas  of  the  world  and  the  extinction  of  megafauna  species.  Richard  Leakey  and  Roger 
Lewin  state  that, 

“Nevertheless,  in  recent  years  it  has  become  undeniable  that  the  evolution  of  Homo  sapiens  was  to  imprint  a  ruinous 

signature  on  the  rest  of  the  natural  world,  perhaps  right  from  the  beginning... 


The  message  of  the  complexity  of  ecosystems -their  interconnectedness  and  their  vulnerability  to  disruption  by  human  hands- 
repeats  again  and  again... 

The  coincidence  of  this  mass  dying  with  the  end  of  the  glacial  epoch  is  precise,  and  would  seem  compelling  as  a  putative 
casual  agent.  Yet  there  are  few  detailed  hypotheses  about  exactly  how  the  extinction  might  have  occurred.  It  is  not  sufficient 
to  say  that  plant  communities  were  plunged  into  disarray;  therefore  animal  species  became  extinct.  This  was  one  of  the 
reasons  why,  in  1967,  Paul  Martin,  a  paleontologist  at  the  University  of  Arizona,  revived  the  overkill  hypothesis  of  Wallace 
and  Owen,  and  termed  the  phenomenon  "Pleistocene  overkill.”  He  argued  that  climatic  change  was  not  the  only  event  with 
which  the  end-Pleistocene  extinction  coincided.  At  the  same  time,  a  new  kind  of  mammalian  species  was  spreading  though 
the  Americas,  beginning  about  11,500  years  ago  in  the  north  (after  having  crossed  the  exposed  Bering  land  bridge  from  Asia), 
and  continuing  for  a  millennium,  reaching  Tierra  del  Fuego,  at  the  southern  tip  of  South  America,  10,500  years  ago.  The 
immigrants  to  the  New  World  are  known  to  archaeologists  as  Clovis  people,  named  after  their  delicately  crafted  projectile 
points... 

Martin  calculates  that  within  350  years  of  entering  North  America,  the  original  bands  of  Clovis  people  had  increased  their 
numbers  to  600,000  and  had  reached  the  Gulf  of  Mexico.  This  explosive  expansion  was  facilitated  by  unlimited  resources- 
land  and  prey-opening  up  before  their  inexorable  advance.  Before  their  first  millennium  in  the  New  World  was  over,  the 
Clovis  people  had  reached  the  southern  tip  of  the  continent,  and  now  numbered  many  million.  This  north-to-south  population 
expansion  left  a  trail  of  destruction,  as  hunters  were  easily  able  to  kill  large,  lumbering  prey  unused  to  a  new  kind  of  predator. 

The  animals  probably  had  no  innate  fear  of  humans,  as  is  often  the  case  in  regions  of  the  world  (usually  islands)  that  have 
evolved  in  the  absence  of  humans;  they  would  therefore  have  been  particularly  vulnerable  to  efficient  hunters.  The  hunters,  in 
their  turn,  were  unused  to  this  kind  of  prey,  and  so  were  perhaps  freed  from  the  usual  hunters'  constraint  against  mass 
killing.”  (123) 

There  is  a  prevalent  theme  of  moderation,  coexistence,  and  respect  for  Earth  in  most  indigenous  societies 
throughout  the  world,  be  it  North  America,  South  American,  Africa,  or  other  parts  of  the  world.  Could  these 
morals  have  originated,  because  of  oral  stories  passed  down  throughout  the  generations  about  this  overkill  and 
extinction  thousands  of  years  ago?  Could  they  have  learned  from  their  ancestor’s  depredations,  about  over- 
exploitation,  and  the  over-killing  of  faunae,  and  this  was  one  of  the  reasons  for  their  nearly  perfect  symbiotic 
relationship  and  coexistence  with  the  natural  world  around  them  when  the  Europeans  arrived?  Is  history 
repeating  itself  and  modern-day  Homo  sapiens  are  experiencing  a  similar  lesson?  Will  they  learn  from  this  lesson 
or  will  it  simply  be  ignored?  Can  future  generations  be  different  through  education  and  shown  by  example  how 
to  live  a  better  more  natural  alternative  lifestyle  with  a  smaller  footprint  as  their  ancient  ancestors  did?  How 
much  less  consumption  would  there  be  if  Homo  sapiens  just  lived  more  simply  and  had  minimalism  lifestyles 
with  less  material  possessions?  Will  future  generations  perhaps  be  more  self-sufficient  like  their  ancestors 
growing  fruits  and  vegetables  and  making  their  own  clothes  and  other  household  items?  What  if  Homo  sapiens 
shared  more  items  with  their  fellow  Homo  sapiens,  or  if  more  products  could  be  rented,  wouldn’t  this  reduce 
consumption  if  there  were  less  items  which  had  to  be  purchased  per  individual,  especially  for  products  which  are 
only  used  occasionally  or  once  in  a  lifetime? 


How  Much  Consumption  is  Too  Much? 


The  billions  of  plastic  items  that  are  being  consumed  daily  and  which  have  been  consumed  over  just  the  last  100 
years  is  extensive.  Most  products  today  have  more  packaging  than  product  to  aid  in  marketing  or  for 
manufacturing  convenience,  and  this  packaging  usually  lasts  far  longer  than  the  product  being  consumed,  (e.g. 
most  food  packaging  is  synthetic  plastic  and  only  stores  the  food  for  a  few  weeks  or  days  while  the  packaging  is 
around  for  hundreds  or  thousands  of  years  afterwards)  All  of  the  waste,  consumption  of  resources,  and  product 
packaging  for  food  alone  immense.  What  if  grocery  stores  sold  more  food  items  via  bulk  merchandising  and 
consumers  brought  their  own  containers  to  dispense  the  desired  amount  of  food  into?  This  may  not  be  feasible 
for  all  food  products,  but  it  could  be  used  for  a  variety  of  foods,  and  this  system  is  already  being  used  in  some 
grocery  stores  for  food  items  like  granola,  nuts,  candy,  etc.,  so  certainly  many  more  food  items  could  be  sold  in 
this  fashion.  Many  products  are  made  in  abundance  and  consumed  in  the  same  manner,  some  products  are  sold 
only  via  bulk-packaging  to  either  market  them  better  to  consumers  as  being  a  better  value  or  to  make 
manufacturing  costs  lower,  but  this  method  can  also  result  in  even  more  consumption  of  the  product.  Millions  of 
novelty  and  trend-based  products  are  marketed  and  sold  to  gullible  consumers  each  year  who  hoard  thousands  of 
useless  collectables  throughout  their  lifetime,  only  to  have  them  discarded  in  a  landfill  when  they  die.  Many 
items  which  are  disposed  of  still  have  use  left  in  the  product,  (e.g.  toothpaste  has  several  more  servings  of 
toothpaste  in  the  container,  it  can  easily  be  accessed  by  cutting  the  container  open  with  scissors) 

A  good  example  of  the  amount  of  consumption  and  waste  of  products  can  be  illustrated  in  the  simple  exercise  of 
looking  at  a  product  around  you,  pick  anything,  lip  balm  for  instance.  Now  imagine  that  one  company  and  how 
many  tubes  of  lip  balm  they  have  created  since  their  inception,  1,000,000  or  10,000,000  or  perhaps  more.  Also 
factor  in  that  this  consumption  has  been  increasing  and  going  on  for  over  75  years  so  that  would  make 
75,000,000  or  perhaps  750,000,000  used  plastic  lip  balm  tubes  that  were  made  and  disposed  of  throughout  the 
history  of  the  product  thus  far  and  counting.  Then  think  of  all  the  empty  useless  lip  balm  tubes  that  now  occupy 
space  in  a  landfill  and  the  toxic  chemicals  which  are  going  into  the  soils  of  Earth  or  if  the  tubes  were  incinerated 
the  toxic  chemicals  went  into  the  atmosphere.  Now  do  that  exercise  for  automobile  tires,  plastic  water  bottles, 
batteries,  computers,  cellphones,  automobiles,  toothbrushes,  disposable  razors,  or  any  of  the  other  millions  of 
products  which  are  produced  in  vast  quantities,  the  list  is  nearly  infinite.  Also,  don’t  forget  to  factor  in  the  many 
tiny  plastic  parts  and  other  things  which  make  up  the  larger  product  as  a  whole,  the  gaskets,  casings,  stickers, 
glue,  paint,  lubricants,  safety  seals,  etc. 

Technology  is  always  advancing,  and  electronic  manufacturers  now  offer  a  wide  variety  of  product  choices, 
many  of  which  are  cheaply  manufactured  products  with  an  infinitesimal  lifespan.  Since  their  invention,  how 
many  of  the  billions  of  laptops,  printers,  desktop  PCs  with  monitors,  smartphones,  and  tablets  which  were  sold 
are  now  sitting  in  a  landfill?  How  many  billions  of  printer  ink  cartridges  have  been  manufactured  and  sold  over 
that  same  time?  Prescription  medicine  bottles  are  never  reused  by  pharmacies  refilling  prescriptions,  how  many 
millions  of  these  bottles  are  thrown  away  each  month?  How  many  billions  of  unwanted  and  unused  ketchup, 
mustard,  relish,  hot  sauce,  salt,  pepper,  lemon  juice,  sugar,  artificial  sweetener,  honey,  and  other  condiment 
packets  are  given  away  with  take-out  food  meals  and  drinks,  only  to  be  discarded  unopened  into  the  trash?  How 
many  millions  of  straws,  stirrers,  lids,  silverware,  and  other  plastic  items  are  also  given  out  unnecessarily?  How 
many  billions  of  product  safety  seals  are  used  because  of  nothing  more  than  paranoia?  Washable  and  reusable 
cotton  diapers  have  been  used  for  thousands  of  years  until  their  recent  replacement  by  the  disposable  plastic 
diapers.  How  many  trillions  of  plastic  diapers  have  been  used  and  now  sit  in  a  landfill  or  pollute  an  ecosystem? 
How  many  millions  of  plastic  tampons  are  discarded  every  month?  How  many  millions  of  plastic  ribbons  and 
silicone  wristbands  for  charity  or  cause  awareness  have  been  made?  Would  not  conversing  about  a  charity  or 
cause  also  bring  about  awareness  and  attention  perhaps  even  more  so  than  a  color  symbol  which  most  are  unable 
to  decipher?  How  many  billions  of  one  use  or  convenience  items  have  been  consumed?  How  many  billions  of 
products  have  been  made  that  are  simply  a  fad  and  will  only  be  looked  at  or  used  for  a  short  period  of  time, 
perhaps  only  once  and  then  thrown  away?  (e.g.  party,  holiday,  festival,  sporting  event,  items  like  plastic  cups, 
hats,  glasses,  or  other  things)  How  many  billions  of  lime  desiccant  or  other  oxygen  absorbers  are  added  to 
products  in  an  attempt  to  maintain  a  longer  shelf  life?  How  many  road  flares  are  used  each  year  when  a  simple 
flashing  led  light  could  be  used  instead?  How  many  billions  of  toxic  one -use  items  like  glow  sticks  have  been 


consumed?  How  many  billions  of  instruction  manuals  are  senselessly  printed  in  5  or  more  irrelevant  languages 
adding  unnecessary  paper  in  order  to  make  manufacturing  or  distribution  easier?  How  many  billions  of  vinyl 
records,  8-track  tapes,  cassette  tapes,  CDs,  and  DVDs  were  consumed  until  their  near  replacement  with  MP3s 
and  other  online  digital  media  sources?  How  many  millions  of  headphones,  pillows,  bars  of  soap,  mini  shampoo 
and  conditioner  bottles,  and  other  plastic  items  distributed  by  airlines,  hotels,  and  cruise  ships  and  then  discarded 
unused  or  after  only  being  temporary  used? 

Why  are  so  many  billions  of  plastic  disposable  items  made  without  any  recycling  options?  Shouldn’t  any  product 
which  will  be  manufactured  in  such  large  quantities,  say  more  than  50,000  times,  be  required  by  law  to  have 
recycling  program  in  place  for  that  product?  How  much  paper  is  wasted  with  unwanted  and  unnecessary 
receipts?  How  much  paper  could  be  saved,  if  instead  of  automatically  printing  and  giving  a  receipt  to  ever 
customer  cashiers  asked  the  customer  if  they  even  wanted  a  receipt?  Don’t  credit  card  transactions  in  essence 
make  paper  receipts  obsolete  as  there  is  a  permanent  electronic  record  of  the  purchase?  How  many  billions  of  led 
lights  consume  needless  power  while  on  standby,  powered  off,  or  charging?  Why  aren't  automatic  on/off  energy 
saving  systems  on  new  homes  mandatory  by  law?  Why  aren't  water  flow  control  devices  for  water  conservation 
mandatory  by  law  also?  How  many  billions  of  tires  have  been  used  since  the  car  was  invented  more  than  1 00 
years  ago,  and  were  either  disposed  of  through  incineration  contaminating  the  atmosphere,  or  now  occupy  space 
in  a  landfill?  How  many  fragments  of  tires,  brakes,  and  other  automobile  parts  now  pollute  the  ecosystems  of 
Earth?  How  many  thousands  of  helium  filled  balloons  are  let  go  everyday  during  events  or  by  children  and  float 
off  into  the  atmosphere  to  only  later  come  down  and  kill  faunae  or  pollute  an  ecosystem?  How  many  minute 
particles  of  synthetic  plastic  flake  off  of  the  billions  of  pairs  of  shoes  every  day  and  end  up  polluting  the  water  or 
soil?  How  many  trillions  of  cheaply  made  plastic  toys  are  consumed  every  year  to  only  end  up  in  a  landfill 
within  that  same  year?  How  many  billions  of  air  cushions,  pieces  of  bubble  wrap,  polystyrene  foam  peanuts,  and 
other  plastic  padding  is  over  used  each  year  shipping  products  to  customers  and  then  discarded?  How  much  toxic 
antifreeze  leaks  out  of  automobiles  only  to  pollute  the  soil  or  water?  How  many  billions  of  gallons  of  toxic  paint 
and  varnish  have  been  used  for  aesthetics,  only  to  flake  off  and  contaminate  the  soil  and  water?  How  many 
millions  of  perfectly  habitable  buildings  have  been  demolished  throughout  history  simply  to  build  a  more 
elaborate  structure?  How  many  millions  of  gallons  of  toxic  tree  paint  has  been  applied  to  trees  after  pruning  to 
bandage  a  wound  caused  by  the  pruning  itself  or  to  prevent  cracking  of  new  bark?  How  many  billions  of  toxic 
mothballs  made  of  naphthalene  or  1,4-dichlorobenzene  have  been  used?  Why  would  anyone  put  a  toxic  pesticide 
with  their  clothes  which  could  then  be  absorbed  through  their  skin?  Is  there  a  real  threat  to  clothes  from  insects 
which  are  sealed  in  a  house  or  closet,  or  is  this  simply  a  custom  which  continues  to  peipetuate  because  of 
ignorance?  Would  not  natural  camphor  be  less  toxic  and  perhaps  be  equally  effective? 

How  much  electricity  is  wasted  on  senseless  lighting  to  illuminate  statues,  buildings,  or  other  structures  each 
night?  How  much  energy  could  be  saved  if  millions  of  Homo  sapiens  participated  in  a  monthly  Earth  Hour  type 
event  turning  off  all  lights  and  electronic  devices?  What  would  happen  to  carbon  dioxide  pollution  output  levels 
if  every  automobile  driver  didn’t  drive  their  personal  automobile,  and  instead  used  public  transportation  or 
utilized  a  ride-share  opportunity  with  a  friend  or  co-worker,  for  one  entire  day  or  even  for  one  whole  week  each 
month?  How  much  power  could  be  saved  if  more  lights  were  energy  efficient  LEDs?  How  much  energy  could  be 
saved  if  more  individual  electronic  products  had  built  in  solar  chargers?  How  much  energy  could  be  saved  if  all 
grocery  stores  used  closed  refrigeration  systems  instead  of  the  doorless  refrigeration  units,  which  most  grocery 
stores  have  only  to  make  food  more  accessible  and  marketable  to  consumers? 

There  is  also  much  waste  that  could  be  stopped  by  simply  modifying  some  of  the  practices  that  many  industries 
engage  in,  like  senseless  labels  on  products  and  product  packaging  which  is  often  excessive  brand  names, 
company  logos,  or  pointless  instructions  and  warnings  which  should  be  common  sense.  Many  labels  are  stamped 
or  painted  onto  products  which  easily  wear  off  after  a  few  uses,  flaking  off  into  the  environment  or  they  are 
possibly  absorbed  through  the  skin  of  the  consumer.  How  much  ink  is  wasted  each  year  printing  a  company  or 
organizations  name  on  products  for  nothing  more  than  advertising?  How  many  stickers  are  used  each  year  to 
advertise  product  features?  There  is  also  an  abundance  of  waste  throughout  the  world  from  things  like  items 
which  have  no  purpose  other  than  convenience  like  the  stickers  on  fruit  in  grocery  stores.  Can  there  not  just  be  a 
sign  with  the  fruit  name  and  price,  and  the  cashiers  would  know  what  the  fruit  is  or  have  a  paper  identification 


table  for  reference?  Or  can  cashiers  not  simply  be  trained  to  identify  fruits  and  vegetables?  Or  a  cash  register 
system  which  has  the  ability  to  scan  the  fruit  and  determine  what  it  is? 

A  Surplus  of  Senseless  Waste 

In  2015,  in  the  United  States  alone,  there  were  37,716  grocery  stores  offering  an  average  of  42,214  separate 
products.  These  are  the  larger  stores  which  have  $2,000,000  or  more  in  annual  sales  and  it  does  not  include  the 
thousands  of  other  smaller  grocery  stores.  (49)  In  the  United  States,  there  are  428  Wal-Mart  Discount  Stores  each 
offering  120,000  separate  products,  in  addition  there  are  3,499  Wal-Mart  Supercenters  each  offering  142,000 
separate  products.  Globally  Wal-Mart  Supercenters  include  an  additional  321  in  Canada,  385  in  China,  256  in 
Mexico,  and  338  in  the  United  Kingdom.  In  addition,  there  are  international  warehouse  clubs  like  Costco  with 
727  warehouses  and  Walmart's  subsidiary  Sam's  Club  with  820  warehouses,  which  offer  around  4,000  products 
with  many  sold  as  bulk-packaged  goods,  thus  allowing  for  even  easier  mass  consumption  with  a  discounted 
monetary  rate.  Worldwide,  there  are  hundreds  of  thousands  of  variety  stores  where  most  products  cost  $1.00  or 
less  and  is  usually  cheaply  made  junk  made  from  synthetic  plastic  which  ends  up  in  a  landfill  soon  after  being 
purchased.  In  the  United  States,  there  are  12,483  Dollar  General  stores  and  13,600  Dollar  Tree  stores.  There  are 
750  Hobby  Lobby  stores  and  1,367  Michaels  Stores  Inc.  containing  millions  of  cheaply  made  synthetic  plastic 
products  for  home  decor,  arts  and  crafts,  and  senseless  hobbies.  In  2014,  Amazon  sold  a  total  of  5,000,000,000 
items.  (181)  Many  of  the  products  that  all  of  these  stores  offer  are  nothing  more  than  the  same  thing  packaged 
and  priced  differently,  in  fact  many  of  the  brands  are  owned  by  just  a  few  companies.  How  many  billions  of 
useless,  pointless,  or  redundant  products  exist  only  to  generate  more  profits?  How  many  thousands  of  new 
products  are  created  each  day? 

Consumers  in  western  societies  have  so  much  stuff  they  accumulate,  never  use,  and  will  never  use  in  their 
lifetime.  So  many  perishable  products  are  purchased  with  the  intent  to  use  only  to  be  stored  and  eventually 
expire  leaving  it  useless.  Look  around  you  right  now  in  your  home  and  ask  yourself,  “Has  that  product  ever  been 
used?  Is  it  superfluous?  Will  that  product  ever  be  used  again?  Could  someone  else  less  fortunate  be  using  it 
instead?”  Why  doesn’t  this  clearly  visible  mass  accumulation  of  products  awaken  those  out  of  their  slumber  of 
indulgence?  This  addiction  to  consumption  and  the  erroneous  notion  that  the  products  are  needed  could  be 
defined  as  a  mental  illness.  Many  consumers  are  addicts,  and  product  consumption  is  like  all  addictions  in  that  it 
is  the  temporary  pleasure  itself  and  pseudo  sense  of  satisfaction  and  security  which  perpetuates  the  addiction. 

The  only  difference,  is  that  in  this  case  it  doesn’t  result  in  the  destruction  of  the  user,  it  results  in  the  destruction 
of  the  Earth,  in  essence  Homo  sapiens  are  addicted  to  the  consumption  of  Earth  itself.  A1  Gore  wrote, 

“The  cleavage  in  the  modem  world  between  mind  and  body,  man  and  nature,  has  created  a  new  kind  of  addiction:  I  believe 
that  our  civilization  is,  in  effect,  addicted  to  the  consumption  of  the  earth  itself.  This  addictive  relationship  distracts  us  from 
the  pain  of  what  we  have  lost:  a  direct  experience  of  our  connection  to  the  vividness,  vibrancy,  and  aliveness  of  the  rest  of  the 
natural  world.  The  froth  and  frenzy  of  industrial  civilization  mask  our  deep  loneliness  for  that  communion  with  the  world  that 
can  lift  our  spirits  and  fill  our  senses  with  the  richness  and  immediacy  of  life  itself.” 

“...huge  quantities  of  pollution,  products  for  which  we  spend  billions  on  advertising  to  convince  ourselves  we  want,  massive 
surpluses  of  products  that  depress  prices  while  the  products  themselves  go  to  waste,  and  diversions  and  distractions  of  every 
kind.  We  seem  increasingly  eager  to  lose  ourselves  in  the  forms  of  culture,  society,  technology,  the  media,  and  the  rituals  of 
production  and  consumption,  but  the  price  we  pay  is  the  loss  of  our  spiritual  lives.” 

“Our  industrial  civilization  makes  us  a  similar  promise:  the  pursuit  of  happiness  and  comfort  is  paramount,  and  the 
consumption  of  an  endless  stream  of  shiny  new  products  is  encouraged  as  the  best  way  to  succeed  in  that  pursuit.  The 
glittering  promise  of  easy  fulfillment  is  so  seductive  that  we  become  willing,  even  relieved,  to  forget  what  we  really  feel  and 
abandon  the  search  for  authentic  purpose  and  meaning  in  our  lives.” 

“Many  people  seem  to  be  largely  oblivious  of  this  collision  and  the  addictive  nature  of  our  unhealthy  relationship  to  the  earth. 

But  education  is  a  cure  for  those  who  lack  knowledge;  much  more  worrisome  are  those  who  will  not  acknowledge  these 
destructive  patterns.  Indeed,  many  political,  business,  and  intellectual  leaders  deny  the  existence  of  any  such  patterns  in 
aggressive  and  dismissive  tones.  They  serve  as  “enablers,”  removing  inconvenient  obstacles  and  helping  to  ensure  that  the 
addictive  behavior  continues.” 

“What  1  have  called  our  addictive  pattern  of  behavior  is  only  part  of  the  story,  however,  because  it  cannot  explain  the  full 
complexity  and  ferocity  of  our  assault  on  the  earth.  Nor  does  it  explain  how  so  many  thinking  and  caring  people  can 


unwittingly  cooperate  in  doing  such  enormous  damage  to  the  global  environment  and  how  they  can  continue  to  live  by  the 
same  set  of  false  assumptions  about  what  their  civilization  is  actually  doing  and  why.  Clearly,  the  problem  involves  more  than 
the  way  each  of  us  as  an  individual  relates  to  the  earth.  It  involves  something  that  has  gone  terribly  wrong  in  the  way  we 
collectively  determine  our  mutual  relationship  to  the  earth.”  (277) 

Homo  sapiens  endless  consumption  of  not  only  trend-based  products,  but  of  products  which  have  an 
infinitesimal  lifespan  or  period  of  use  before  the  item  is  buried  in  a  landfill,  has  led  to  more  manufacturing  and 
an  endless  growing  cycle  of  consumption,  waste,  and  pollution.  If  the  'throw  away  buy  a  new  one'  attitude 
changes,  will  society  stop  consuming  so  much,  and  will  this  change  also  be  done  at  the  manufacturing  level  by 
making  things  more  durable  which  last  longer  and  of  natural  materials  which  can  be  recycled  and  are  also  bio¬ 
degradable?  If  consumers  would  purchase  more  natural  and  permanent  onetime  products  for  tasks  that  will  be 
done  throughout  their  entire  life,  (e.g.  glass  jar  instead  of  plastic  container,  wooden  box  instead  of  a  plastic  box) 
this  would  also  lead  to  less  consumption  of  everyday  items,  which  are  often  designed  and  manufactured  for  one¬ 
time  use  so  the  consumer  will  purchase  more,  thus  spending  more  money.  In  regard  to  the  consumption  of  trend- 
based  products  this  change  is  dependent  on  the  consumer,  but  given  Homo  sapiens  history  over  the  last  10,000 
years  there  will  be  trends  in  the  near  future  and  the  majority  of  consumers  will  most  likely  continue  to  demand 
the  latest  and  greatest,  again  one  enters  into  morals  and  lifestyle  changes  on  the  individual  level  to  limit  this  type 
of  consumption.  To  consume  unneeded  things  simply  for  convenience,  self-gratification,  or  to  simply  allow 
something  useful  to  go  unused  are  true  examples  of  indulgence  and  waste.  The  following  table  lists  the  dollar 
amounts  of  products  sold  and  not  actual  product  numbers,  as  these  are  virtually  non-existent  or  only  known  by 
the  companies  selling  the  products,  but  it  still  gives  an  idea  as  to  the  number  of  products  consumed  if  one  takes 
the  total  sales  and  then  divides  it  by  the  average  price  of  the  product,  (e.g.  an  average  package  a  batteries  costs 
$4.00  and  sales  were  $1,067,182,489  which  would  mean  that  an  estimated  266,795,622  packages  of  batteries 
were  sold) 


Some  Products  Being  Consumed  in  Mass  Quantities  in  the  United  States  Based  on  Sales  Figures  2013-2014 

Product 

Sales 

Baby  Food 

$1,019,947,135 

Batteries 

$1,067,182,489 

Beer  Domestic  and  Imported 

$10,832,835,734 

Bottled  Water 

$4,113,330,527 

Cat  Food  (Diy  only,  not  including  canned  food  or  treats) 

$1,090,912,051 

Cereal  (Ready  to  eat  or  cold  cereals,  not  including  hot  cereals) 

$5,997,867,099 

Chocolate  Candy 

$2,551,642,838 

Coffee  Regular  and  Decaffeinated 

$2,821,275,746 

Cookies 

$4,607,401,493 

Dog  Food  (Dry  only,  not  including  canned  food  or  treats) 

$2,081,118,963 

Frozen  Pizza 

$3,007,865,763 

Ice  Cream 

$4,001,207,434 

Potato  Chips 

$3,866,495,143 

Salad  dressing 

$1,352,531,559 

Soft  Drinks  Regular  and  Low-calorie 

$12,178,400,251 

SOURCE:  The  World  Almanac  and  Book  of  Facts  2015  ISBN-13:  978-1-60057-190-9  p.78 

Many  Homo  sapiens  from  all  income  brackets  shop  at  thrift  stores  buying  used  items,  and  this  type  of  recycling 
is  more  important  in  today's  world  than  ever,  because  of  all  the  excess  products  Homo  sapiens  have  accumulated 
and  continue  to  accumulate  throughout  their  lifetime  and  remain  long  after  they  are  dead.  Think  of  all  the 
products  Homo  sapiens  have  accumulated  by  the  time  they  die,  and  if  no  one  inherits  it  family  wise  it  all  either 
goes  into  the  trash  or  is  resold.  If  Homo  sapiens  attempted  to  acquire  most  products  via  second  hand  this  would 


have  a  major  impact  on  recycling  efforts  like  never  before  and  most  certainly  lead  to  less  manufacturing.  It  is  a 
simple  matter  the  products  being  easily  available  on  the  internet  to  a  worldwide  market  and  consumers  choosing 
to  buy  something  used  or  new.  When  purchasing  a  product  based  on  a  monetary  amount,  most  likely  only  a 
minority  of  worldwide  consumers  would  choose  the  new  product.  If  consumers  who  are  choosing  new  products 
based  on  a  biased  and  illogical  fear  of  used  products  can  overcome  this  hurdle,  it  would  help  in  reducing  new 
product  consumption  even  further. 

Most  of  the  wealthy  elite  in  the  world  squander  their  wealth  on  overpriced  materialistic  products  and  services, 
(e.g.  $500  shoes,  $100,000  jewelry,  $51,500  jacket,  $400  salon  visit,  $300  meal  at  a  restaurant,  $500  spa 
treatment,  $100  dog  grooming,  etc.)  The  enormous  scale  of  the  squandering  in  the  United  States  is  evident  in  the 
fact  that  70%  of  wealthy  families  lose  their  wealth  by  the  second  generation,  and  90%  loose  it  by  the  third 
generation.  (348)  How  can  someone  squander  such  an  excessive  amount  of  money  on  useless  materialism  while 
being  surround  by  billions  of  others  who  are  so  less  fortunate?  How  can  businesses  charge  so  much  for 
something  which  in  reality  is  worth  so  little?  Life  is  not  about  materiel  possessions,  it  is  about  other  things  far 
more  valuable  which  cannot  be  bought,  but  only  discovered.  Albert  Einstein  wrote, 

“The  ideals  which  have  lighted  my  way,  and  time  after  time  have  given  me  new  courage  to  face  life  cheerfully,  have  been 
Kindness,  Beauty,  and  Truth.  Without  the  sense  of  kinship  with  men  of  like  mind,  without  the  occupation  with  the  objective 
world,  the  eternally  unattainable  in  the  field  of  art  and  scientific  endeavors,  life  would  have  seemed  to  me  empty.  The  trite 
objects  of  human  efforts-possessions,  outward  success,  luxury-have  always  seemed  to  me  contemptible.”  (50) 

A  similar  point  made  about  luxury  was  made  by  Henry  David  Thoreau  nearly  1 00  years  before  when  he  wrote, 

"Most  of  the  luxuries,  and  many  of  the  so-called  comforts  of  life,  are  not  only  not  indispensable,  but  positive  hindrances  to 
the  elevation  of  mankind.  With  respect  to  luxuries  and  comforts,  the  wisest  have  ever  lived  a  more  simple  and  meagre  life 
than  the  poor.  The  ancient  philosophers,  Chinese,  Hindoo,  Persian,  and  Greek,  were  a  class  than  which  none  has  been  poorer 
in  outward  riches,  none  so  rich  in  inward.  We  know  not  much  about  them.  It  is  remarkable  that  we  know  so  much  of  them  as 
we  do.  The  same  is  true  of  the  more  modem  reformers  and  benefactors  of  their  race.  None  can  be  an  impartial  or  wise 
observer  of  human  life  but  from  the  vantage  ground  of  what  we  should  call  voluntary  poverty."  (639) 

Some  Homo  sapiens  build  enormous  and  excessive  housing  structures  using  vast  amounts  of  labor  and  materials 
with  the  intention  of  it  being  some  sort  of  legacy.  They  ignore  the  fact,  that  not  only  are  they  here  for  such  a 
short  period  of  time  to  even  enjoy  the  structure,  but  that  it  too  given  time  will  crumble  like  every  other 
materialist  thing  on  this  Earth.  Nothing  lasts  forever,  and  yet  Homo  sapiens  attempt  to  make  all  things  last 
forever  or  longer  than  they  naturally  should  by  putting  synthetic  chemicals  on  things,  but  these  futile  attempts  do 
nothing  more  than  create  more  pollution  and  waste,  (e.g.  putting  varnish  on  wood  or  other  toxic  synthetic 
chemical  coatings  on  products)  Many  Homo  sapiens  get  so  involved  with  materialism  and  social  standing,  that 
they  often  miss  out  on  an  entire  lifetime  of  reality.  This  unfortunate  myopic  focus  on  materialism  and  nothing 
else,  is  perhaps  even  more  prevalent  today  with  technology,  the  abundance  of  products,  and  a  society  which  too 
often  encourages  this  behavior.  Henry  David  Thoreau  wrote, 

"Shams  and  delusions  are  esteemed  for  soundest  truths,  while  reality  is  fabulous.  If  men  would  steadily  observe  realities  only, 
and  not  allow  themselves  to  be  deluded,  life,  to  compare  it  with  such  things  as  we  know,  would  be  like  a  fairy  tale  and  the 
Arabian  Nights'  Entertainments.  If  we  respected  only  what  is  inevitable  and  has  a  right  to  be,  music  and  poetry  would 
resound  along  the  streets.  When  we  are  unhurried  and  wise,  we  perceive  that  only  great  and  worthy  things  have  any 
permanent  and  absolute  existence,  that  petty  fears  and  petty  pleasures  are  but  the  shadow  of  the  reality.  This  is  always 
exhilarating  and  sublime.  By  closing  the  eyes  and  slumbering,  and  consenting  to  be  deceived  by  shows,  men  establish  and 
confirm  their  daily  life  of  routine  and  habit  everywhere,  which  still  is  built  on  purely  illusory  foundations.  Children,  who 
playlife,  discern  its  true  law  and  relations  more  clearly  than  men,  who  fail  to  live  it  worthily,  but  who  think  that  they  are  wiser 
by  experience,  that  is,  by  failure."  (647) 

Many  actions  are  done  for  profit,  entertainment,  or  comfort,  and  sometimes  with  the  full  knowledge  of  the 
negative  consequences,  but  often  times  they  are  simply  done  out  of  ignorance  as  this  is  the  path  which  has  been 
set  for  them  by  others.  The  short-term  goals  of  Homo  sapiens  appear  to  outweigh  the  unknown  long-term  goal  of 
an  Earth  that  is  natural  and  untouched  by  Homo  sapiens.  Society  could  be  described  as  passive,  demoralized,  and 
engulfed  within  civilization  and  all  the  artificially  created  things  which  formulate  it,  blinded  to  the  negative 
consequences  of  their  actions,  searching  for  something  that  isn't  lost.  If  Homo  sapiens  become  less  passive 


towards  what  they  are  being  force  fed  and  regain  their  moral  ground,  will  corporations  then  be  forced  towards 
change?  Based  on  recent  consumer  demand  for  more  natural  organic  products,  coiporations  have  had  no  choice 
but  to  offer  these  types  of  products.  Will  coiporations  continue  to  get  more  organic  and  natural  by  the  acquisition 
of  smaller  mom  and  pop  organic  natural  companies?  Will  this  be  the  path  to  making  all  consumer  products  more 
organic,  natural,  biodegradable,  and  manufactured  environmentally  friendly? 

Holidays 

Since  1851,  Americans  have  been  harvesting  Christmas  trees  in  the  United  States,  and  originally  all  trees  were 
taken  directly  from  the  forests.  In  2000,  more  than  33,000,000  Christmas  trees  were  produced  in  North  America, 
and  more  than  50,000,000  Christmas  trees  were  produced  in  Europe.  (304)  How  much  fertilizer,  pesticides, 
water,  transportation  resources,  and  other  valuable  resources  are  wasted  each  year  as  a  result  of  Christmas  tree 
consumption?  Why  are  they  called  live  Christmas  trees,  when  they  are  in  fact  dead  or  dying  Christmas  trees?  An 
estimated  50,000,000  U.S.  households  own  an  artificial  Christmas  tree,  of  which  about  20,000,000  are  so  old 
that  they  contain  older  PVC  made  with  lead  potentially  exposing  families  every  Christmas  holiday.  (305)  How 
much  wrapping  paper,  tape,  ribbon,  tinsel,  etc.  are  used  once  and  then  discarded  every  year  for  birthdays, 
Christmas,  and  other  holidays?  Can’t  a  gift  be  given  without  repackaging  it?  How  much  electricity  is  used  for 
the  billions  of  Christmas  and  other  holiday  lights?  How  many  millions  of  Christmas,  Halloween,  Easter,  and 
other  holiday  decorations  overwhelm  society  each  year?  How  much  silly  string,  confetti,  and  other  plastic 
decorations  are  used  once  and  then  discarded  during  these  holidays?  How  many  millions  of  pieces  of  unhealthy 
candy  are  children  and  even  adults  inundated  with  during  Christmas,  Halloween,  Easter,  and  Valentine’s  Day? 
How  many  millions  of  Halloween  costumes  are  worn  once  and  then  discarded?  Most  of  these  Western  created 
holidays  are  based  on  a  lie  and  the  generation  of  profits  through  consumption.  Is  it  not  time  that  society  stop 
lying  to  children  about  Santa  Claus,  the  Easter  bunny,  Halloween  monsters,  the  tooth  fairy,  and  other  mythical 
wise  tales,  which  only  fill  their  heads  with  fantasy  and  expectations,  ultimately  ending  in  disappointment  a  few 
years  later?  Is  it  not  time  to  abandon  these  holiday  traditions  which  are  based  mainly  around  money  and 
consumption?  Is  not  the  true  meaning  of  many  holidays  the  celebration  of  love  and  happiness?  Can  family  and 
friends  not  come  together  a  few  days  out  of  the  year,  and  share  a  delicious  meal  and  reminisce,  perhaps  giving  a 
small  gift  which  is  from  the  heart  and  not  based  on  wants  and  needs?  How  many  billions  of  candles  are  wasted 
each  year  in  churches  and  for  other  ceremonious  occasions?  How  many  thousands  of  bonfires  around  the  world 
are  lit  every  year  during  Lag  BaOmer,  burning  man,  and  other  ritualistic  gatherings,  wasting  resources  and 
polluting  the  atmosphere?  All  for  the  worshiping  or  a  mythological  God  and/or  because  of  tradition.  What  would 
the  world  be  like  if  more  Homo  sapiens  celebrated  and  devoted  as  much  time  and  money  to  Arbor  Day  and  Earth 
Day,  as  they  do  for  other  mainstream  holidays  like  Christmas,  Easter,  Valentine’s  Day,  Thanksgiving,  New 
Years,  etc.?  How  much  less  consumption  would  there  be  around  the  holidays  if  more  consumers  celebrated  Buy 
Nothing  Day  instead  of  Black  Friday? 

Each  year,  for  New  Years,  Independence  Day,  and  other  celebrations,  thousands  of  large  scale  firework  displays 
explode  millions  of  fireworks  in  cities  throughout  the  world.  Everyday  worldwide,  millions  of  small  scale 
fireworks  are  exploded  at  weddings,  parties,  festivals,  and  by  firework  enthusiasts.  During  the  summer  in  Japan, 
hundreds  of  fireworks  festivals  are  held,  some  setting  off  more  than  100,000  fireworks  during  one  fireworks 
display.  The  Walt  Disney  World  Resort  has  the  Wishes  Nighttime  Spectacular  show  nearly  every  night  which 
usually  has  a  fireworks  display.  Some  cities  around  the  world  like  in  San  Cristobal  de  las  Casas,  Mexico  engage 
in  fireworks  displays  almost  daily.  Fireworks  contain  many  toxic  chemical  elements  like  aluminum,  antimony, 
barium,  carbon,  calcium,  chlorine,  cesium,  copper,  iron,  lithium,  magnesium,  potassium,  phosphorus,  radium, 
rubidium,  sodium,  sulfur,  strontium,  titanium,  and  zinc  which  can  be  dispersed  into  the  atmosphere,  soil,  or 
water  when  the  firework  explodes.  As  many  fireworks  displays  take  place  over  urban  areas,  most  of  these 
chemicals  rain  down  onto  the  buildings  and  city  streets  to  be  washed  away  during  the  next  rain,  entering  the  soils 
and  water.  These  explosions  not  only  pollute  the  Earth,  but  also  displace  and  disrupt  fauna  from  stress.  Research 
done  between  1999  and  2013  by  NOAA,  found  that  concentrations  of  fine  particulate  matter  were  42%  higher 
than  on  the  days  preceding  and  following  the  4th  of  July  holiday.  At  one  air  quality  monitoring  station  where 
fireworks  were  set  off  in  an  adjacent  field  particulate  matter  concentration  rose  370%.  (403)  On  New  Year’s  Eve 
in  20 1 0,  fireworks  in  Arkansas  scared  roosting  red-winged  blackbirds  forcing  them  to  take  flight,  because  they 


are  poor  night  fliers  they  crashed  into  homes  and  cars,  and  more  than  3,000  birds  died  from  blunt-force  trauma. 
(289)  Why  are  fireworks  not  regulated  by  the  EPA,  are  they  not  an  environmental  pollutant?  Why  have  so  few 
studies  been  done  about  the  effects  of  fireworks  on  wildlife  and  the  environment?  How  many  spectators  inhale 
this  fine  toxic  particulate  matter,  perhaps  causing  future  respiratory  or  other  health  issues?  How  many  florae  and 
faunae  are  injured  or  killed  each  year  as  a  result  of  ground  and  aerial  based  fireworks?  Is  the  environmental 
damage  worth  an  aesthetically  pleasing  light  show  that  many  are  often  too  inebriated  to  even  remember? 

Excessive  Use  of  Anti-Bacterial  Agents 

Homo  sapiens  daily  use  of  synthetic  toxic  chemicals  in  things  like  dish  soap,  hair  care  products,  laundry 
detergents,  household  cleaners,  etc.,  has  led  to  severe  stress  throughout  the  ecosystems  of  the  world.  All  of  these 
synthetic  chemicals  are  used  in  vast  quantities  and  end  up  polluting  the  air,  water,  and  soil  during  the 
manufacturing  process,  the  consumption  phase,  and  ultimately  the  waste  phase.  This  over  emphasis  on  sanitation 
was  created  and  is  peipetuated  by  a  billion-dollar  chemical  cleaning  industry  which  markets  synthetically  made 
sanitation  chemicals  that  are  toxic  to  all  living  organisms.  Mass  production  and  consumption  of  sprays,  powders, 
and  heavily  concentrated  liquid  cleaners  that  use  a  wide  range  of  toxic  chemicals  has  been  occurring  now  for 
more  than  75  years.  How  many  millions  of  gallons  of  these  toxic  agents  of  death  get  used  every  day?  How  many 
billions  of  gallons  have  polluted  Earth  since  their  discovery  over  75  years  ago? 

Jessica  Metcalf  from  the  University  of  Colorado  at  Boulder  has  studied  fossilized  feces  from  Homo  sapiens  as 
far  back  as  1 ,000  years  and  has  discovered  that  they  contain  far  more  diverse  gut  bacteria.  Another  study,  which 
examined  the  gut  microbial  communities  of  the  Hadza  of  western  Tanzania,  found  that  some  dynamic  lineages  of 
microbes  have  become  less  prevalent  and  abundant  in  some  modernized  populations.  (530)  These  helpful 
protective  bacteria  have  been  lost,  most  likely  due  to  intensive  hygiene  practices,  dietary  changes,  antibiotics, 
and  spending  less  time  outdoors.  Bacteria  existed  billions  of  years  before  Homo  sapiens  inhabited  Earth,  in  fact 
trillions  of  bacteria  and  other  microbes  live  on  and  inside  Homo  sapiens  creating  an  ecosystem  in  essence.  These 
bacteria  help  in  many  ways  from  the  immune  system  to  the  digestive  tract.  Isolation  and  separation  from  nature 
could  lead  to  future  medical  issue  by  not  allowing  for  the  development  of  natural  immunity.  Attempting  to  kill 
bacteria  seem  to  have  only  made  them  stronger  and  more  resistant  to  chemicals  and  drugs,  while  also  making 
them  even  more  deadly.  Homo  sapiens  have  a  natural  immunity  to  many  germs  and  the  immune  system  can 
actually  weaken  overtime  with  less  exposure  to  natural  occurring  bacteria.  So  why  then  do  so  many  Homo 
sapiens  have  an  extreme  fear  of  all  bacteria  and  think  that  they  must  be  eradicated  because  they  are  a  sign  of 
germs  and  filth  that  will  cause  disease? 

By  attempting  to  isolate  nature  and  Homo  sapiens  pseudo  perfected  world  from  each  other,  all  Homo  sapiens 
have  done  is  pollute  the  Earth  with  unnecessary  and  unnatural  chemicals  in  their  attempt  to  sterilize  everything. 
Ultimately,  having  no  real  impact  on  the  bacteria  as  it  has  adapted  and  become  stronger,  evolving  faster  than 
Homo  sapiens  futile  attempts  to  eradicate  it.  Germaphobes  and  perfectionists  certainly  have  made  a  negative 
impact  on  the  environment,  usually  with  unwarranted  fear  while  striving  for  an  unattainable  goal  to  create  a 
germ  and  dirt-free  area  by  utilizing  toxic  chemicals,  which  in  fact  do  more  harm  than  good,  especially  when  used 
in  such  vast  and  frequent  quantities.  This  mentality  has  led  to  consuming  mass  quantities  of  disinfectant  sprays, 
anti-bacterial  soaps,  hand  sanitizers,  and  wipes  in  a  futile  attempt  to  sanitize  everything.  In  most  instances  this 
disinfection  is  unneeded,  overused,  and  could  easily  be  replaced  by  a  natural  Eco-friendly  alternative  when 
needed.  Natural  bio-degradable  alternatives  like  simple  hot  water,  vinegar,  baking  soda,  citrus,  or  other  flora- 
based  cleansing  solutions  can  be  used  just  as  effectively. 

Another  consumer  cleaning  consumption  concern  are  the  scrubbers,  mops,  and  other  cleaning  tools,  all  of  which 
are  made  of  synthetic  plastics  and  when  used  flake  off  millions  of  microscopic  plastic  particle  fragments  that 
ultimately  end  up  in  the  water  and  soil.  In  addition,  many  dishes  are  made  from  plastic,  Teflon,  or  another 
synthetic  chemical,  and  when  cleaned  microscopic  particle  fragments  also  flake  off  directly  from  the  dishes  and 
other  kitchenware.  How  much  of  a  negative  impact  on  Earth  are  all  these  chemicals  and  microscopic  fragments 
of  plastic  having?  Could  this  antibacterial  paranoia  breed  even  more  deadly  bacteria  resistant  to  even  the  most 
powerful  known  anti-bacterial  agents?  How  can  all  of  these  chemicals  going  into  sewage  sludge  for  possible 


agricultural  fertilizer,  or  directly  into  the  soil  and  water  of  Earth  be  acceptable?  Could  dependence  on  these 
products  result  in  Homo  sapiens  natural  immune  system  becoming  less  effective?  Have  Homo  sapiens  only 
created  more  problems  with  their  attempted  sanitization  solutions?  Would  one  need  so  many  antibacterial  and 
degreaser  agents  to  clean  dishes  if  they  did  not  consume  fatty  fauna-based  foods?  How  much  excessive  soap  is 
applied  out  of  habit,  when  none  is  even  necessary  as  hot  water  would  work  sufficiently  (e.g.  rinsing  simple  non¬ 
sticking  foods  like  bread  crumbs  off  a  plate)? 

Sunscreen,  Tanning,  Cosmetics,  and  Tattoos 

A  variety  of  toxic  ingredients  like,  p-Aminobenzoic  acid,  phenylbenzimidazole  sulfonic  acid,  benzophenone-3, 
and  titanium  dioxide  are  used  to  make  most  sunscreens.  A  study  which  sampled  the  U.S.  general  population  >  6 
years  of  age  found  that  96.8%  of  participants  had  benzophenone-3  in  their  urine  sample.  (420)  Chemicals  used  in 
sunscreen  have  also  been  found  to  awaken  dormant  coral  viruses  causing  the  coral  to  become  sick  and  often  die. 
An  estimated  4,000  to  6,600  tons  of  sunscreen  are  washed  off  in  oceans,  lakes,  and  rivers  polluting  these  aquatic 
ecosystems  and  can  also  kill  the  florae  and  faunae  which  inhabit  them.  (418)  A  2014  report  conducted  by 
researchers  in  Spain  on  sunscreen  as  a  source  of  hydrogen  peroxide  production  stated, 

“Sunscreens  have  been  shown  to  give  the  most  effective  protection  for  human  skin  from  ultraviolet  (UV)  radiation.  Chemicals 
from  sunscreens  (i.e.,  UV  filters)  accumulate  in  the  sea  and  have  toxic  effects  on  marine  organisms.  In  this  report,  we 
demonstrate  that  photoexcitation  of  inorganic  UV  filters  (i.e.,  TiCb  and  ZnO  nanoparticles)  under  solar  radiation  produces 
significant  amounts  of  hydrogen  peroxide  (H2O2),  a  strong  oxidizing  agent  that  generates  high  levels  of  stress  on  marine 
phytoplankton.  Our  results  indicate  that  the  inorganic  oxide  nanoparticle  content  in  1  g  of  commercial  sunscreen  produces 
rates  of  H2O2  in  seawater  of  up  to  463  nM/h,  directly  affecting  the  growth  of  phytoplankton.  Conservative  estimates  for  a 
Mediterranean  beach  reveal  that  tourism  activities  during  a  summer  day  may  release  on  the  order  of  4  kg  of  Ti02 
nanoparticles  to  the  water  and  produce  an  increment  in  the  concentration  of  H2O2  of  270  nM/day.  Our  results,  together  with 
the  data  provided  by  tourism  records  in  the  Mediterranean,  point  to  Ti02  nanoparticles  as  the  major  oxidizing  agent  entering 
coastal  waters,  with  direct  ecological  consequences  on  the  ecosystem.”  (419) 

Not  only  does  sunscreen  destroy  aquatic  ecosystems  and  the  biota  within  these  ecosystems,  it  does  not  even  truly 
protect  the  skin,  because  ultimately  the  toxic  chemicals  are  washed  off,  or  they  are  absorbed  through  the  skin 
potentially  causing  health  issues.  Would  it  not  be  more  logical  to  stay  out  of  the  sunlight  during  peak  exposure 
hours,  or  use  an  umbrella  and  tan  with  non-direct  sunlight?  Is  an  ever-fading  aesthetical  tan  worth  destroying 
aquatic  ecosystems  and  getting  skin  cancer?  Why  aren't  eco-friendly  ingredients  like  almond  oil,  coconut  oil,  red 
raspberry  seed  oil,  carrot  seed  oil,  shea  butter,  or  other  flora-based  ingredients  used  instead  which  naturally 
contain  a  sun  protection  factor  (SPF)? 

Since  the  late  1970s,  some  Homo  sapiens  have  practiced  indoor  tanning  with  tanning  beds  which  emit  ultraviolet 
radiation,  and  can  potentially  cause  skin  cancer,  weakening  of  the  immune  system,  and  skin  aging.  Other  Homo 
sapiens  practice  sunless  tanning  by  utilizing  a  variety  of  potentially  toxic  ingredients  like  carotenoids,  lycopene, 
beta-carotene,  canthaxanthin,  dihydroxyacetone,  temporary  bronzers,  SlK-lnhibitors,  tyrosine-based  products, 
melanotan  peptide  hormones,  and  other  melanogenesis  stimulants.  There  are  also  some  in  Asia,  Africa  and  the 
Middle  East  with  dark  skin  pigmentation  who  reduce  the  content  of  melanin  of  their  skin  by  utilizing  a 
concoction  of  potentially  toxic  chemicals,  either  internally  in  the  form  of  prescription  medication,  or  externally 
in  the  form  of  a  skin  cream.  Is  the  aesthetical  appearance  of  having  light  or  dark  skin  worth  the  possible  negative 
medical  side-effects  and  environmental  impacts?  Does  changing  skin  color  really  make  you  a  different  race  or 
ethnicity?  If  a  Caucasian,  Asian,  African,  or  Indian  alters  their  skin  color,  does  it  change  what  race  or  ethnicity 
they  originated  from  or  their  true  physical  characteristics,  is  this  not  actually  in  the  deoxyribonucleic  acid 
(DNA)? 

Coiporations,  entertainment,  and  even  some  members  of  society  itself  promote  an  image  of  artificially  created 
beauty,  one  made  up  of  synthetic  toxic  chemicals  which  consist  of  cosmetics,  clothing,  diet  products,  surgery, 
and  other  related  beauty  products  and  services.  Consumers  are  made  to  think  they  can  look  like  the  model  who  is 
used  to  market  the  products  or  services  through  advertisements,  and  most  will  never  achieve  this  impossible 
unrealistic  image  which  is  based  mainly  around  narcissism  and  profits.  Why  can’t  Homo  sapiens  simply  be 
themselves  as  they  are  when  they  are  bom  without  additions  and  modifications?  Are  not  all  Homo  sapiens 


naturally  beautiful,  even  with  all  their  so  called  physical  flaws,  and  more  especially  without  all  the  artificial 
additions?  Why  does  society  say  to  be  what  you  want  and  not  what  you  are,  shouldn’t  one  be  encouraged  to  want 
to  be  who  they  really  are  and  the  way  nature  made  them,  and  not  the  way  someone  else  tries  to  make  them, 
which  is  often  based  on  what  is  currently  trending  or  deemed  acceptable?  For  thousands  of  years  florae  and  even 
the  Earth  itself  was  used  to  create  cosmetics,  today  most  cosmetics  are  made  of  toxic  synthetic  chemicals.  How 
much  nail  polish,  perfume,  make-up,  hair  dye,  hairspray,  hair  gel,  and  other  cosmetics  made  with  toxic  chemicals 
are  used  daily  only  to  wash  off  and  pollute  the  water  and  soils  of  Earth? 

Millions  of  Homo  sapiens  have  tattoos,  and  although  there  are  non-metallic  less  toxic  sources  available  which 
are  also  more  eco-friendly,  most  tattoo  ink  which  used  is  derived  from  toxic  ingredients  like  mercury,  lead, 
cadmium,  nickel,  zinc,  chromium,  cobalt,  aluminum,  titanium,  copper,  iron,  barium,  ferrocyanide  and 
ferricyanide,  antimony,  arsenic,  beryllium,  calcium,  lithium,  selenium,  sulfur,  para-phenylenediamine,  and 
polymethylmethacrylate.  After  death  these  toxic  elements  are  released  into  the  atmosphere  or  soils  of  Earth. 

Fashion 

Fast  fashion  is  the  new  business  model  of  the  fashion  industry,  and  it  is  about  promoting  a  rapidly  changing  style 
for  profits  and  based  on  how  many  units  can  be  cheaply  made  and  sold,  and  not  about  quality,  functionality,  and 
durability.  One  can  watch  Andrew  Morgan's  2015  documentary  'The  True  Cost'  for  a  good  perspective  on  the  fast 
fashion  issue.  When  no  longer  wanted,  much  of  this  fashion  is  not  recycled  and  is  instead  discarded  into 
landfills.  In  the  United  States  alone,  about  24,510,000  tons  of  rubber,  leather  and  textiles  were  discarded  into 
landfills  in  2014.  (599)  How  many  billions  of  pairs  of  shoes  are  bought  each  year  and  rarely  worn?  How  much 
fashion  is  too  much?  Does  one  really  need  so  many  outfits  and  other  fashion  accessories,  50  t-shirts,  30  pairs  of 
socks,  or  20  pairs  of  shoes? 

All  clothing,  footwear,  and  other  fashion  accessories  were  made  entirely  from  durable  hemp,  bamboo,  cotton, 
linen,  or  other  natural  100%  bio-degradable  flora  fibers,  stones,  or  other  natural  materials  until  around  100  years 
ago.  Now  most  is  made  with  synthetic  fibers  like  polyamide,  acrylic,  and  polyester,  while  using  toxic  chemicals 
for  dyes,  all  of  which  pollutes  the  Earth  when  washed  and  ultimately  when  discarded.  In  the  United  States,  there 
are  22,000  dry  cleaners  most  of  which  use  toxic  chemicals,  excessive  energy,  and  water  resources.  Dry  cleaners, 
individual  washing  machines,  and  other  methods  to  wash  clothes  often  produce  a  toxic  sludge  containing  dyes, 
microscopic  fragments  of  synthetic  fibers,  toxic  chemicals  from  detergents,  and  other  residues.  Is  polluting  the 
Earth  with  toxic  laundry  detergents  necessary  when  so  many  natural  flora-based  alternatives  are  available? 


Dry  Cleaning  Methods 

Cleaning  Agent 

Description 

Perchloroethylene 

(tetrachloroethylene) 

Perchloroethylene  (tetrachloroethylene)  has  been  in  use  since  the  1940s.  Perc  is  the  most  common 
solvent,  the  “standard”  for  cleaning  performance.  It  is  a  most  aggressive  cleaner.  It  can  cause  color 
bleeding/loss,  especially  at  higher  temperatures,  and  may  damage  special  trims,  buttons,  and  beads  on 
some  garments.  Better  for  oil-based  stains  (which  account  for  about  10%  of  stains)  than  more  common 
water-soluble  stains  (coffee,  wine,  blood,  etc.).  Known  for  leaving  a  characteristic  chemical  smell  on 
garments.  Nonflammable.  Perc  is  becoming  less  popular  due  to  its  ground  contamination  problems  and 
potential 

health  effects.  Perc,  however,  was  incidentally  the  first  chemical  to  be  classified  as  a  carcinogen  by  the 
U.S.  Consumer  Product  Safety  Commission. 

Hydrocarbon 

Hydrocarbon  is  most  like  standard  dry  cleaning  but  the  processes  use  hydrocarbon  solvents  such  as 
Exxon-Mobil's  DF-2000  or  Chevron  Phillips'  EcoSolv.  These  petroleum-based  solvents  are  less 
aggressive  than  perc  and  require  a  longer  cleaning  cycle.  Although  combustible,  these  solvents  do  not 
present  a  high  risk  of  fire  or  explosion  when  used  properly.  Hydrocarbon  also  contains  volatile  organic 
compounds  (VOCs)  that  contribute  to  smog.  Pure  Diy  is  another  brand. 

D  i  bu  to  xyme  thane 

Dibutoxymethane  is  a  product  offered  by  Kreussler.  It  is  sold  under  the  trade  name  SolvonK4.  It  is  a 
bipolar  solvent  that  removes  water  based  stains  and  oil  based  stains.  SolvonK4  is  considered  to  be  one 
of  the  best  replacements  solvents  for  perc  as  cleaning  performance  is  very  similar. 

Liquid  silicone 

Liquid  silicone  (decamethylcyclopentasiloxane  or  D5)  is  gentler  on  garments  than  perc  and  does  not 

(decamethylcyclopentasiloxane 
or  D5) 

cause  color  loss.  It  is  licensed  by  GreenEarth  Cleaning.  Though  more  environmentally  friendly,  it  is 
more  expensive.  Degrades  within  days  in  the  environment  to  silicon  dioxide  and  trace  amounts  of 
water  and  CO2.  Produces  nontoxic,  nonhazardous  waste.  Toxicity  tests  by  Dow  Coming  shows  the 
solvent  to  increase  the  incidence  of  tumors  in  female  rats  (no  effects  were  seen  in  male  rats),  but  further 
research  concluded  that  the  effects  observed  in  rats  are  not  relevant  to  humans  because  the  biological 
pathway  that  results  in  tumor  fonnation  is  unique  to  rats.  (170.6  °F/77  °C  flash  point). 

Brominated  solvents  n-Propyl 
bromide  (Fabrisolv,  DrySolv) 

Brominated  solvents  n-Propyl  bromide  (Fabrisolv,  DrySolv)  is  a  solvent  with  a  higher  KB-value  than 
Perc.  This  allows  it  to  clean  faster,  but  it  can  damage  some  synthetic  beads  and  sequins  if  not  used 
correctly.  Flealth-wise,  there  are  reported  risks  associated  with  11PB  such  as  numbness  of  nerves.  The 
exposure  to  the  solvents  in  a  typical  dry  cleaner  is  considered  far  below  the  levels  required  to  cause  any 
risk.  Environmentally,  it  is  approved  by  the  U.S.  EPA  as  an  alternative  to  hazardous  solvents  used  in 
the  past.  It  is  among  the  more  expensive  solvents,  but  due  its  faster  cleaning,  lower  temperatures,  and 
quick  dry  times,  it’s  considered  to  have  the  same  or  lower  costs  overall  for  the  entire  process. 

Supercritical  CO2 

Consumer  Reports  rated  this  method  superior  to  conventional  methods,  but  the  Diycleaning  and 

Laundry  Institute  commented  on  its  “fairly  low  cleaning  ability”  in  a  2007  report.  Another  industry 
certification  group,  America’s  Best  Cleaners,  counts  CO2  cleaners  among  its  members.  Machinery  is 
expensive — up  to  $90,000  more  than  a  perc  machine,  making  affordability  difficult  for  small 
businesses.  Some  cleaners  with  these  machines  keep  traditional  machines  on-site  for  the  heavier  soiled 
textiles,  but  others  find  plant  enzymes  to  be  equally  effective  and  more  environmentally  sustainable. 
CCh-cleaned  clothing  does  not  off-gas  volatile  compounds.  CO2  cleaning  is  also  used  for  fire-  and 
water-damage  restoration  due  to  its  effectiveness  in  removing  toxic  residues,  soot  and  associated  odors 
of  fire.  The  environmental  impact  is  very  low.  Carbon  dioxide  is  almost  entirely  nontoxic,  it  does  not 
persist  in  clothing  or  in  the  environment,  and  its  greenhouse  gas  potential  is  lower  than  that  of  many 
organic  solvents. 

Glycol  ethers  (dipropylene 
glycol  tertiary-butyl  ether) 
(Rynex,  Solvair,  Caled 

Impress) 

Glycol  ethers  (dipropylene  glycol  tertiary-butyl  ether)  (Rynex,  Solvair,  Caled  Impress)  is  a  proposed  an 
environmentally  friendly  competitor  with  perc  with  processing  advantaged.  However  these  solvents  are 
generally  a  blended  product  and  not  pure  like  GreenEarth  or  SolvonK4. 

SOURCE:  Wikipedia  (with  some  corrections,  additions,  and  other  edits) 

Paint 

Until  around  150  years  ago  all  paints  were  100%  natural  and  biodegradable,  but  now  paints  are  usually  made 
with  a  variety  of  mostly  synthetic  toxic  chemicals  like:  volatile  organic  compounds  (VOCs),  polyesters,  alkyds, 
epoxy,  acrylics,  vinyl-acrylics,  vinyl  acetate/ethylene  (VAE),  polyurethanes,  melamine  resins,  silanes,  siloxanes, 
and  other  toxic  chemicals.  In  2015,  global  paint  sales  were  37,270,000  tons,  or  around  8,926,946,108  gallons, 
which  were  used  for  the  architectural,  industrial,  and  special  purpose  coatings  markets.  (587)  How  many  billions 
of  gallons  of  toxic  paint  have  been  used  in  the  world  over  the  last  150  years?  How  much  lead  paint  was  used 
when  it  was  the  industry  standard?  How  much  paint  flakes  off  everyday  releasing  toxic  chemicals  into  the 
environment?  Why  isn’t  a  more  natural  and  bio-degradable  paint  used  instead?  For  more  than  30,000  years, 
Homo  sapiens  used  stone,  mica,  glass,  and  other  natural  materials  to  create  glitter  used  in  art,  cosmetics,  and 
other  products.  Then,  in  1934,  synthetic  plastic  glitter  was  invented,  and  although  there  are  now  even  more 
methods  of  creating  natural  bio-degradable  glitter,  millions  of  pounds  of  synthetic  plastic  glitter  are  used  each 
year  instead,  which  ultimately  flakes  off  and  pollutes  the  Earth. 

Cities 

In  most  cities  there  is  far  less  vegetation  and  natural  landscape,  so  most  of  the  sun’s  energy  is  instead  absorbed 
by  buildings  and  asphalt  which  leads  to  higher  surface  temperatures.  How  much  do  these  urban  heat  islands 
contribute  to  global  warming?  How  much  energy  is  wasted,  and  pollution  is  generated  through  using  more  air 
conditioning  because  of  urban  heat  islands?  How  many  thousands  of  residents  have  died  during  heat  waves  as  a 
result  of  living  within  an  urban  heat  island?  Could  not  solar  panels  be  designed  to  replace  traditional  roof  tiles 
and  shingles  so  that  this  heat  energy  could  be  absorbed  and  utilized  instead?  Could  not  glass  windows  be 
replaced  with  a  solar  panel  type  glass  to  harness  even  more  energy?  Could  urban  heat  islands  be  eliminated 
entirely  by  simply  planting  flora  on  rooftops,  thus  reducing  surface  temperatures  while  also  providing  residents 
with  fresh  fruits  and  vegetables?  Will  more  cities  continue  to  greenify  areas  allowing  for  more  coexistence  with 


nature? 


0  55 


SOURCE:  NASA  -  Impervious  surfaces  which  include  pavement  surfaces  like  roads,  sidewalks,  driveways,  parking  lots,  airports,  ports 
and  other  distribution  centers,  etc.  cover  a  large  percentage  of  urban  land  area.  The  map  above  shows  increasing  percentage  of  impervious 
surfaces  in  darker  shades  of  pink.  Among  the  data  used  to  identify  impervious  surfaces  are  satellite  observations  of  city  lights  at  night. 
(Map  by  Robert  Simmon,  based  on  data  from  Chris  Elvidge,  NOAA National  Geophysical  Data  Center.) 
https://earthobservatorv.nasa.gov/Features/Lawn/lawn2.pliD 

Vast  portions  of  the  Earth  have  been,  and  are  still,  being  permanently  sealed  as  a  result  of  city  expansion,  with 
most  cities  sealing  70%  or  more  of  the  municipality  areas  with  buildings,  roads,  sidewalks,  parking  lots,  and 
other  structures.  In  the  wake  of  this  invasion,  millions  of  faunae  and  florae  have  perished  as  a  result  of  habitat 
destruction,  and  many  species  having  been  extirpated.  In  2013,  the  CIA  estimated  there  were  64,285,009  km  or 
39,944,852  miles  of  paved  and  unpaved  roads  in  the  world.  (474)  These  roads  have  sealed  portions  of  the  Earth 
while  also  fragmenting  habitats  and  disrupting  migration  routes  for  some  migrating  species.  These  roads  also 
allow  rainwater  and  snowmelt  runoff  to  easily  collect  oil,  heavy  metals,  trash,  road  salt,  and  other  toxic 
chemicals,  and  then  transport  them  into  the  hydrosphere.  In  addition,  when  the  rainwater  falls  onto  hard  city 
surfaces,  the  water  runs  off  and  is  taken  away  by  rivers  and  the  water  never  reaches  the  ground  to  replenish  the 
water  table,  ultimately  resulting  in  the  many  areas  becoming  drier  and  drier. 

City  infrastructures  are  built  and  maintained  with  collected  taxes,  yet  many  lack  even  the  most  basic 
maintenance,  and  when  there  are  budget  problems  because  of  poor  management  it  is  the  citizens  which 
ultimately  pay  the  price  and  suffer.  When  so  many  cities  where  struggling  during  the  2008  financial  crisis, 
educational  services  like  library  hours  were  the  first  to  see  cutbacks,  city  workers  were  laid  off,  recreation 
programs  were  slashed,  and  some  cities  even  cut  other  vital  services  like  police  and  fire  protection  and  trash 
service.  Some  cities  around  the  world  either  charge  for  restroom  access  or  do  not  even  offer  a  public  restroom, 
forcing  their  citizens  to  urinate  and  defecate  on  the  city  sidewalks  when  they  can  no  longer  wait  or  have  no  other 
option.  In  addition  to  paying  taxes,  tolls  and  parking  meters  levy  a  charge  to  drive  and  park  on  certain  roads. 
Many  city  streets  around  the  world  have  fallen  into  ruin  from  lack  of  maintenance,  as  the  money  which  is 
collected  in  the  form  of  taxes  and  which  is  supposed  to  be  spent  wisely  on  services  for  the  citizens  and  the 
maintenance  of  the  city’s  infrastructure,  are  diverted  and  spent  on  other  useless  things,  or  they  are  stolen  by 
greedy  politicians  and  their  business  associates  in  the  form  of  a  $435  claw  hammer  or  a  $437  measuring  tape 
(546)  with  little  or  no  consequences.  How  can  the  federal  government  and  most  states  say  that  parks  and  other 
protected  areas  of  nature  are  for  the  citizens  and  belong  to  the  citizens  and  yet  charge  for  access  to  them? 
Shouldn't  tax  dollars  be  used  for  maintaining  parks  and  allow  access  to  all  for  free? 


SOURCE:  NASA  -  For  more  than  four  decades,  Landsat  satellites  have  collected  images  of  Shanghai.  This  series  from  Landsat  5,  7,  and  8 
shows  the  city’s  growing  footprint  between  1984  and  2016.  Developed  areas  appear  gray  and  white;  farmland  and  forests  are  green; 
shallow,  sediment-filled  water  is  tan.  https://earthobservatorv.nasa.gov/Features/WorldOfChange/shanghai.php 


SOURCE:  NASA  -  In  1984,  the  core  of  the  city  was  centered  on  the  west  bank  of  the  Huangpu  River,  a  manmade  tributary  of  the  Yangtze 
River.  Since  then,  Shanghai  has  expanded  in  all  directions,  filling  in  what  had  mainly  been  farmland  with  new  housing,  factories, 
shopping,  parking  lots,  and  roads.  Pudong,  the  once  rural  district  west  of  Huangpu  River,  now  has  a  population  of  more  than  5  million 
people  and  is  home  to  some  of  Shanghai’s  tallest  and  most  iconic  buildings.  Unlike  the  images  at  the  top  of  the  page,  each  of  which 
captures  one  day  roughly  every  five  years,  these  "best-pixel  mosaics"  are  made  up  of  small  parts  of  many  images  captured  over  five-year 
periods.  The  first  image  is  a  mosaic  of  scenes  captured  between  1984  and  1988;  the  second  shows  the  best  pixels  captured  between  2013 
and  2017.  This  technique  makes  it  possible  to  strip  away  clouds  and  haze,  which  are  common  in  Shanghai. 
https://earthobservatorv.nasa.gov/Features/WorldOfChange/shanghai.php 


March  14,  1991 


March  2,  2016 


Source:  U.S.  Geological  Survey  (USGS)  Landsat  Missions  Gallery;  “New  Delhi  Among  Fastest  Growing  Urban  Areas  in  the  World;”  U.S. 
Department  of  the  Interior  /  USGS  and  NASA.  Images  taken  by  the  Thematic  Mapper  on  board  Landsat  5  and  the  Operational  Land 
Imager  onboard  Landsat  8.  Urban  expansion  in  New  Delhi,  India  March  14,  1991  -  March  2,  2016  Between  the  times  these  two  images 
were  taken,  the  population  of  India’s  capital  and  its  suburbs  (known  collectively  as  “Delhi”)  ballooned  from  9.4  million  to  25  million.  It  is 
now  second  in  population  only  to  Tokyo,  which  has  38  million  people.  The  United  Nations  Report  on  World  Urbanization  projects  that 
Delhi  will  have  37,000,000  residents  by  2030. 


SOURCE:  NASA  -  To  expand  the  possibilities  for  beachfront  tourist  development,  Dubai,  part  of  the  United  Arab  Emirates,  undertook  a 
massive  engineering  project  to  create  hundreds  of  artificial  islands  along  its  Persian  Gulf  coastline.  Built  from  sand  dredged  from  the  sea 
floor  and  protected  from  erosion  by  rock  breakwaters,  the  islands  were  shaped  into  recognizable  forms,  including  two  large  palm  trees. 
The  first  Palm  Island  constructed  was  Palm  Jumeirah,  and  the  Advanced  Spaceborne  Thermal  Emission  and  Reflection  Radiometer 
(ASTER)  on  NASA’s  Terra  satellite  observed  its  progress  from  2000  to  2011.  In  these  false-color  images,  bare  ground  appears  brown, 
vegetation  appears  red,  water  appears  dark  blue,  and  buildings  and  paved  surfaces  appear  light  blue  or  gray. 
littps://earthobservatorv.nasa.gov/Features/WorldOfChange/dubai.php 


May  1,  2014 


Source:  U.S.  Geological  Survey  (USGS)  Landsat  Missions  Gallery  "Huang  He  Delta  and  Lauzhou  Bay,"  U.S.  Department  of  the  Interior  / 
USGS  and  NASA.  Images  taken  by  the  Thematic  Mapper  onboard  Landsat  5  and  the  Operational  Land  Imager  onboard  Landsat  8.  Huang 
He  (Yellow)  delta  growth,  China  May  1,  1985  -  May  1,  2014  China's  Huang  He  (Yellow)  River  is  the  most  sediment-filled  river  on  Earth. 
Each  year,  it  transports  millions  of  tons  of  soil  from  a  plateau  it  crosses  to  a  delta  it  has  built  in  the  Bohai  Sea.  These  images  show  the 
delta's  growth  from  1985  to  2014.  The  latter  image  also  shows  another  change:  ponds  that  hold  shrimp  and  other  seafood  (seen  here  as 
dark  geometric  shapes  along  the  coastline)  were  built  on  what  were  once  tidal  flats. 


Water  Consumption,  Desertification,  and  Surface  Water  and  Groundwater  Depletion 

In  2017,  it  was  estimated  that  70%  of  world  water  consumption  is  from  agricultural  related  activities,  19%  is 
consumed  for  industrial  related  purposes,  and  11%  is  consumed  by  municipalities.  (352)  The  majority  of  the 
agricultural  water  consumption  is  from  livestock  agriculture,  which  uses  far  more  than  flora-based  agriculture  as 
can  be  seen  in  the  previous  table  Average  Water  Consumption  for  Meat  and  Dairy  Production.  By  reducing  or 
ultimately  eliminating  meat  and  dairy  consumption,  water  consumption  could  be  drastically  reduced,  while  also 
producing  less  contaminated  water  through  use.  Better  water  management  practices  from  the  individual  to  the 
commercial  level  would  also  help  to  ensure  water  is  not  wasted  and  instead  goes  towards  a  positive  use.  Since 
the  1990’s,  the  Delaware  Aqueduct,  which  provides  half  of  New  York  City’s  municipal  water,  has  been  leaking 
between  15,000,000  to  35,000,000  gallons  of  water  per  day.  In  2010,  the  city  announced  a  plan  to  address  the 
leaks  and  construction  is  expected  to  continue  through  the  year  2021.  (355)  Why  has  the  government  known 
about  this  leak  and  yet  allowed  it  to  persist  for  so  long?  Why  has  this  waste  of  such  a  precious  resource  like 
water  been  tolerated?  How  much  water  is  lost  from  millions  of  leaky  faucets  constantly  dripping? 

Good  tasting  drinkable  water  is  not  freely  available  in  the  vast  majority  of  cities  around  the  world  because  of 
either  a  contaminated  source,  improper  treatment,  or  old  deteriorating  pipes.  A  2009  Associated  Press 
investigation  about  pharmaceuticals  in  America’s  drinking  water,  found  a  variety  of  pharmaceuticals  which 
included  antibiotics,  anti-convulsants,  mood  stabilizers,  and  sex  hormones  in  the  drinking  water  supplies  of  at 
least  41,000,000  Americans  in  two  dozen  major  American  metropolitan  areas.  (615)  Drinking  water  has  become 
just  another  industry  in  which  many  thirsty  Homo  sapiens  must  resort  to  a  commercial  company  in  order  to 
obtain  properly  purified,  good  quality  tasting  water  from  a  reliable  source.  In  2015,  global  bottled  water 
consumption  was  87,000,000,000  gallons.  (506)  If  one  brews  coffee  or  tea  utilizing  tap  water  from  an  ordinary 
sink,  versus  commercially  filtered  spring  water  there  usually  is  a  vast  difference  in  taste  between  the  two.  And  an 
even  greater  taste  difference  between  water  consumed  from  an  old  plastic  container  which  has  absorbed  liquid 
odors  over  time  versus  a  glass  vessel.  Have  Homo  sapiens  drank  from  plastic  containers  so  much  they  no  longer 
notice  this  taste  difference?  Why  should  citizens  be  forced  to  buy  bottled  water  and  purification  systems  using 
more  plastic  and  creating  more  waste,  shouldn't  the  water  be  clean  directly  from  the  pipes  and  ultimately  from 
the  sources  the  municipalities  tap?  How  can  a  municipality  collect  taxes  and  still  charge  citizens  a  monthly  fee 
for  water  while  also  delivering  such  poor-quality  water? 

Since  the  1950’s,  water  fluoridation,  adding  fluoride  to  the  municipal  water  supply,  has  been  a  forced  medical 
treatment  by  governments  on  the  population  in  an  attempt  to  reduce  cavities.  Today  it  is  forced  on  citizens  of  25 
countries  around  the  world  by  medicating  the  water  of  435,000,000  Homo  sapiens,  most  of  whom  have  no  idea 
their  water  has  been  tainted,  and  none  of  whom  have  given  consent  for  this  medical  treatment.  In  some 
municipalities,  excessive  amounts  of  fluoride  have  been  added  which  has  led  to  overfluoridation  in  some  of  the 
population  causing  severe  dental  fluorosis,  skeletal  fluorosis,  and  weakened  bones.  Does  this  forced  medical 
procedure  really  even  work,  as  there  were  still  around  175,000,000  filling  operations  every  year  in  the  United 
States  alone?  (54)  (How  can  governments,  based  on  the  recommendations  of  just  a  few  doctors,  unethically  force 
this  medical  treatment  on  their  citizens?  Can  citizens  not  obtain  adequate  levels  of  fluoride  from  fresh  fruits  and 
vegetables  that  also  contain  calcium,  iron,  potassium,  phosphorus,  niacin,  folic  acid,  B12,  B2,  B6,  zinc,  vitamin 
A,  vitamin  C,  and  vitamin  E,  which  also  promote  healthy  teeth  and  gums?  Would  not  promoting  better  dietary 
habits  and  dental  hygiene  perhaps  be  equally,  if  not  more  effective? 

Around  10,000,000  homes  and  buildings  in  the  United  States  receive  water  from  service  lines  that  are  at  least 
partially  lead  pipes.  (199)  In  the  United  States,  from  1999  to  2010,  an  estimated  1,200,000  children  aged  12 
months  to  5  years  old  had  elevated  blood  lead  levels  with  607,000  cases  reported  to  the  CDC.  (339)  Why  are  lead 
pipes  still  used  when  they  can  possibly  cause  lead  poisoning  which  is  fatal  and  irreversible?  Why  has  such  a 
known  and  easily  preventable  toxic  exposure  issue  been  allowed  to  continue  in  a  nation  which  has  the 
technology  and  financial  ability  to  so  easily  correct  it? 


May  15,  1984 


Source:  U.S.  Geological  Survey  (USGS)  Landsat  Missions  Gallery;  Lake  Mead  Reaches  Historic  Low;  U.S.  Department  of  the  Interior  / 
USGS  and  NASA.  Images  taken  by  the  Thematic  Mapper  on  board  Landsat  5  and  the  Operational  Land  Imager  onboard  Landsat  8.  Lake 
Mead  at  record  low  May  15,  1984  -  May  23,  2016  Lake  Mead,  the  largest  reservoir  in  the  U.S.,  has  fallen  to  the  lowest  level  since  it 
began  filling  in  the  1930s,  the  result  of  16  years  of  drought  in  the  Colorado  River  Basin.  The  1984  image  shows  the  lake  nearly  full, 
compared  to  37  percent  full  in  the  2016  image.  Lake  Mead  supplies  water  to  25  million  people,  including  virtually  all  of  Las  Vegas  and 
farms,  tribes  and  businesses  in  Arizona,  California,  Nevada  and  northern  Mexico.  Also  see  this  image  pair. 


SOURCE:  NASA  -  The  Colorado  River  flows  from  the  Rocky  Mountains  in  Colorado  through  the  southwestern  United  States.  Along  its 
route,  the  river  passes  through  an  elaborate  water-management  system  designed  to  tame  the  yearly  floods  from  spring  snowmelt  and  to 
provide  a  reliable  supply  of  water  for  residents  as  far  away  as  California.  The  system  is  appreciated  for  the  water  it  supplies,  but  criticized 
for  the  environmental  problems  and  cultural  losses  that  have  resulted  from  its  creation. 

Among  the  dams  on  the  Colorado  is  Arizona’s  Glen  Canyon  Dam,  which  creates  Lake  Powell.  The  deep,  narrow,  meandering  reservoir 
extends  upstream  into  southern  Utah.  In  the  early  21st  century,  this  modem  marvel  of  engineering  faced  an  ancient  enemy:  prolonged 
drought  in  the  American  Southwest.  Combined  with  water  withdrawals  that  many  believe  are  not  sustainable,  the  drought  has  caused  a 
dramatic  drop  in  Lake  Powell’s  water  level. 

Global  warming  is  expected  to  make  droughts  more  severe  in  the  future.  Even  in  “low  emission”  climate  scenarios  (forecasts  that  are 
based  on  the  assumption  that  future  carbon  dioxide  emissions  will  increase  relatively  slowly),  models  predict  precipitation  may  decline  by 
20-25  percent  over  most  of  California,  southern  Nevada,  and  Arizona  by  the  end  of  this  century.  Precipitation  declines  combined  with 
booming  urban  populations  will  present  a  significant  challenge  to  Western  water  managers  in  the  near  future. 
https://earthobservatorv.nasa.gov/Features/WorldOfChange/lake  powell.php 


April  12,  2013 


January  15,  2016 


Source:  NASA  Earth  Observatory  -  Images  taken  by  the  Operational  Land  Imager  onboard  Landsat  8  -  Drying  Lake  Poopo,  Bolivia  April 
12,  2013  -  January  15,  2016  Lake  Poopo,  Bolivia’s  second-largest  lake  and  an  important  fishing  resource  for  local  communities,  has  dried 
up  once  again  because  of  drought  and  diversion  of  water  sources  for  mining  and  agriculture.  The  last  time  it  dried  was  in  1994,  after 
which  it  took  several  years  for  water  to  return  and  even  longer  for  ecosystems  to  recover.  In  wet  times,  the  lake  has  spanned  an  area 
approaching  1,200  square  miles  (3,000  square  kilometers).  Its  shallow  depth — typically  no  more  than  9  feet  (3  meters) — makes  it 
particularly  vulnerable  to  fluctuations. 

Overuse  and  prolonged  droughts  resulting  from  shifting  weather  patterns  caused  by  global  warming,  have  both 
contributed  to  major  water  level  decreases  in  some  lakes  and  other  bodies  of  water  throughout  the  world. 
Desertification  is  usually  a  natural  occurring  event  caused  by  climate  shifts,  but  in  recent  decades  it  has  been 
attributed  to  anthropogenic  activities  in  the  ecosystem,  mainly  overgrazing,  agriculture,  and  deforestation  which 
have  ultimately  led  to  land  exhaustion.  The  Aral  Sea  was  once  the  fourth  largest  lake  in  the  world,  but  now, 
because  of  anthropogenic  activities  and  ultimately  overuse,  it  is  now  a  dry  toxic  barren  wasteland  from  all  the 


pesticides,  fertilizers,  and  microbiological  warfare  experiments.  And  the  once  natural  dust  storms  of  the  past,  are 
now  literally  toxic  dust  storms  blowing  these  toxic  elements  around.  A  dam  and  over-exploitation  by  means  of 
irrigation  to  grow  food  crops  and  cotton,  a  high  water  consuming  crop,  in  an  arid  climate  has  resulted  in  the  lake 
literally  disappearing  within  37  years,  along  with  the  flora  and  fauna  species,  some  no  doubt  endemic.  Mark 
Synnott  in  the  June  2015  National  Geographic  Magazine  stated, 

"Besides  toxic  levels  of  sodium  chloride,  the  dust  is  laced  with  pesticides  such  as  DDT,  hexachlorocyclohexane,  toxaphene, 
and  phosalone — all  known  carcinogens.  The  chemicals  have  worked  their  way  into  every  level  of  the  food  chain. 

Today  Karakalpakstan  registers  esophageal  cancer  rates  25  times  as  high  as  the  world  average.  Multidrug-resistant 
tuberculosis  is  a  major  problem,  and  respiratory  diseases,  cancers,  birth  defects,  and  immunological  disorders  are  widespread. 

Perhaps  even  more  frightening  is  the  revelation  that  the  Aral  Sea  once  was  home  to  a  secret  Soviet  biological  weapons  testing 
facility.  Located  on  Vozrozhdeniya  Island — which,  now  that  the  sea  is  gone,  is  no  longer  an  island — the  facility  was  the  main 
test  site  for  the  Soviet  military’s  Microbiological  Warfare  Group.  Thousands  of  animals  were  shipped  to  the  island,  where 
they  were  subjected  to  anthrax,  smallpox,  plague,  brucellosis,  and  other  biological  agents. 

When  the  Aral  was  healthy,  the  water  was  brackish,  with  a  salinity  level  of  10  grams  per  liter  (the  world’s  oceans  range  from 
33  to  37  grams  per  liter).  Today  the  salinity  exceeds  110  grams  per  liter,  making  it  deadly  to  every  species  of  fish." 

The  Aral  Sea  is  yet  another  chapter  in  the  history  of  Homo  sapiens  destructive  hand  on  the  fragile  environment 
of  Earth,  and  the  consequences  of  those  actions.  Will  this  lake  ever  cover  26,000  square  miles  again?  Possibly 
over  time  with  proper  conservation,  but  the  endemic  species  of  florae  and  faunae  that  have  may  have  already 
become  extinct  will  never  return.  How  inhabitable  is  the  area  now  or  in  the  future  to  most  florae  or  faunae 
because  of  the  salinity,  fallout  from  the  toxic  fertilizers  and  pesticides  that  were  used  during  the  cotton  farming, 
and  the  remaining  side  effects  of  the  microbiological  warfare  experiments? 


SOURCE:  NASA  -  Aral  Sea  in  1989  (left)  and  in  2008  (right)  - 
https://earthdata.nasa.gov/earth-observation-data/near-real-time/rapid-response 


SOURCE:  NASA  -  Overuse  and  other  anthropogenic  activities  led  to  the  rapid  depletion  of  Lake  Chad  in  Africa. 


SOURCE:  NASA  -  “Key  reservoirs  in  South  Africa’s  Western  Cape  province  have  dropped  to  critical  levels.  At  the  start  of 


November  2017,  Theewaterskloof  reservoir,  the  largest  in  the  province’s  water  supply  system,  had  dropped  to  27  percent  of 


capacity.  Voelvlei,  the  second  largest,  was  at  28  percent  of  capacity. 


Following  two  successive  dry  years,  the  Western  Cape  government  declared  the  province  a  disaster  area  in  May  2017.  With 
the  rainy  season  (April  through  September)  now  past,  hopes  that  nature  would  ease  the  drought  this  year  have  faded. 

The  two  satellite  images  above  show  Theewaterskloof  before  and  during  the  drought.  The  top  image  was  acquired  on  October 
18,  2014,  when  the  reservoir  was  at  full  capacity.  The  second  image  was  collected  on  October  10,  2017,  when  it  was  at  27 
percent  capacity.  Notice  the  tan  “bathtub  ring”  of  exposed  sediment  around  the  edges  of  the  basin — an  indication  of  lowered 
water  levels.”  https://earthobservatorv.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=91217 


September  24,  2011 


September  20,  2016 


SOURCE:  NASA  -  “For  more  than  150  years,  humans  have  been  taking  more  water  out  of  the  Salt  Lake  watershed  than  is 
flowing  into  it.  They  are  now  diverting  about  40  percent  of  the  river  water  (which  would  normally  fill  the  lake)  and  using  it 
for  farming,  industry,  and  human  consumption.  In  October  2016,  the  Great  Salt  Lake  reached  its  lowest  recorded  level: 
1277.5  meters  (4, 191 .2  feet),  averaged  between  the  lake's  north  and  south  arms.  Five  years  of  drought  in  the  American  West 
have  contributed  to  the  recent  drop  in  the  water  line,  as  have  higher-than-normal  temperatures.  But  the  region  has  seen  dry 
cycles  before,  and  according  to  scientists,  there  has  not  been  a  significant  long-term  change  in  precipitation  in  the  basin. 


Nonetheless,  the  volume  of  water  in  Great  Salt  Lake  has  shrunk  by  48  percent  and  the  lake  level  has  fallen  3.4  meters  (11 
feet)  since  1847. 

In  a  white  paper  released  in  February  2016,  Wurtsbaugh  and  colleagues  described  the  impact  of  water  development  on  the 
Great  Salt  Lake.  Using  hydrogeologic  data  and  models,  the  team  found  that  river  flow  into  the  basin — from  the  Bear,  Jordan, 
and  Weber  rivers — has  been  reduced  39  percent  since  the  middle  of  the  19th  century.  Water  that  once  spread  across  roughly 
4100  square  kilometers  (1,600  square  miles)  now  covers  just  2700  square  kilometers  (1,050  square  miles).  “The  solution  to 
the  water  issue  is  greater  conservation,  particularly  for  agricultural  irrigation,”  said  Wurtsbaugh.  The  state  has  been 
promoting  water  conservation  for  urban  and  suburban  areas,  but  this  is  only  about  8  percent  of  water  use.  And  while  per 
person  water  use  is  down  by  1 8  percent,  those  gains  are  offset  by  a  growing  population  that  is  increasing  overall  water  use. 

The  hardest  work  lies  in  convincing  farmers  to  do  more  with  less,  as  approximately  63  percent  of  the  water  usage  goes  to 
agriculture.  Researchers  and  conservationists  are  also  concerned  about  future  plans  for  development  along  Bear  River,  the 
largest  tributary  flowing  to  the  lake.  The  loss  of  water  in  Great  Salt  Lake  has  led  to  more  and  larger  dust  storms  in  the  area, 
while  making  it  harder  for  companies  to  get  the  water  they  need  for  extracting  salt  and  other  minerals,  a  key  piece  of  the  local 
economy.  Marinas  and  other  water  recreation  operations  are  also  struggling  with  the  moving  shoreline.”  - 
https://earthobservatorv.nasa. gov/IOTD/view.phn?id=88929 

For  thousands  of  years  Homo  sapiens  have  constructed  simple  wells  and  pumps  to  access  groundwater,  but  over 
the  last  75  years  technology  has  now  allowed  Homo  sapiens  to  pump  vast  quantities  of  previously  inaccessible 
groundwater  to  the  surface  for  use.  If  the  water  table  is  not  allowed  to  be  replenished  because  of  sealed  surface 
areas  and  overuse,  it  will  only  become  shallower  and  shallower  until  it  eventually  it  becomes  completely 
exhausted.  Throughout  history,  groundwater  depletion  has  been  an  issue  with  some  civilizations,  the  Maya 
civilization  may  have  perhaps  collapsed  in  part  as  a  result  of  groundwater  depletion,  and  although  an  earthquake 
initiated  the  cracking  of  the  limestone  beneath  Ubar,  the  ancient  fabled  city  was  ultimately  swallowed  into  the 
Earth  as  a  result  of  groundwater  depletion.  Nicholas  Clapp  wrote  that, 

“Over  millennia,  Ubar's  great  well  had  watered  countless  caravans  and  had  been  drawn  upon  to  irrigate  a  sizable  oasis. 

Hadspan  by  handspan,  its  water  had  receded,  and  the  limestone  shelf  on  which  the  fortress  rested  became  less  and  less  stable, 
for  it  was  the  water  underneath  Ubar  that  quite  literally  held  the  place  up.  If,  as  in  legend,  there  was  a  severe  drought  -  and 
ever  more  reliance  on  a  single,  dwindling  spring  -  the  situation  would  have  become  critical.”  (560) 


SOURCE:  NASA  -  “About  one  third  of  Earth’s  large  groundwater  basins  are  being  rapidly  depleted  by  human  consumption 
even  though  we  have  scarce  and  inaccurate  data  about  how  much  water  remains  in  them,  according  to  two  new  studies 
published  in  June  2015  in  Water  Resources  Research.  This  means  significant  segments  of  Earth’s  population  are  consuming 


groundwater  without  knowing  when  it  might  run  out.  “Groundwater  is  currently  the  primary  source  of  freshwater  for 
approximately  two  billion  people,”  the  researchers  wrote.  “Despite  its  importance,  knowledge  on  the  state  of  large 
groundwater  systems  is  limited  as  compared  to  surface  water,  largely  because  the  cost  and  complexity  of  monitoring  large 
aquifer  systems  is  often  prohibitive.” 

The  map  above  shows  the  annual  change  in  groundwater  storage  from  2003  to  2013  in  the  37  largest  aquifer  systems  in  the 
world.  Basins  shown  in  shades  of  brown  have  had  more  water  extracted  in  the  study  years  than  could  be  naturally 
replenished;  basins  in  blue  saw  increases  in  underground  water  storage,  perhaps  due  to  changes  in  precipitation,  ice  or 
permafrost  melting,  or  changes  in  surface  water.  The  multidisciplinary  research  team  found  that  13  of  Earth’s  37  largest 
aquifers  are  being  depleted  while  receiving  little  to  no  recharge.  Eight  were  classified  as  “overstressed,”  with  almost  no 
natural  replenishment  to  offset  usage,  while  the  other  five  were  found  to  be  highly  stressed,  with  that  rate  of  extraction  far 
exceeding  the  little  bit  of  natural  replenishment.  Climate  change  and  population  growth  are  expected  to  intensify  the 
problem.”  -  https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=86263&eocn=image&eoci=related  image 

Groundwater  depletion  related  sinkholes  have  been  observed  in  Florida  (479),  and  land  subsidence  is  occurring 
worldwide  because  of  groundwater  depletion.  Over  the  last  100  years,  some  areas  and  cities,  like:  the  San 
Joaquin  Valley,  Mexico  City,  Shanghai,  New  Orleans,  Bangkok,  Beijing,  and  others  have  been  sinking  as  a  result 
of  groundwater  depletion.  Groundwater  depletion  has  also  become  widespread  throughout  the  United  States.  The 
USGS  reported  that, 

“Atlantic  Coastal  Plain  -  In  Nassau  and  Suffolk  Counties,  Long  Island,  New  York,  pumping  water  for  domestic 
supply  has  lowered  the  water  table,  reduced  or  eliminated  the  base  flow  of  streams,  and  has  caused  saline 
groundwater  to  move  inland. 

Many  other  locations  on  the  Atlantic  coast  are  experiencing  similar  effects  related  to  groundwater  depletion. 
Surface-water  flows  have  been  reduced  due  to  groundwater  development  in  the  Ipswich  River  basin, 

Massachusetts.  Saltwater  intrusion  is  occurring  in  coastal  counties  in  New  Jersey;  Hilton  Head  Island,  South 
Carolina;  Brunswick  and  Savannah,  Georgia;  and  Jacksonville  and  Miami,  Florida. 

Gulf  Coastal  Plain  -  Several  areas  in  the  Gulf  Coastal  Plain  are  experiencing  effects  related  to  groundwater 
depletion:  Groundwater  pumping  by  Baton  Rouge,  Louisiana,  increased  more  than  tenfold  between  the  1930s 
and  1970,  resulting  in  groundwater-level  declines  of  approximately  200  feet.  In  the  Houston,  Texas,  area, 
extensive  groundwater  pumping  to  support  economic  and  population  growth  has  caused  water-level  declines  of 
approximately  400  feet,  resulting  in  extensive  land-surface  subsidence  of  up  to  10  feet.  Continued  pumping  since 
the  1920s  by  many  industrial  and  municipal  users  from  the  underlying  Sparta  aquifer  have  caused  significant 
water-level  declines  in  Arkansas,  Louisiana,  Mississippi,  and  Tennessee.  The  Memphis,  Tennessee  area  is  one  of 
the  largest  metropolitan  areas  in  the  world  that  relies  exclusively  on  groundwater  for  municipal  supply.  Large 
withdrawals  have  caused  regional  water-level  declines  of  up  to  70  feet. 

High  Plains  -  The  High  Plains  aquifer  (which  includes  the  Ogallala  aquifer)  underlies  parts  of  eight  States  and 
has  been  intensively  developed  for  irrigation.  Since  predevelopment,  water  levels  have  declined  more  than  100 
feet  in  some  areas  and  the  saturated  thickness  has  been  reduced  by  more  than  half  in  others. 

Pacific  Northwest  -  Groundwater  development  of  the  Columbia  River  Basalt  aquifer  of  Washington  and  Oregon 
for  irrigation,  public-supply,  and  industrial  uses  has  caused  water-level  declines  of  more  than  100  feet  in  several 
areas. 

Desert  Southwest  -  Increased  groundwater  pumping  to  support  population  growth  in  south-central  Arizona 
(including  the  Tucson  and  Phoenix  areas)  has  resulted  in  water-level  declines  of  between  300  and  500  feet  in 
much  of  the  area.  Land  subsidence  was  first  noticed  in  the  1940s  and  subsequently  as  much  as  12.5  feet  of 
subsidence  has  been  measured.  Additionally,  lowering  of  the  water  table  has  resulted  in  the  loss  of  streamside 
vegetation. 

Chicago-Milwaukee  area  -  Chicago  has  been  using  groundwater  since  at  least  1864  and  groundwater  has  been 
the  sole  source  of  drinking  water  for  about  8.2  million  people  in  the  Great  Lakes  watershed.  This  long-term 
pumping  has  lowered  groundwater  levels  by  as  much  as  900  feet.”  (480) 


Base  from  U.S.  Geological  Survey  digital  data,  1972,1:2,000  000 
Albers  Equal-Area  Conic  Projection 

Standard  parallels  30  N  and  45*  30  N,  central  mericfcan  96‘  00  W 


Figure  2.  Map  of  the  United  States  (excluding  Alaska)  showing  cumulative  groundwater  depletion,  1900  through  2008,  in  40  assessed 
aquifer  systems  or  subareas.  Index  numbers  are  defined  in  table  1.  Colors  are  hatched  in  the  Dakota  aquifer  (area  39)  where  the  aquifer 
overlaps  with  other  aquifers  having  different  values  of  depletion. 


March  31,  1987 


December  7,  2000  +  May  16,  2001 

SOURCE:  NASA  -  “The  Amistad  Reservoir  is  located  on  the  Rio  Grande  along  the  border  of  the  United  States  and  Mexico. 
Combined  with  the  Falcon  Reservoir  downstream  of  it,  Amistad  regulates  the  flow  of  the  Rio  Grande  for  downstream  users. 
Combined,  these  two  reservoirs  are  running  around  thirty-three  percent  of  foil  capacity,  the  lowest  levels  recorded  since  they 
were  first  constructed  in  the  1960s.  During  the  summer  of  2002,  it  was  possible  to  walk  across  the  mouth  of  the  Rio  Grande 
without  getting  wet:  where  the  river  normally  met  the  sea  at  the  Gulf  of  Mexico,  there  was  only  a  dry,  sandy  beach.  U.S. 
border  patrol  officers  placed  an  orange  nylon  fence  in  what  should  have  been  the  riverbed  to  discourage  unintended 
international  beach  strolls. 


This  pair  of  Landsat  images  of  the  Amistad  International  Water  Reservoir  shows  the  changes  in  the  lake  level  between  1987 
and  2000.  The  early  image  in  the  spring  of  1987  shows  a  healthy  supply  of  water  behind  the  dam.  But  by  late  2000,  water 


levels  had  dropped  dramatically.  This  trend  has  continued  and  even  intensified  since  these  images  were  acquired.  The  reduced 
water  levels  are  the  result  of  a  combination  of  forces  on  the  water  supply.  First  and  foremost  is  that  the  area  is  in  the  midst  of 
a  major  sustained  drought  in  which,  year  after  year,  land  in  the  drainage  basin  of  the  upper  Rio  Grande  has  received  little  in 
the  way  of  rain  or  snow.  Water  deliveries  from  tributaries  in  northern  Mexico  have  been  well  below  historical  norms  for  the 
past  decade. 

In  addition,  population  in  the  area  has  been  growing  at  extraordinary  rates.  Factories  in  northern  Mexico  just  across  the 
border  have  blossomed,  bringing  people  into  the  area  for  jobs.  In  1970,  not  long  after  the  Amistad  and  Falcon  international 
water  reservoirs  were  completed,  the  population  of  the  lower  Rio  Grande  valley  was  estimated  to  be  around  1.1  million.  In 
2003,  it  is  roughly  2.2  million.  The  population  has  doubled  in  just  over  thirty  years.  This  trend  is  expected  to  continue  with  a 
population  of  roughly  4.9  million  anticipated  by  2030.  But  while  the  population  had  grown,  the  water  supply  has  not.  The 
prioritization  system  for  water  use  in  the  valley  puts  municipal  needs  first.  This  system  has  greatly  affected  agriculture. 

Between  1997  and  2001,  agricultural  water  supply  was  reduced  by  42%  compared  to  the  five  years  prior.  Over  a  hundred 
thousand  acres  of  agricultural  land  have  been  taken  out  of  production  in  Cameron  and  Hidalgo  counties  since  1992  for  lack  of 
water  to  irrigate  them. 

Normally,  the  water  released  from  the  reservoir  for  agricultural  maintains  the  flow  of  water  to  the  municipal  users 
downstream.  But  when  the  agricultural  releases  are  restricted,  water  flows  above  and  beyond  the  municipal  demands  are 
needed  just  to  maintain  the  river  flow  to  the  cities'  water  intakes.  Further  complicating  the  water  situation,  water  weed 
infestations  clog  the  waterways  and  restrict  flow,  requiring  still  greater  volumes  of  water  to  be  released  from  upstream  to  get 
the  river  water  to  its  destinations.  In  Matamoros,  the  river  level  has  actually  fallen  below  the  city's  intake  pipes,  while  in 
Brownsville  last  year,  the  local  water  authority  had  to  clear  clogged  weeds  off  the  intake  grates.  A  final  environmental  insult 
of  the  low  water  levels  is  the  concentration  of  pollutants  and  runoff  contaminants  in  the  water.  Wildlife  that  depends  on  the 
river,  from  birds  to  shrimp,  has  been  adversely  affected.”  - 

https://earthobservatorv.nasa. gov/IOTD/view.php?id=3739&eocn=image&eoci=related  image 

Wastewater  and  Sewage  Sludge 

Between  all  the  clothes,  automobiles,  dishes,  homes,  and  even  Homo  sapiens  themselves,  Earth's  hydrosphere 
not  only  helps  to  wash  these  things,  but  it  also  transfers  the  enormous  amount  of  dirt,  bacteria,  toxic  chemicals, 
and  other  things  that  Homo  sapiens  come  in  contact  with  daily  to  Earth's  other  spheres  and  the  ecosystems 
within  these  spheres,  (e.g.  motor  oil  from  the  clothes  of  auto  mechanic  to  the  hair  product  chemicals  of  a 
hairstylist,  most  all  professions  expose  the  worker  to  some  sort  of  toxic  chemicals,  these  chemicals  can  be 
transferred  to  the  workers  clothing  and  then  to  the  hydrosphere  when  doing  laundry)  Additional  toxic  chemicals 
are  further  added  during  the  cleaning  process  by  means  of  a  cleanser  or  soap  product,  very  few  of  which  are 
biodegradable  or  natural  and  are  fatal  if  ingested  by  living  organisms. 

Over  80%  of  the  world’s  wastewater  containing  raw  sewage,  chemicals,  agricultural  runoff,  and  other  toxically 
discarded  wastewater,  is  released  into  the  environment  without  treatment  contaminating  aquatic  ecosystems. 

(353)  In  2012,  an  estimated  1,800,000,000  Homo  sapiens  globally  used  a  source  of  drinking  water  that  was 
faecally  contaminated.  (354)  flow  can  the  western  world  be  utilizing  so  much  clean  water  on  things  like  washing 
an  automobile,  maintaining  a  golf  course,  swimming  pool,  or  aesthetically  pleasing  lawn,  while  at  the  same  time 
1,800,000,000  globally  are  drinking  faecally  contaminated  water? 

7,300,000,000  Homo  sapiens  produce  an  enormous  amount  of  feces,  urine,  and  wastewater  from  cleaning.  Some 
of  this  waste  is  treated  by  a  wide  range  of  methods,  and  the  by-product  is  sewage  sludge.  Eleavy  amounts  of 
hormones,  steroids,  prescription  drugs  (mainly  antidepressants  and  antihistamines)  (6),  nutritional  supplements, 
lead,  silver,  arsenic,  copper,  chromium,  cadmium,  and  other  toxic  chemicals  are  present  in  the  sewage  sludge  of 
the  United  States  and  many  other  industrialized  nations.  In  short,  anything  excreted  by  Homo  sapiens  or  any 
products  which  are  used  and  then  go  down  the  drain  ends  up  composing  sewage  sludge.  Much  of  this  treated 
sewage  sludge,  called  biosolid,  is  spread  over  or  injected  into  soils  and  used  as  a  fertilizer  on  agricultural  crops. 
Studies  have  shown  that  florae  bioaccumulate  large  quantities  of  heavy  metals  and  toxic  pollutants  which  are 
then  consumed  by  humans.  (45)  Why  is  this  toxic  waste  being  used  on  food  crops?  M.  B.  Kirkham  states  that, 

“Industrialized  sludges,  of  course,  can  contain  high  concentrations  of  trace  elements.  Source  control  with  limits  on  discharges 
of  toxic  trace  elements  is  practiced  by  cities  that  use  their  sludge  for  agricultural  purposes.  But  even  the  tightest  source  control 
is  unlikely  to  reduce  the  trace-element  content  much  below  the  median  value.  This  is  because  household  products  contain 
trace  elements.  The  trace  elements  likely  to  cause  toxicities  to  plants  in  soils  treated  with  large  amounts  (for  example,  400  t 
ha-1)  of  domestic  sludge  for  a  number  of  years  (15  yr)  are  cadmium,  copper,  zinc,  boron,  and  possibly  nickel. 


Cadmium  is  the  element  of  most  concern  in  sludge,  because  it  poses  the  greatest  threat  to  human  health.  Food  obtained  from 
plants  grown  on  sludge  treated  soil  might  contain  concentrations  of  cadmium  toxic  to  man  and  animals.  Cadmium  is  used  in 
electroplating,  pigments,  chemicals,  batteries,  alloys,  photographic  supplies,  fungicides,  as  well  as  other  products.  Even 
though  industrial  sources  of  cadmium  in  sludge  can  be  controlled,  domestic  sources  cannot.  For  example,  cigarette  ends 
flushed  down  toilets  raises  the  cadmium  concentration  in  sludge,  because  tobacco  has  a  high  concentration  of  cadmium.”  (5) 

Sewage  sludge  can  also  have  an  effect  on  soil  organisms,  and  like  most  other  pollution  on  Earth  it  can  very 
easily  enter  the  food  chain  as  Kirkham  further  points  out  in  writing, 

“One  result  of  sludge  disposal  on  land  is  an  increase  in  earthworms.  Trace  elements  also  can  accumulate  in  earthwonns  that 
live  in  polluted  soils,  thereby  entering  the  food  chain,  when  birds  eat  the  wonns.”  (5) 

A  20 1 7  assessment  of  irrigated  croplands  being  influenced  by  urban  wastewater  flows  stated, 

“When  urban  areas  expand  without  concomitant  increases  in  wastewater  treatment  capacity,  vast  quantities  of  wastewater  are 
released  to  surface  waters  with  little  or  no  treatment.  Downstream  of  many  urban  areas  are  large  areas  of  irrigated  croplands 
reliant  on  these  same  surface  water  sources.  Case  studies  document  the  widespread  use  of  untreated  wastewater  in  irrigated 
agriculture,  but  due  to  the  practical  and  political  challenges  of  conducting  a  true  census  of  this  practice,  its  global  extent  is  not 
well  known  except  where  reuse  has  been  planned.. .This  study  found  that  65%  (35.9  Mha)  of  downstream  irrigated  croplands 
were  located  in  catchments  with  high  levels  of  dependence  on  urban  wastewater  flows.  These  same  catchments  were  home  to 
1.37  billion  urban  residents. 

Our  analysis  provides  the  first  spatially-explicit  global  estimates  of  the  extent  to  which  irrigated  croplands  are  influenced  by 
wastewater,  both  treated  and  untreated,  finding  35.9  Mha  of  irrigated  croplands  located  in  wastewater  dependent  catchments 
(RFR  >  20%),  of  which  82%  (29.3  Mha)  are  located  in  countries  where  less  than  75%  of  wastewater  is  treated.  86%  of  these 
irrigated  croplands  were  located  in  five  countries:  China,  India,  Pakistan,  Mexico,  and  Iran.”  (402) 

A  20 17  evaluation  of  2003  to  2013  FDA  collected  and  assayed  data  found  that  20%  of  baby  food  samples,  and 
14%  of  other  food  samples  had  detectable  levels  of  lead.  (440)  While  the  FDA  has  acceptable  limits  for  lead 
exposure,  the  CDC  clearly  states, 

“Protecting  children  from  exposure  to  lead  is  important  to  lifelong  good  health.  No  safe  blood  lead  level  in 
children  has  been  identified.  Even  low  levels  of  lead  in  blood  have  been  shown  to  affect  IQ,  ability  to  pay 
attention,  and  academic  achievement.  And  effects  of  lead  exposure  cannot  be  corrected.”  (441) 

Why  does  lead  and  other  toxic  chemicals  have  acceptable  levels  of  ingestion  or  exposure?  If  something  is  toxic 
should  not  the  acceptable  level  of  ingestion  or  exposure  be  0  and  nothing  more? 

Golf  Courses 

Farge  amounts  of  land  have  been  converted  into  golf  courses,  with  each  course  occupying  between  100  and  200 
acres.  In  March  2015,  there  were  34,01 1  golf  courses  in  the  world  along  with  almost  700  additional  golf  courses 
either  under  construction  or  in  the  advanced  planning  stages.  Most  of  these  golf  courses,  were  located  within  the 
United  States,  Japan,  Canada,  England,  Australia,  Germany,  France,  Scotland,  South  Africa,  and  Sweden.  (18) 
The  environmental  impact  of  these  courses  can  be  considerable,  from  the  destruction  of  the  ecosystem  when 
creating  the  golf  course,  to  using  harmful  fertilizers  and  pesticides  for  maintenance.  Further  impacts  can  be  felt 
when  billions  of  gallons  of  water  are  used  each  year  to  sustain  the  pristine  green  grass,  with  the  typical  golf 
course  using  between  100,000  and  1,000,000  gallons  of  water  per  day  during  the  summer.  (209) 

Artificial  Snow 

In  the  1950s,  snowmaking  technology  was  developed  which  allowed  for  artificial  snow  in  places  where  once  no 
ski  resort  could  have  been  before,  in  fact  without  this  technology  many  ski  resorts  throughout  the  world  would 
not  exist.  Artificial  snow  was  used  extensively  during  the  2014  and  2018  Winter  Olympics.  Currently  there  are 
around  5,500  ski  resorts  in  the  world,  and  many  of  them  are  in  areas  which  now  have  warmer  winters,  so  they 
have  begun  to  rely  even  more  heavily  on  artificial  snow.  With  global  warming  there  will  most  likely  be  far  less 


snow  in  the  future,  and  in  some  areas  perhaps  even  none  at  all  forcing  resorts  to  rely  even  more  on  artificial 
snow.  Snowmaking  utilizes  vast  amounts  of  water  and  energy  resources  and  there  are  also  severe  impacts  on 
mountain  ecosystems.  It  takes  106  gallons  of  water  to  produce  one  cubic  meter  of  snow,  and  the  average 
snowmaking  machine  use  about  107  gallons  of  water  per  minute.  A  significant  amount  of  the  water  being  used  is 
lost  through  evaporation  and  is  never  returned  to  the  water  table.  The  water  used  is  often  mineralized  during  the 
snow  making  process  which  can  potentially  contaminate  the  soil  and  groundwater  supply  when  the  snow  melts. 

Swimming  Pools  and  Hot  Tubs 

According  to  the  CDC,  there  are  10,700,000  swimming  pools  and  7,300,000  hot  tubs  in  the  United  States  alone. 
(34)  It  is  estimated  that  swimming  pools  in  the  United  States  lose  150,000,000,000  gallons  of  water  every  year  as 
a  result  of  evaporation.  Many  of  these  swimming  pools  are  nothing  more  than  an  extreme  waste  of  water  as  they 
are  infrequently  used  for  swimming  and  are  a  nothing  more  than  a  symbol  of  social  status  or  display  of  wealth. 
Swimming  pools  and  hot  tubs  consume  an  enormous  amount  of  resources,  from  the  energy  is  used  for  pumping 
water  and  sometimes  heating  the  water,  to  the  water  consumption  from  draining  and  cleaning  the  pool  as  well  as 
through  natural  evaporation.  In  addition,  pools  are  also  a  toxic  mix  of  chlorine  and  other  chemicals  which  are 
used  to  maintain  the  water  and  can  potentially  go  into  the  soils  and  water  table,  or  if  not  carefully  measured  can 
cause  chlorine  toxicity  to  those  swimming  in  the  pool.  Swimming  pools  can  also  act  as  disease  incubators  and 
faunae  can  potentially  drown  in  them  or  be  affected  negatively  from  the  chemicals  used  in  the  pool.  These 
swimming  pools  and  hot  tubs  also  lock-up  vast  amounts  of  fresh  water  which  has  been  tainted  with  chemicals, 
with  each  swimming  pool  holding  between  50,000  and  660,000  gallons  of  water  and  each  hot  tub  holding  around 
400  gallons  of  water. 

Watercraft 

Worldwide,  there  are  millions  of  commercial  and  recreational  watercraft  which  have  a  negative  impact  on  the 
environment  in  various  ways,  such  as  carbon  emissions,  gasoline,  oil,  and  other  chemicals  leaking  into  the  water, 
boat  propellers  and  other  collisions  can  injure  and  even  kill  marine  faunae,  and  the  landscape  itself  can  be 
damaged  through  fishing  and  from  modifications  to  accommodate  large  watercraft.  Motorized  fishing  and  tour 
boats  that  visit  remote  areas  of  nature  are  similar  to  off  highway  vehicles  (OHV),  in  that  they  also  pollute  once 
pristine  aquatic  ecosystems.  In  2014,  there  were  an  estimated  4,600,000  fishing  vessels  worldwide,  with  64%  of 
reported  fishing  vessels  being  engine -powered.  (543)  There  were  also  11,804,002  registered  recreational 
watercraft  in  the  United  States  alone,  in  addition  to  the  thousands  of  Navy  and  Coast  Guard  watercraft  which 
patrol  the  coastlines,  oceans,  and  other  waterways  of  the  world. 

As  of  2017,  there  were  more  than  300  cruise  ships  operating  around  the  world,  with  more  than  22,100,000  Homo 
sapiens  going  on  cruise  ships  in  2014.  (170)  Since  the  year  2000,  there  have  been  60  new  cruise  ships  constructed 
weighing  more  than  100,000  gross  tonnes,  with  an  additional  40  currently  under  construction.  (169)  Cruise  ships 
consume  mass  amounts  of  fuel  and  emit  large  amounts  of  carbon  dioxide.  Some  cruise  lines  have  been  known  to 
intentionally  pollute  marine  environments  when  they  discharge  sewage,  grey  water,  oily  bilge  water,  garbage,  or 
other  hazardous  waste  while  in  port,  but  more  especially  while  sailing  in  international  waters  where  laws  do  not 
apply.  In  April  2017,  a  United  States  federal  judge  issued  the  largest  water  pollution  fine  in  U.S.  history  to 
Princess  Cruise  Lines  in  the  amount  of  $40,000,000  for  dumping  oil  waste  into  the  Atlantic  Ocean  and  Gulf  of 
Mexico  bypassing  the  ship's  filtration  systems  in  an  effort  to  save  money.  (344)  Previously,  from  1 996  to  200 1 ,  in 
the  Atlantic  Ocean,  Caribbean,  and  Gulf  of  Mexico,  Carnival  Cruise  Lines  dumped  oily  waste,  and  agreed  to  pay 
a  $18,000,000  fine  in  2002.  In  1999,  Royal  Caribbean  plead  guilty  to  similar  charges  and  also  paid  a 
$18,000,000  fine.  (41 1 )  Why  are  these  cruise  lines  allowed  to  repeatedly  break  the  laws  with  little  to  no 
consequences?  When  a  company  generates  more  than  $8,000,000,000  in  revenue,  is  an  $18,000,000  fine  really 
going  to  deter  future  illegal  activities? 

In  2017,  there  were  around  6,000  active  cargo  ships  operating  throughout  the  world,  (249)  most  are  powered  by 
massive  diesel  engines  which  operate  24/7  emitting  atmospheric  pollution,  and  like  cruise  ships  they  also  have 
the  potential  to  discharge  sewage,  grey  water,  oily  bilge  water,  garbage,  and  other  hazardous  waste.  Another 


impact  of  commercial  ships  is  the  anthropogenic  noise  generated,  and  over  the  last  150  years  it  has  become  so 
intense  that  right  whales  may  shift  their  call  frequency  to  compensate  for  the  increased  band-limited  background 
noise.  (531)  Each  year,  cargo  ships  loose  nearly  10,000  or  more  shipping  containers,  some  containing  thousands 
and  even  millions  of  individual  consumer  products.  (245)  Can  these  containers  not  be  made  airtight,  so  they  float 
and  be  more  securely  attached  to  the  shipping  vessel?  Can  they  not  be  outfitted  with  GPS  to  be  salvaged,  instead 
of  just  left  at  sea  to  potentially  release  their  cargo  polluting  the  oceans  and  beaches?  In  2013,  there  were  138 
cargo  ships  which  were  beyond  repair  or  recovery,  either  from  fire,  collision,  mechanical  failure,  or  other  type  of 
accident,  most  became  shipwrecks  and  now  pollute  an  aquatic  ecosystem.  (493)  How  many  thousands  of  other 
commercial  ships  and  recreational  watercraft  have  sunk  over  the  last  500  years  and  still  pollute  the  ocean,  a 
river,  lake,  or  other  aquatic  ecosystem,  some  even  being  ticking  toxic  time  bombs  waiting  to  release  a  toxic 
substance? 

In  an  attempt  to  impede  the  growth  of  barnacles,  algae,  and  other  marine  organisms,  most  watercraft  are  coated 
with  anti-fouling  paints  which  can  contain  cuprous  oxide  or  other  copper  compounds,  Teflon,  silicon,  and/or 
other  highly  toxic  pesticides.  During  the  1960s  and  1970s,  commercial  vessels  commonly  used  bottom  paints 
containing  tributyltin,  this  highly  toxic  chemical  had  serious  negative  impacts  on  marine  life,  and  it  also  led  to 
the  collapse  of  some  French  shellfish  fisheries.  How  many  billions  of  marine  organisms  have  died  as  a  result  of 
using  these  toxic  chemicals?  Could  not  a  more  natural  less  toxic  solution  be  developed  and  used  instead?  How 
many  billions  of  non-target  marine  organisms  have  also  perished  as  a  result  of  these  toxic  anti-fouling  paints? 
How  many  trillions  of  toxic  microscopic  particles  from  anti-fouling  paints  and  other  plastic  fragments  have 
flaked  off  watercraft  and  now  pollute  the  oceans,  lakes,  or  rivers? 


SOURCE:  NASA  -  "No  fishing  activity  causes  more  physical  and  ecological  “collateral  damage”  than  bottom  trawling. 
Fishing  boats  drag  large  nets  across  the  sea  floor,  scooping  up  seafood  from  shrimp  to  squid.  But  in  addition  to  their 
harvesting  of  intended  species,  many  trawls  indiscriminately  capture  non-target  species,  like  sea  turtles,  which  are  discarded. 
Trawling  crushes  or  destroys  the  seafloor  habitat  that  feeds  and  shelters  marine  life;  the  nets  literally  scrape  the  mud  off  the 
ocean  bottom.  As  the  mud  resettles,  it  can  smother  surviving  bottom-dwelling  creatures. 

The  pervasiveness  of  the  influence  of  bottom  trawlers  on  the  Gulf  of  Mexico  is  evident  in  these  images  from  NASA’s 


Landsat  satellite.  Showing  two  different  areas  of  a  single  scene  captured  on  October  24,  1999,  the  images  reveal  dozens  of 
mudtrails  streaking  the  Gulf  in  the  wake  of  numerous  trawlers,  which  appear  as  white  dots.  The  amount  of  re-suspended 
sediment  dredged  up  by  the  trawlers  gives  the  water  a  cloudy  appearance.”  -  https://visibleearth.nasa.gov/view.php7icR7751 


Each  year  tankers,  cargo  ships,  cruise  ships,  navy  ships,  yachts,  fishing  boats,  whale  watching  vessels,  or  other 
watercraft  collide  with  whales,  dolphins,  sharks,  seals,  and  other  marine  faunae  and  florae,  some  of  them  fatal 
and  many  of  the  collisions  often  going  unnoticed  or  unreported.  (376)  Since  2007,  the  International  Whaling 
Commission  has  been  developing  a  global  database  of  collisions  between  ships  and  whales,  as  of  May  2016  the 
database  contained  more  than  1,200  incidents.  In  2005,  billionaire  Jeff  Greene's  luxury  yacht  Summerwind 
allegedly  damaged  a  coral  reed  off  the  coast  of  Belize  And  although  the  incident  was  well  documented  but  still 
denied,  neither  Greene  or  the  captain  were  criminally  charged,  nor  did  they  perform  any  reef  restoration.  (426)  In 
January  2016,  billionaire  Paul  Allen's  super  yacht  ‘Tatoosh  ’  damaged  13,000  square  feet  of  a  coral  reef  in  the 
Cayman  Islands.  Allen  had  remediation  work  done  to  the  reef  reattaching  more  than  1,600  organisms  in  March 
2016.  (427)  If  passing  ships  have  the  potential  to  damage  fragile  and  rare  coral  reefs,  why  are  these  areas  not 
deemed  a  no-sailing  zone?  How  many  thousands  of  similar  unreported  incidents  have  possibly  happened  at  coral 
reefs  and  in  other  fragile  marine  ecosystems  throughout  the  world? 

Dams 

There  are  more  than  57,000  dams  worldwide  which  have  flooded  154,440  square  miles  of  once  dry  land,  an  area 
about  the  size  of  California.  (208)  When  dams  are  built,  ecosystems  are  disrupted  and  changed  forever  displacing 
and  killing  many  species  of  flora  and  fauna,  some  even  endemic.  Dams  change  the  ecology  of  an  ecosystem 
affecting  natural  floodplains  and  waterways,  while  also  creating  a  barrier  between  the  upstream  and  downstream 
movements  of  migratory  river  faunae,  especially  fish  species  like  salmon  and  trout.  River  sediment  which 
creates  deltas,  alluvial  fans,  levees,  and  coastal  shores  is  also  disrupted  when  a  river  is  dammed.  Homo  sapiens 
are  also  displaced  causing  disruption  and  excessive  stress  on  resources  of  other  areas  which  must  accommodate 
new  inhabitants.  A  recent  example  of  this  was  the  Three  Gorges  Dam  in  China  which  forced  over  1,000,000 
Homo  sapiens  to  relocate.  Dams  also  result  in  a  possible  loss  of  productive  agricultural  land  area,  archaeological 
sites,  and  natural  wonders.  Dam  failure  can  potentially  cause  massive  damage  and  result  in  loss  of  life,  like  the 
1975  Banqiao  Dam  failure  in  China  which  killed  more  than  171,000  Homo  sapiens  and  displaced  1 1,000,000 
surviving  residents.  There  are  only  enough  water  resources  in  an  area  to  sustain  a  certain  number  of  inhabitants, 
and  this  number  is  determinant  as  to  what  is  available  naturally  in  each  type  of  ecosystem  on  Earth,  some  with 
more  abundant  water  resources  than  others.  Instead  of  attempting  to  change  this  and  disrupt  the  regions  ecology, 
would  not  the  more  logical  solution  be  to  have  less  inhabitants  in  the  area  and  do  less  water  consuming  activities 
such  as  practicing  agriculture  in  the  desert?  Are  there  not  enough  other  natural  sources  like  solar  and  wind  to 
harness  energy  from,  instead  of  creating  massive  ecologically  disruptive  dams? 

Mineral  Extraction 

For  thousands  of  years  Homo  sapiens  have  extracted,  used,  and  disposed  of  improperly  a  variety  of  minerals, 
many  of  them  toxic.  These  minerals,  some  of  which  are  extremely  toxic,  were  buried  in  the  Earth  for  millions  of 
years  slowly  being  recycled  by  natural  processes,  and  now  they  have  been  brought  to  Earth’s  surface  potentially 
exposing  all  terrestrial  lifeforms  to  their  toxicity.  In  December  2016,  between  3,000  and  4,000  migrating  snow 
geese  died  from  exposure  to  heavy  metals  and  sulfuric  acid  when  they  landed  in  the  toxic  Berkeley  Pit,  a  former 
open  pit  copper  mine  in  Montana.  (448)  If  birds  die  on  contact  with  a  body  of  water,  is  this  not  a  sign  that  there 
should  be  even  more  strict  environmental  regulations  and  cleanup  when  mining?  Should  Homo  sapiens  be 
extracting  vast  amounts  of  lead,  zinc,  mercury,  or  other  highly  toxic  chemicals  to  remain  on  the  surface 
potentially  contaminating  the  water,  air,  and  soils?  How  many  thousands  of  mines  now  have  millions  of  gallons 
of  toxic  tailings  leftover?  Are  Homo  sapiens  creating  a  cesspool  of  toxic  waste  to  live  in  on  Earth,  and  what 
consequence  will  there  be  to  not  only  Homo  sapiens,  but  to  other  life  on  Earth  as  well?  Should  not  these  highly 
toxic  minerals  be  more  conservatively  used,  if  at  all?  How  many  millions  of  holes  have  been  drilled  into  Earth  to 
extract  all  of  these  minerals?  There  is  already  serious  discussion  about  space  mining  and  the  potential  to 
extracting  minerals  and  other  natural  resources  from  outer  space.  What  negative  effects  could  this  possibly  have 
on  Earth’s  ecosystems  by  adding  vast  quantities  of  additional  cobalt,  titanium,  iron,  nickel,  platinum,  or  other 


potentially  unknown  toxic  elements  to  Earth? 


Since  Homo  sapiens  began  working  with  mercury  thousands  of  years  ago,  anthropogenic  activities  have  released 
an  estimated  350,000  tonnes  of  mercury  onto  Earth,  with  39%  being  emitted  before  1850  and  61%  after  1850. 
(424)  Some  mercury  has  been  intentionally  dumped  into  the  hydrosphere  and  lithosphere  causing  severe 
pollution,  but  the  majority  has  been  released  into  the  atmosphere  from  the  burning  of  coal  and  from  the 
production  of  gold,  cement,  and  steel.  The  Arctic  tundra  has  also  become  a  global  sink  for  atmospheric  mercury 
pollution  resulting  from  coal  burning  and  other  anthropogenic  activities  which  release  mercury  into  the 
atmosphere.  (406)  This  mercury  depository  slowly  releases  the  mercury  from  the  soils  into  the  rivers,  and 
ultimately  it  flows  into  the  oceans.  If  the  permafrost  thaws  as  a  result  of  global  warming,  will  this  release  vast 
sums  of  mercury  into  the  oceans  and  if  so  what  effect  will  this  have? 

For  thousands  of  years,  materialistic  views  have  led  to  the  excessive  mining  of  gold,  diamonds,  silver,  copper, 
and  other  precious  minerals  to  produce  unnecessary  and  extravagant  items  like  jewelry  and  other  aesthetically 
appealing  things.  Historically  through  2011,  an  estimated  171,300  metric  tons  of  gold  was  mined,  and  currently 
84,300  tons  are  held  privately  in  the  form  of  jewelry,  33,000  tons  is  held  as  an  investment,  29,500  tons  is  held 
commercially  by  central  hanks  as  official  stocks,  20,800  tons  has  been  fabricated  into  other  products,  and  the 
remaining  3,600  tons  is  unaccounted  for.  In  2017,  an  estimated  73%  of  the  world’s  jewelry  production  was  done 
by  India,  China,  Italy,  Turkey,  the  United  States,  and  Russia.  (496)  How  much  environmental  damage  has  been 
done  mining  for  gold  over  the  last  4,000  years,  mostly  for  jewelry  and  mainly  for  materialism?  How  many 
millions  of  Homo  sapiens  have  been  killed  or  injured  throughout  history  during  the  pursuit  and  fight  over  gold? 

During  the  cold  war,  to  supply  the  demand  for  United  States  nuclear  weapons,  the  Navajo  Nation  in  the  western 
United  States  was  so  exploited  for  Uranium  that  homes  and  drinking  water  sources  still  today  have  elevated 
levels  of  radiation.  Between  1944  and  1986,  nearly  30,000,000  tons  of  uranium  ore  was  extracted  from  Navajo 
lands  leaving  some  500  abandoned  uranium  mines  (AUMs).  The  Environmental  Protection  Agency  (EPA)  has 
been  working  to  resolve  this  toxic  legacy  since  the  1 990s,  but  progress  has  been  extremely  slow,  as  is  often  the 
case  with  environmental  remediation  done  by  the  government.  (642) 


SOURCE:  EPA  -  https://www.epa.gov/navaio-nation-uranium-cleanup/cleaning-abandoned-uraniiim-mines 

Asbestos  has  been  used  by  Homo  sapiens  for  thousands  of  years,  and  although  consumption  peaked  in  1973  at 
804,000  tons  after  it  was  linked  to  asbestosis,  mesothelioma,  and  lung  cancer,  it  is  still  not  banned  in  the  United 
Sates  and  its  use  continues  throughout  the  world  with  more  than  2,000,000  tons  being  used  in  2014.  (446)  In 
2004,  there  were  107,000  deaths  worldwide  which  were  related  to  occupational  exposure  to  asbestos.  (447)  A 
2005  monograph  by  RAND  Corporation  found  that  the  asbestos  litigation  was  the  longest-running  mass  tort 
litigation  to  date  in  United  States  history,  and  that  through  2002  there  have  been  730,000  individuals  that  were 
exposed  to  asbestos  and  have  brought  claims  against  8,400  business  entities.  They  also  found  that 
$70,000,000,000  was  spent  by  defendants  and  insurers,  with  more  than  half  of  this  money  being  consumed  by 
the  claimants’  and  defendants’  litigation  expenses.  (539)  Why  is  the  use  of  asbestos  still  tolerated,  why  has  it  not 
been  completely  banned  by  the  government?  How  many  millions  of  metric  tons  of  asbestos  have  been  mined  and 
now  pollute  the  Earth?  How  many  millions  of  tons  of  asbestos  still  insulate  buildings  waiting  to  be  exposed  in 
the  future  when  being  remodeled  or  demolished?  How  many  millions  of  deaths  have  been  caused  by  asbestos 
exposure?  How  many  millions  more  coidd  die  as  a  result  of  future  asbestos  exposure? 

During  alumina  production  derived  from  bauxite,  for  each  ton  of  metallic  aluminum  produced  some  2  tons  of 
toxic  red  mud  are  generated.  This  extremely  toxic  by-product  which  is  very  difficult  to  dispose  of  is  toxic  to 
most  all  living  organisms.  Each  year,  30,000,000  tons  of  red  mud  are  produced  worldwide,  consisting  of 
alumina,  iron  oxide,  titanium  oxide,  silica,  calcium  oxide,  alkali,  and  other  trace  elements.  (283) 


2015  Global  Mineral  Commodity  Production  Statistics 

Mineral 

World  Production 

(Metric  Tons  /  Dry  Tons 

Recycling 

When  Applicable)  unless 
otherwise  noted 

Fused  aluminum 
oxide 

1,290,000 

Up  to  30%  of  fused  aluminum  oxide  may  be  recycled. 

Silicon  carbide 

1,010,000 

About  5%  of  silicon  carbide  is  recycled. 

Aluminum 

58,300,000 

In  2015,  aluminum  recovered  from  purchased  scrap  in  the  United  States  was  about  3.61 
million  tons,  of  which  about  54%  came  from  new  (manufacturing)  scrap  and  46%  from 
old  scrap  (discarded  aluminum  products).  Aluminum  recovered  from  old  scrap  was 
equivalent  to  about  30%  of  apparent  consumption. 

Antimony 

150,000 

The  bulk  of  secondary  antimony  is  recovered  at  secondary  lead  smelters  as  antimonial 
lead,  most  of  which  was  generated  by,  and  then  consumed  by,  the  lead-acid  battery 
industry. 

Arsenic  trioxide 

36,000 

Arsenic  metal  was  recycled  from  GaAs  semiconductor  manufacturing.  Arsenic  contained 
in  the  process  water  at  wood  treatment  plants  where  CCA  was  used  was  also  recycled. 
Although  electronic  circuit  boards,  relays,  and  switches  may  contain  arsenic,  no  arsenic 
was  recovered  from  them  during  recycling  to  recover  other  contained  metals.  No  arsenic 
was  recovered  domestically  from  arsenic-containing  residues  and  dusts  generated  at 
nonferrous  smelters  in  the  United  States. 

Asbestos 

2,000,000 

None. 

Alumina 

118,000,000 

None. 

Bauxite 

274,000,000 

None. 

Barite 

7,460,000 

None. 

Beryllium 

300 

Beryllium  was  recovered  from  new  scrap  generated  during  the  manufacture  of  beryllium 
products  and  from  old  scrap.  Detailed  data  on  the  quantities  of  beryllium  recycled  are  not 
available  but  may  account  for  as  much  as  20%  to  25%  of  total  beryllium  consumption. 

The  leading  U.S.  beryllium  producer  established  a  comprehensive  recycling  program  for 
all  of  its  beryllium  products,  recovering  approximately  40%  of  its  new  and  old  beryllium 
alloy  scrap.  Beryllium  manufactured  from  recycled  sources  requires  only  20%  of  the 
energy  as  that  of  beryllium  manufactured  from  primary  sources. 

Bismuth 

13,600 

Bismuth-containing  new  and  old  alloy  scrap  was  recycled  and  thought  to  compose  less 
than  10%  of  U.S.  bismuth  consumption,  or  about  80  tons. 

Boron 

5,960,000 

Insignificant. 

Bromide 

390,000 

Some  bromide  solutions  were  recycled  to  obtain  elemental  bromine  and  to  prevent  the 
solutions  from  being  disposed  of  as  hazardous  waste.  Hydrogen  bromide  is  emitted  as  a 
byproduct  in  many  organic  reactions.  This  byproduct  waste  is  recycled  with  virgin 
bromine  brines  and  is  a  source  of  bromine  production.  Plastics  containing  bromine  flame 
retardants  can  be  incinerated  as  solid  organic  waste,  and  the  bromine  can  be  recovered. 

This  recycled  bromine  is  not  included  in  the  virgin  bromine  production  reported  to  the 

U.S.  Geological  Survey  by  companies  but  may  be  included  in  data  collected  by  the  U.S. 
Census  Bureau. 

Cadmium 

24,200 

Secondary  cadmium  is  mainly  recovered  from  spent  consumer  and  industrial  NiCd 
batteries.  Other  waste  and  scrap  from  which  cadmium  can  be  recovered  includes  copper- 
cadmium  alloy  scrap,  some  complex  nonferrous  alloy  scrap,  and  cadmium-containing 
dust  from  electric  arc  furnaces  (EAF).  The  amount  of  cadmium  recovered  from  secondary 
sources  in  2015  was  withheld  to  avoid  disclosing  company  proprietary  data. 

Cement 

4,100,000,000 

Cement  kiln  dust  is  routinely  recycled  to  the  kilns,  which  also  can  make  use  of  a  variety 
of  waste  fuels  and  recycled  raw  materials  such  as  slags  and  fly  ash.  Various  secondary 
materials  can  be  incorporated  as  supplementary  cementitious  materials  (SCMs)  in  blended 
cements  and  in  the  cement  paste  in  concrete.  Cement  is  not  directly  recycled,  but 
significant  quantities  of  concrete  are  recycled  for  use  as  construction  aggregate. 

Cesium 

Unavailable 

Consumption,  import,  and  export  data  for  cesium  have  not  been  available  since  the  late 
1980s.  Because  cesium  metal  is  not  traded  in  commercial  quantities,  a  market  price  is 
unavailable.  Only  a  few  thousand  kilograms  of  cesium  are  consumed  in  the  United  States 
every  year.  Cesium  fonnate  brines  are  typically  rented  by  oil  and  gas  exploration  clients. 
After  completion  of  the  well,  the  used  cesium  formate  brine  is  returned  and  reprocessed 
for  subsequent  drilling  operations.  Cesium  formate  production  from  Canada  was 
estimated  to  be  5,630  tons  per  year,  including  3,890  tons  of  cesium  from  17,300  tons  of 
pollucite  ore.  The  formate  brines  are  recycled  with  a  recovery  rate  of  85%,  which  can  be 
retrieved  for  further  use. 

Chromium 

27,000,000 

In  2015,  recycled  chromium  (contained  in  reported  stainless  steel  scrap  receipts) 
accounted  for  34%  of  apparent  consumption. 

(Clay)  Bentonite 

16,000,000 

Insignificant. 

(Clay)  Fuller’s 
earth 

3,240,000 

Insignificant. 

(Clay)  Kaolin 

34,000,000 

Insignificant. 

Cobalt 

124,000 

In  2015,  cobalt  contained  in  purchased  scrap  represented  an  estimated  28%  of  cobalt 
reported  consumption. 

Copper 

18,700,000 

Old  scrap,  converted  to  refined  metal  and  alloys,  provided  160,000  tons  of  copper, 
equivalent  to  9%  of  apparent  consumption.  Purchased  new  scrap,  derived  from  fabricating 
operations,  yielded  670,000  tons  of  contained  copper.  Of  the  total  copper  recovered  from 
scrap  (including  aluminum-  and  nickel-base  scrap),  brass  mills  recovered  79%;  copper 
smelters,  refiners,  and  ingot  makers,  15%;  and  miscellaneous  manufacturers,  foundries, 
and  chemical  plants,  6%.  Copper  in  all  scrap  contributed  about  32%  of  the  U.S.  copper 
supply. 

Diamonds 

(industrial) 

54,000,000  carats 

In  2015,  the  amount  of  diamond  bort,  grit,  and  dust  and  powder  recycled  was  estimated  to 
be  37.8  million  carats  with  an  estimated  value  of  $27.4  million.  It  was  estimated  that 
477,000  carats  of  diamond  stone  was  recycled  with  an  estimated  value  of  $  1 .36  million. 
Natural  diamond  accounts  for  about  1%  of  all  industrial  diamond  used;  synthetic  diamond 
accounts  for  the  remainder.  At  least  15  countries  have  the  technology  to  produce  synthetic 
diamond.  In  2015,  China  was  the  world’s  leading  producer  of  synthetic  industrial 
diamond,  with  annual  production  exceeding  4  billion  carats. 

Diatomite 

2,290,000 

None. 

Feldspar  and 
nepheline  syenite 

21,200,000 

Feldspar  and  nepheline  syenite  are  not  recycled  by  producers;  however,  glass  container 
producers  use  cullet  (recycled  container  glass),  thereby  reducing  feldspar  and  nepheline 
syenite  consumption. 

Fluorspar 

6,250,000 

A  few  thousand  tons  per  year  of  synthetic  fluorspar  are  recovered — primarily  from 
uranium  enrichment,  but  also  from  petroleum  alkylation  and  stainless  steel  pickling. 

Primary  aluminum  producers  recycle  HF  and  fluorides  from  smelting  operations.  HF  is 
recycled  in  the  petroleum  alkylation  process. 

Gallium 

435 

Old  scrap,  none.  Substantial  quantities  of  new  scrap  generated  in  the  manufacture  of 
GaAs-based  devices  were  reprocessed  to  recover  high-purity  gallium  at  one  facility  in 

Utah 

Gamet  (industrial) 

1,660,000 

Small  quantities  of  gamet  reportedly  are  recycled. 

Germanium 

165,500  kilograms 

Worldwide,  about  30%  of  the  total  germanium  consumed  is  produced  from  recycled 
materials.  During  the  manufacture  of  most  optical  devices,  more  than  60%  of  the 
germanium  metal  used  is  routinely  recycled  as  new  scrap.  Germanium  scrap  is  also 
recovered  from  the  window  blanks  in  decommissioned  tanks  and  other  military  vehicles. 

Gold 

3,000 

In  2015,  140  tons  of  new  and  old  scrap  was  recycled,  slightly  less  than  the  reported 
consumption.  Following  the  decline  in  price,  the  domestic  and  global  supply  of  gold  from 
recycling  continued  to  decline  from  the  high  level  in  2011. 

Graphite  (Natural) 

1,190,000 

Refractory  brick  and  linings,  alumina-graphite  refractories  for  continuous  metal  castings, 
magnesiagraphite  refractory  brick  for  basic  oxygen  and  electric  arc  furnaces,  and 
insulation  brick  were  the  leading  sources  of  recycled  graphite  products.  The  market  for 
recycled  refractory  graphite  material  is  growing,  with  material  being  reused  in  products 
such  as  brake  linings  and  thermal  insulation.  Recovering  high-quality  flake  graphite  from 
steelmaking  kish,  a  mixture  of  graphite,  desulfurization  slag,  and  iron,  is  technically 
feasible,  but  not  practiced  at  the  present  time  because  it  is  not  economical.  The  abundance 
of  graphite  in  the  world  market  inhibits  increased  recycling  efforts.  Information  on  the 
quantity  and  value  of  recycled  graphite  is  not  available. 

Gypsum 

258,000,000 

Some  of  the  more  than  4  million  tons  of  gypsum  scrap  that  was  generated  by  wallboard 
manufacturing,  wallboard  installation,  and  building  demolition  was  recycled.  The 
recycled  gypsum  was  used  primarily  for  agricultural  purposes  and  feedstock  for  the 
manufacture  of  new  wallboard.  Other  potential  markets  for  recycled  gypsum  include 
athletic  field  marking,  cement  production  as  a  stucco  additive,  grease  absorption,  sludge 
drying,  and  water  treatment. 

Helium 

168,000,000 
cubic  meters 

In  the  United  States,  helium  used  in  large-volume  applications  is  seldom  recycled.  Some 
low- volume  or  liquid  boil-off  recovery  systems  are  used.  In  the  rest  of  the  world,  helium 
recycling  is  practiced  more  often. 

Indium 

755 

Data  on  the  quantity  of  secondary  indium  recovered  from  scrap  were  not  available. 

Indium  is  most  commonly  recovered  from  ITO  scrap  in  Japan  and  the  Republic  of  Korea. 

A  small  quantity  of  scrap  was  recycled  domestically. 

Iodine 

30,300 

Small  amounts  of  iodine  were  recycled,  but  no  data  were  reported. 

Iron  and  Steel 

1,180,000,000 

Pig  Iron 

1,640,000,000 

Raw  Steel 

Recycled  iron  and  steel  scrap  is  a  vital  raw  material  for  the  production  of  new  steel  and 
cast  iron  products.  The  steel  and  foundry  industries  in  the  United  States  have  been 
structured  to  recycle  scrap,  and,  as  a  result,  are  highly  dependent  upon  scrap.  In  the 

United  States,  the  primary  source  of  old  steel  scrap  was  the  automobile.  The  recycling 
rate  for  automobiles  in  2013,  the  latest  year  for  which  statistics  were  available,  was  about 
85%.  In  2013,  the  automotive  recycling  industry  recycled  more  than  14  million  tons  of 

steel  from  end-of-life  vehicles  through  more  than  300  car  shredders,  the  equivalent  of 
nearly  12  million  automobiles.  More  than  7,000  vehicle  dismantlers  throughout  North 
America  resell  parts.  The  recycling  rates  for  appliances  and  steel  cans  in  2013  were  82% 
and  70%,  respectively;  this  was  the  latest  year  for  which  statistics  were  available. 

Recycling  rates  for  construction  materials  in  2013  were,  as  in  2012,  about  98%  for  plates 
and  beams  and  72%  for  rebar  and  other  materials.  The  recycling  rates  for  appliance,  can, 
and  construction  steel  are  expected  to  increase  not  only  in  the  United  States,  but  also  in 
emerging  industrial  countries  at  an  even  greater  rate. 

Iron  Ore 

3,320,000,000 

None. 

Kyanite  and 
related  minerals 

420,000 

Insignificant. 

Lead 

4,710,000 

In  2015,  about  1.12  million  tons  of  secondary  lead  was  produced,  an  amount  equivalent  to 
69%  of  apparent  domestic  consumption.  Nearly  all  secondary  lead  was  recovered  from 
old  (post-consumer)  scrap. 

Lime 

350,000,000 

Large  quantities  of  lime  are  regenerated  by  paper  mills.  Some  municipal  water-treatment 
plants  regenerate  lime  from  softening  sludge.  Quicklime  is  regenerated  from  waste 
hydrated  lime  in  the  carbide  industry.  Data  for  these  sources  were  not  included  as 
production  in  order  to  avoid  duplication 

Lithium 

32,500 

Historically,  lithium  recycling  has  been  insignificant  but  has  increased  steadily  owing  to 
the  growth  in  consumption  of  lithium  batteries.  One  U.S.  company  has  recycled  lithium 
metal  and  lithium-ion  batteries  since  1992  at  its  facility  in  British  Columbia,  Canada.  In 
2009,  the  U.S.  Department  of  Energy  awarded  the  company  $9.5  million  to  construct  the 
first  U.S.  recycling  facility  for  lithium-ion  vehicle  batteries.  Construction  neared 
completion  in  2015.  Lithium  consumption  for  batteries  has  increased  significantly  in 
recent  years  because  rechargeable  lithium  batteries  are  used  extensively  in  the  growing 
market  for  portable  electronic  devices  and  increasingly  are  used  in  electric  tools,  electric 
vehicles,  and  grid  storage  applications.  There  are  an  estimated  14,000,000  metric  tons  of 
known  lithium  reserves  worldwide. 

Magnesium 

compounds 

8,300,000 

Some  magnesia-based  refractories  are  recycled,  either  for  reuse  as  refractory  material  or 
for  use  as  construction  aggregate. 

Magnesium  metal 

910,000 

In  2015,  about  25,000  tons  of  secondary  magnesium  was  recovered  from  old  scrap  and 
55,000  tons  were  recovered  from  new  scrap.  Aluminum-base  alloys  accounted  for  77%  of 
the  secondary  magnesium  recovered.  Magnesium  chloride  produced  as  a  waste  product  of 
titanium  sponge  production  at  a  plant  in  Utah  is  returned  to  the  primary  magnesium 
supplier  where  it  is  reduced  to  produce  metallic  magnesium;  however,  this  metal  is  not 
included  in  the  secondary  magnesium  statistics. 

Maganese 

18,000,000 

Manganese  was  recycled  incidentally  as  a  constituent  of  ferrous  and  nonferrous  scrap; 
however,  scrap  recovery  specifically  for  manganese  was  negligible.  Manganese  is 
recovered  along  with  iron  from  steel  slag. 

Mercury 

2,340 

In  2015,  six  companies  in  the  United  States  accounted  for  the  majority  of  secondary 
mercury  production.  Mercury-containing  automobile  convenience  switches,  barometers, 
compact  and  traditional  fluorescent  lamps,  computers,  dental  amalgam,  medical  devices, 
thermostats,  and  some  mercury-containing  toys  were  collected  by  as  many  as  50  smaller 
companies  and  shipped  to  the  refining  companies  for  retorting  to  reclaim  the  mercury.  In 
addition,  many  collection  companies  recovered  mercury  when  retorting  was  not  required. 
The  increased  use  of  mercury  substitutes  has  resulted  in  a  shrinking  reservoir  of  mercury- 
containing  products  for  recycling.  Minimizing  the  use  of  mercury  in  products  that  still 
require  mercury  has  further  reduced  the  amount  of  secondary  mercury  available  for 
recovery. 

Mica  (natural) 

1,120,000 

None. 

Molybdenum 

267,000 

Molybdenum  is  recycled  as  a  component  of  catalysts,  ferrous  scrap,  and  superalloy  scrap. 
Ferrous  scrap  comprises  revert  scrap,  and  new  and  old  scrap.  Revert  scrap  refers  to 
remnants  manufactured  in  the  steelmaking  process.  New  scrap  is  generated  by  steel  mill 
customers  and  recycled  by  scrap  collectors  and  processors.  Old  scrap  is  largely 
molybdenum-bearing  alloys  recycled  after  serving  their  useful  life.  The  amount  of 
molybdenum  recycled  as  part  of  new  and  old  steel  and  other  scrap  may  be  as  much  as 

30%  of  the  apparent  supply  of  molybdenum.  There  are  no  processes  for  the  separate 
recovery  and  refining  of  secondary  molybdenum  from  its  alloys.  Molybdenum  is  not 
recovered  separately  from  recycled  steel  and  superalloys,  but  the  molybdenum  content  of 
the  recycled  alloys  is  significant,  and  the  molybdenum  content  is  reused.  Recycling  of 
molybdenum-bearing  scrap  will  continue  to  be  dependent  on  the  markets  for  the  principal 
alloy  metals  of  the  alloys  in  which  molybdenum  is  found,  such  as  iron,  nickel,  and 
chromium. 

Nickel 

2,530,000 

In  2015,101,900  tons  of  nickel  was  recovered  from  purchased  scrap  in  2015.  This 

represented  about  45%  of  reported  secondary  plus  apparent  primary  consumption  for  the 
year. 

Niobium 

56,000 

Niobium  was  recycled  when  niobium-bearing  steels  and  superalloys  were  recycled;  scrap 
recovery  specifically  for  niobium  content  was  negligible.  The  amount  of  niobium 
recycled  is  not  available,  but  it  may  be  as  much  as  20%  of  apparent  consumption. 

Nitrogen  (fixed) 
Ammonia 

146,000,000 

None. 

Peat 

27,600,000 

None. 

Perlite 

2,680,000 

Not  available. 

Phosphate  rock 

223,000,000 

None. 

Platinum-group 
metals  Platinum, 
palladium, 
rhodium, 
ruthenium, 
iridium,  osmium 

178,000  kilograms 
Platinum 

208,000  kilograms 
Palladium 

An  estimated  125,000  kilograms  of  platinum,  palladium,  and  rhodium  was  recovered 
globally  from  new  and  old  scrap  in  2015,  including  about  55,000  kilograms  recovered 
from  automobile  catalytic  converters  in  the  United  States. 

Potash 

38,800,000 

None. 

Pumice  and 
pumicite 

17,200,000 

Not  Available. 

Quartz  crystal 
(industrial) 

Unavailable 

An  unspecified  amount  of  rejected  cultured  quartz  crystal  was  used  as  feed  material  for 
the  production  of  cultured  quartz  crystal. 

Rare  earths 

124,000 

Limited  quantities,  from  batteries,  permanent  magnets,  and  fluorescent  lamps. 

Rhenium 

46,000  kilograms 

Nickel-based  superalloy  scrap  and  scrapped  turbine  blades  and  vanes  continued  to  be 
recycled  hydrometallurgically  to  produce  rhenium  metal  for  use  in  new  superalloy  melts. 
The  scrapped  parts  were  also  processed  to  generate  engine  revert — a  high-quality,  lower 
cost  superalloy  meltstock — by  a  growing  number  of  companies,  mainly  in  the  United 

States,  Canada,  Estonia,  Germany,  and  Russia.  Rhenium-containing  catalysts  were  also 
recycled. 

Rubidium 

80,000 

None. 

Salt 

273,000,000 

None. 

Sand  and  gravel 

construction) 

931,000,000 

(United  States  only  World 
total  unavailable) 

Recycling  of  asphalt  road  surface  layers,  cement  concrete  surface  layers,  and  concrete 
structures  was  increasing,  although  it  was  still  a  small  percentage  of  aggregates 
consumption. 

Sand  and  gravel 

(industrial) 

181,000,000 

Some  foundry  sand  is  recycled,  and  recycled  cullet  (pieces  of  glass)  represents  a 
significant  proportion  ofreused  silica.  About  34%  of  glass  containers  are  recycled. 

Scandium 

Unavailable 

None. 

Selenium 

2,340 

(World  total  excluding 
United  States) 

Domestic  production  of  secondary  selenium  was  estimated  to  be  very  small  because  most 
scrap  from  older  plain  paper  photocopiers  and  electronic  materials  was  exported  for 
recovery  of  the  contained  selenium. 

Silicon 

8,100,000 

Insignificant. 

Silver 

27,300 

In  2015,  approximately  1,200  tons  of  silver  was  recovered  from  new  and  old  scrap,  about 
15%  of  apparent  consumption. 

Soda  ash 

51,700,00 

No  soda  ash  was  recycled  by  producers;  however,  glass  container  producers  are  using 
cullet  glass,  thereby  reducing  soda  ash  consumption. 

Stone  (crushed) 

1,320,000,000 

(United  States  only  World 
total  unavailable) 

Road  surfaces  made  of  asphalt  and  crushed  stone  and  portland  cement  concrete  surface 
layers  and  structures  were  recycled  on  a  limited  but  increasing  basis  in  most  States. 

Asphalt  road  surfaces  and  concrete  were  recycled  in  all  50  States.  The  amount  of  material 
reported  to  be  recycled  increased  by  3%  in  2015  compared  with  that  of  the  previous  year. 

Stone  (dimension) 

2,510,000 

Small  amounts  of  dimension  stone  were  recycled,  principally  by  restorers  of  old  stone 
work. 

Strontium 

320,000 

None. 

Sulfur 

70,100,000 

Typically,  between  2.5  million  and  5  million  tons  of  spent  sulfuric  acid  is  reclaimed  from 
petroleum  refining  and  chemical  processes  during  any  given  year. 

Talc  and 
pyrophyllite 

7,320,000 

Insignificant. 

Tantalum 

1,200 

Tantalum  was  recycled  mostly  from  new  scrap  that  was  generated  during  the  manufacture 
of  tantalumcontaining  electronic  components  and  from  tantalum-containing  cemented 
carbide  and  superalloy  scrap. 

Tellurium 

120 

(World  total  excluding 
United  States) 

For  traditional  metallurgical  and  chemical  uses,  there  was  little  or  no  old  scrap  from 
which  to  extract  secondary  tellurium  because  these  uses  of  tellurium  are  highly  dispersive 
or  dissipative.  Avery  small  amount  of  tellurium  was  recovered  from  scrapped  selenium- 
tellurium  photoreceptors  employed  in  older  plain  paper  copiers  in  Europe.  A  plant  in  the 

United  States  recycled  tellurium  from  CdTe  solar  cells;  however,  the  amount  recycled  was 
limited,  because  CdTe  solar  cells  were  relatively  new  and  had  not  reached  the  end  of  their 
useful  life. 

Thallium 

less  than  10,000 

kilograms 

None. 

Thorium 

Unavailable 

None. 

Tin 

294,000 

About  12,600  tons  of  tin  from  old  and  new  scrap  was  recycled  in  2015  accounting  for 
about  30%  of  apparent  consumption.  Of  this,  about  10,600  tons  was  recovered  from  old 
scrap  at  2  detinning  plants  and  about  75  secondary  nonferrous  metal-processing  plants. 

Titanium  and 
titanium  dioxide 

171,000 

About  51,000  tons  of  scrap  metal  was  recycled  by  the  titanium  industry  in  2015. 

Estimated  use  of  titanium  scrap  by  the  steel  industry  was  about  10,200  tons;  by  the 
superalloy  industry,  500  tons;  and  by  other  industries,  1,200  tons. 

Titanium  mineral 

concentrates 

Ilmenite  5,610,000 
Rutile  6,090,000 

None. 

Tungsten 

87,000 

In  2015,  the  estimated  tungsten  contained  in  scrap  consumed  by  processors  and  end  users 
represented  59%  of  apparent  consumption  of  tungsten  in  all  forms. 

Vanadium 

79,400 

The  quantity  of  vanadium  recycled  from  spent  chemical  process  catalysts  was  significant 
and  may  compose  as  much  as  40%  of  total  vandium  catalysts.  Some  tool  steel  scrap  was 
recycled  primarily  for  its  vanadium  content  but  this  only  accounted  for  a  small  percentage 
of  total  vanadium  used. 

Vermiculite 

408,000 

Insignificant. 

Wollastonite 

550,000 

None. 

Yttrium 

8,000-  10,000 

Small  quantities,  primarily  from  phosphors. 

Zeolites  (natural) 

2,780,000 

Zeolites  used  for  desiccation,  gas  absorbance,  wastewater  cleanup,  and  water  purification 
may  be  reused  after  reprocessing  of  the  spent  zeolites.  Infonnation  about  the  quantity  of 
recycled  natural  zeolites  was  unavailable. 

Zinc 

13,400,000 

In  2015,  about  37%  (65,000  tons)  of  the  refined  zinc  produced  in  the  United  States  was 
recovered  from  secondary  materials  at  both  primary  and  secondary  smelters.  Secondary 
materials  included  galvanizing  residues  and  crude  zinc  oxide  recovered  from  electric  arc 
furnace  dust. 

Zirconium  and 
hafnium 

1,410 

Companies  in  Oregon  and  Utah  recycled  zirconium  from  new  scrap  generated  during 
metal  production  and  fabrication  and/or  from  post-commercial  old  scrap.  Zircon  foundry 
mold  cores  and  spent  or  rejected  zirconia  refractories  are  often  recycled.  Hafnium  metal 
recycling  was  insignificant. 

SOURCE:  USGS  2016  USGS  Mineral  Commodity  Summaries  ISBN  978-1-4 1 1 3—40 11-4  - 
httDs://minerals.uses.eov/minerals/Dubs/mcs/2016/mcs2016.Ddf 

Fossil  Fuels 

Fossil  fuels  (oil,  natural  gas,  and  coal)  are  carbon  that  was  removed  from  Earth’s  carbon  cycle  millions  of  years 
ago,  this  natural  carbon  sequestration  process  balances  all  the  carbon  on  Earth  by  slowly  releasing  the  carbon 
over  millions  of  more  years,  versus  rapidly  releasing  it  back  into  the  environment  when  it  is  used  as  a  fuel  like 
Homo  sapiens  have  done  over  the  last  200  years.  Continuing  to  use  oil,  natural  gas  and  coal  will  only  further 
release  more  stored  carbon  into  the  Earth's  delicately  balanced  equilibrium  formula,  and  only  cause  more 
environmental  damage.  In  every  stage  of  fossil  fuel  use,  be  it  the  extraction,  processing,  or  consumption  phase, 
there  are  negative  environmental  impacts.  Pollution  is  caused  in  every  sphere  of  Earth,  and  as  a  result  of  fossil 
fuel  consumption  the  air,  water,  and  soil  have  all  been  negatively  impacted  to  some  degree.  Fossil  fuel  use 
should  not  be  cutback  so  that  greenhouse  gas  emissions  can  be  maintained  at  a  so  called  acceptable  level,  fossil 
fuel  use  should  be  eliminated  entirely,  as  it  is  toxic  to  the  Earth  in  all  forms.  Fossil  fuels  and  other  toxic  minerals 
are  buried  within  Earth  for  a  reason,  they  are  toxic  to  Earth’s  surface  and  to  most  all  living  organisms  on  Earth, 
including  Homo  sapiens.  No  lifeform  is  naturally  made  with  them,  nor  does  any  other  species  utilize  them  to 
facilitate  their  existence  except  Homo  sapiens. 

Since  1751,  more  than  337,000,000,000  metric  tonnes  of  carbon  have  been  released  into  Earth’s  atmosphere 
from  the  consumption  of  fossil  fuels  and  cement  production,  with  half  of  these  emissions  having  been  emitted 
since  the  mid-1970s.  (179)  Richard  Fleede  did  an  8-year  study  on  carbon  dioxide  emissions  and  the  companies 
which  were  responsible  for  those  emission.  He  concluded  that  almost  2/3  of  carbon  dioxide  emitted  since  the 
1750s  were  from  the  90  largest  fossil  fuel  and  cement  producers,  most  of  which  are  still  conducting  operations  to 
this  day.  Heede’s  research  also  attributes  63%  of  the  carbon  dioxide  and  methane  emissions  between  1751  and 


2010  to  just  90  entities  aka  the  ‘Carbon  Majors’.  In  total,  Heede’s  research  investigated  56  oil  and  natural  gas 
companies,  37  coal  producers,  and  the  carbon  dioxide  emissions  from  7  cement  manufacturers.  (174) 


FEBRUARY  9, 2011 


History  of  energy  consumption  in  the  United  States, 
1775-2009 


History  of  energy  consumption  in  the  United  States,  1775-2009 

quadrillion  Btu 
45 


Source:  U  S.  Energy  Information  Administration  -  Annual  Energy  Review  2009 


—  Petroleum 

—  Hydroelectric 

—  Coal 

—  Wood 

—  Natural  Gas 

—  Nuclear 


SOURCE:  EIA  -  https://www.cia.gov/todaviiicncrgy/dctail.php?id=10 

Most  societies  today  have  a  severe  addiction  to  fossil  fuels  and  have  developed  a  dependency  on  it,  nearly 
everything  is  linked  to  it  in  some  form,  be  it  the  materials,  energy  generation,  or  transportation.  Petroleum  is 
most  commonly  associated  with  oil  and  gasoline  which  is  used  in  automobiles,  but  in  addition  to  supplying  fuel 
for  transportation  and  as  an  energy  source,  petroleum  is  used  to  create  a  wide  range  of  plastics,  lubricants,  motor 
oil,  machine  oils,  tar,  asphalt,  synthetic  rubbers,  fertilizers,  dyes,  insecticides,  solvents,  detergents,  and  many 
other  everyday  products  used  by  consumers.  When  most  of  these  toxic  products  are  made  the  processes  used  to 
create  the  desired  product  will  also  create  a  toxic  by-product,  this  by-product  or  waste  must  also  be  dealt  with 
can  potentially  causes  even  more  pollution. 

Oil  and  other  Transportation  Fuels 

In  most  areas  of  the  United  States,  shared  transportation,  (e.g.  buses,  subways,  trains,  taxis,  etc.)  are  not  utilized 
by  the  majority  of  citizens  and  most  do  not  walk  or  ride  bicycles  to  get  to  their  desitnation  either,  but  instead 
drive  automobiles.  How  many  automobiles  are  just  sitting  most  of  the  time  parked,  when  they  could  be  shared 
and  utilized  by  all?  Perhaps  automobiles  in  the  future  will  not  be  owned  by  individuals  but  will  be  more  like  a 
form  of  shared  community  transportation,  a  fleet  of  self-driving  automobiles  which  all  have  access  to.  The  World 
Health  Organization  reported  that  there  were  1,250,000  road  traffic  deaths  globally  in  2013.  (597)  In  November 
2017,  a  driver  in  Virginia  hit  a  bobcat,  the  driver  didn’t  stop,  but  rather  continued  to  her  destination  50  miles 
away  only  to  later  find  the  bobcat  still  alive  and  lodged  in  the  grill  of  the  automobile.  The  bobcat  suffered  head 
trauma,  a  minor  cut  on  the  back,  and  no  doubt  psychological  trauma,  but  wildlife  officials  said  they  planned  to 
release  it  back  into  the  wild  once  it  had  fully  recovered  in  about  a  month.  (603)  How  many  millions  of  deer, 


moose,  rabbits,  snakes,  racoons,  opossums,  birds,  insects,  and  other  faunae  are  injured  or  killed  by  automobiles 
every  year?  Will  autonomous  vehicles  reduce  or  perhaps  even  eliminate  vehicle  fatalities  and  even  other  non- 
fatal  vehicle  accidents? 

Gasoline  is  one  of  the  most  inefficient  automobile  fuel  sources,  as  up  to  70%  of  the  energy  produced  is  wasted 
and  emitted  in  the  form  of  exhaust  heat.  The  VW  Beetle  manufactured  between  1938  and  2006  is  an  example  of 
an  automobile  that  has  polluted  the  atmosphere  for  more  than  65  years  and  continues  to  pollute  long  after 
emissions  were  set  up  and  mandatory  in  most  countries  around  the  world.  Currently,  in  the  United  States,  antique 
or  classic  automobiles  are  exempt  from  emission  standards,  will  they  always  be  allowed  to  pollute  the  Earth 
because  they  are  historic?  Automobile  fuel  efficiency  begins  to  decline  once  55  mph  (89  kph)  is  reached,  so  why 
even  make  an  automobile  that  can  travel  faster  than  this,  unless  it  is  for  emergency  purposes?  (e.g.  fire,  medical, 
police,  etc.)  During  the  conversion  to  electric  vehicles,  how  many  of  the  billions  of  gasoline  and  diesel 
automobiles  that  have  already  been  made  will  perhaps  remain  on  the  roads  for  the  next  50  years  or  more 
polluting  the  Earth?  How  long  will  it  take  for  poorer  less  developed  nations  to  convert  over  to  electric  vehicles? 
When  will  gasoline  become  obsolete  and  unavailable  like  whale  oil  and  other  fuels  of  the  past? 

In  2016,  the  world  consumed  3,990,000,000  gallons  of  oil  per  day,  which  added  up  to  an  annual  consumption  of 
145,635,000,000,000,000  gallons.  (180)  Between  1950  and  2013,  the  world  manufactured  around  1,105,764,000 
gasoline  or  diesel-based  passenger  automobiles  and  light  commercial  vehicles,  (e.g.  pickup  trucks  and  vans)  This 
total  does  not  include  the  millions  of  additional  military  vehicles,  tractor  trailers,  buses,  recreational  vehicles, 
and  other  commercial  vehicles  in  service.  Between  1978  and  2014,  9,312,700  recreational  vehicles  were 
manufactured  in  the  United  States.  (201)  These  millions  of  off  highway  vehicles  (OHV)  often  operate  in  U.S. 
National  Forests,  State  Parks,  and  other  remote  ecosystems  contributing  directly  to  invasive  species,  erosion, 
pollution,  litter,  and  noise  pollution.  In  2014,  there  were  nearly  1 1,000,000  registered  semi-trucks  in  the  United 
States,  a  3%  increase  from  the  previous  year.  (282)  Most  of  these  semi -trucks  are  fueled  by  dirtier  diesel  fuel,  and 
only  get  around  6.5  miles  per  gallon.  Many  semi -truck  drivers  sleep  in  their  trucks  with  it  running,  as  it  is  less 
expensive  than  a  hotel  room.  If  a  semi -truck  bums  on  average  around  1  gallon  of  fuel  when  idling,  how  many 
millions  of  gallons  of  diesel  fuel  are  burned  in  all  the  millions  of  semi -trucks  every  day  just  while  idling?  Why 
don’t  transportation  companies  pay  for  drivers  lodging  to  prevent  this  unnecessary  waste  of  fuel  and  pollution  of 
the  environment? 

In  2012,  there  were  111,289,906  registered  vehicles  in  the  United  States,  most  of  them  gasoline  powered, 
compared  with  only  2,893,450  hybrid  automobiles  sold  in  the  United  States  between  2000  and  2013.  (88)  Some 
automobile  manufacturers  are  ramping  up  production  on  electric  vehicles,  Volvo  announced  that  by  2019  all  the 
automobiles  it  will  produce  will  be  either  hybrid  or  100%  electrically  powered,  (407)  and  GM  announced  that  it 
plans  to  add  20  all-electric  models  by  2023.  (547)  Some  other  automobile  manufacturers  are  also  currently 
offering  or  plan  on  adding  at  least  one  electric  or  hybrid  model,  and  while  the  new  all  electric  vehicle  company 
Tesla  sold  76,230  electric  automobiles  in  2016,  it  is  a  very  miniscule  amount  compared  with  1,105,764,000 
gasoline  or  diesel-based  automobiles  which  have  been  produced.  (408)  How  long  will  it  take  for  every  driver  of  a 
fossil  fuel  powered  automobile  to  convert  to  an  all-electric  automobile?  Will  governments  around  the  world 
enact  environmental  legislation  which  prohibit  the  future  production  and  use  of  all  gasoline  and  diesel  vehicles? 
If  gas  prices  remain  low,  will  this  make  consumers  switching  to  an  electric  automobile  take  even  longer,  as  many 
consumers  seem  to  be  more  motivated  by  money  and  not  about  reducing  their  carbon  footprint? 

The  first  electric  automobile  was  invented  by  Robert  Davidson  in  1837,  and  yet  in  2017  only  777,497  electric 
automobiles  were  sold  worldwide.  (349)  The  technology  has  been  in  existence  for  180  years,  but  the  conversion 
to  electric  automobiles  has  been  done  at  a  very  slow  pace,  and  with  much  reluctance  from  not  only  the 
automobile  industries,  but  by  many  consumers  also.  Knowing  that  gasoline  automobiles  have  been  a  major 
source  of  carbon  dioxide  emissions  for  more  than  50  years,  why  has  so  little  been  done  to  curb  emissions, 
convert  to  electric  automobiles,  and  setup  a  more  reliable  vast  public  transportation  network  of  electric  trains  and 
buses?  General  Motors  and  other  companies  purposely  derailed  electric  transportation  since  its  inception,  from 
the  ‘General  Motors  Streetcar  Conspiracy’  between  1938  and  1950,  to  the  termination  ofthe  EV1  in  1999.  Jim 
Klein's  1996  documentary  'Taken  for  a  Ride'  and  Chris  Paine's  2006  documentary  'Who  Killed  the  Electric  Car?' 


both  give  a  detailed  history  on  how  early  electric  transportation  was  obstructed. 


A  fact  which  is  often  overlooked,  is  that  unless  all  future  land,  sea,  air,  and  space  vehicles  are  independently 
solar  powered,  converting  to  electric  vehicles  will  also  require  a  significant  increase  in  electricity  generation  in 
order  to  fuel  these  vehicles.  This  will  not  only  place  stress  on  worldwide  electricity  infrastructures,  but  would 
also  increase  pollution  from  these  sources,  thus  making  the  conversion  pointless  unless  electricity  infrastructures 
are  first  converted  to  1 00%  renewable  energy  sources  like  solar  and  wind.  Another  point  to  consider  are  the  vast 
amounts  of  resources  which  will  need  to  be  mined  to  create  the  billions  of  batteries.  What  will  be  the 
environmental  consequences  of  extracting  the  vast  amounts  of  lithium,  nickel,  cobalt,  and  manganese  to 
manufacture  the  billions  of  lithium-ion  batteries  for  the  newly  emerging  electric  transportation  industry?  Will 
another  less  toxic  substance  like  molten  salt  or  another  innovation  be  used  to  store  thermal  energy  in  the  future? 
Perhaps  other  future  technologies  which  have  even  less  environmental  impacts  than  electric  vehicles  will  be 
further  developed,  like  compressed  air  automobiles.  The  Sun  has  abundant  and  endless  energy  radiating  down  on 
Earth,  if  development  resources  in  the  future  are  focused  on  improving  solar  panel  technology,  perhaps  the  solar 
panel  alone  would  power  everything  from  a  cellphone  to  a  rocket  with  no  thermal  storage  needed.  Batteries  and 
charging  systems  not  only  pollute,  but  they  can  be  made  into  another  commodity  which  a  corporation  can  make 
money  from,  as  they  have  with  coal  and  oil.  If  every  electric  device,  all  transportation,  and  every  home  were 
power  independent,  requiring  only  a  third  party  for  repairs,  how  much  less  polluted  would  the  world  be  and  how 
much  money  would  the  world  save? 

The  future  of  transportation  appears  to  be  slow  at  starting  to  the  conversion  of  electric  vehicles,  but  it  appears 
that  eventually  a  total  conversion  towards  not  only  electric,  but  also  autonomous  vehicles  from  automobiles  to 
airplanes  will  occur.  The  first  manned  free  flight  by  an  electrically  powered  airplane  was  made  in  1973,  and  in 
2016  the  ‘Solar  Impulse  2  ’  was  the  first  piloted  fixed-wing  aircraft  using  only  solar  power  to  circumnavigate  the 
Earth.  And  while  most  modern-day  electrical  aircraft  are  only  experimental  demonstrators,  the  future  of  aviation 
is  rapidly  undergoing  major  design  changes  with  electrical  power  upgrades.  Airbus  is  developing  the  E-Fan  X,  a 
hybrid-electric  airliner,  with  Rolls-Royce  and  Siemens  which  is  expected  to  fly  in  2020.  In  September  2017, 
EasyJet  announced  it  had  also  started  developing  a  180-seat  electric  airliner  with  Wright  Electric  that  is 
forecasted  to  be  operational  by  2027.  NASA  has  the  X-57  Maxwell  experimental  aircraft  which  aims  to  reduce 
fuel  use,  emissions,  and  noise.  In  addition,  NASA  has  the  Puffin  Project  which  is  another  technology-concept 
proprotor  aircraft  that  has  been  proposed  and  would  be  a  personal  vertical  takeoff  and  landing  (VTOL)  which 
would  have  hover-capabilities,  be  electrically-powered,  and  have  low-noise.  How  long  will  it  take  until  all 
aircraft  are  1 00%  electric,  perhaps  1 00  years  or  more? 

In  2016,  there  were  more  than  416,000  general  aviation  helicopters,  airplanes,  and  other  aircraft  flying  in  the 
world,  (e.g.  aircraft  for  personal  and  recreational  use,  business,  flight  instruction,  aeromedical,  etc.)  (566),  in 
addition  to  the  29,730  military  aircraft  and  attack  helicopters  mentioned  in  the  previous  chapter.  In  2014,  there 
were  37,960,000  flights  worldwide,  airlines  carried  more  than  3,000,000,000  passengers,  and  shipping 
companies  transported  more  than  50,000,000  tonnes  of  freight  by  aircraft.  (571)  Depending  on  the  fuel  type,  an 
aircraft  can  emit  large  quantities  of  carbon  dioxide,  carbon  monoxide,  nitrogen  oxides,  black  carbon,  sulfur 
oxides,  and  tetraethyllead  from  piston  aircraft  engines.  Aircraft  noise  receives  very  little  attention  and  has  been 
accepted  as  just  another  city  noise  even  though  it  can  cause  annoyance,  stress,  hearing  impairment,  hypertension, 
sleep  disturbance,  and  other  negative  health  impact.  Although  the  subject  has  been  studied  very  little,  contrails 
produced  by  aircraft  do  affect  the  cloudiness  of  the  Earth’s  atmosphere,  which  in  turn  might  affect  the 
atmospheric  temperature  and  climate  of  Earth.  Observations  from  1971  to  1995,  showed  that  cirrus  cloud  cover 
increased  significantly  in  some  areas,  while  decreasing  in  other  areas  because  of  contrails  produced  from  air 
traffic.  (318)  These  cirrus  clouds  formed  by  contrails  are  capable  of  increasing  average  surface  temperatures,  and 
they  are  thought  to  be  responsible  for  the  warming  trend  between  1975  and  1994.  (319)  Beginning  in  the  1920s, 
Tetraethyllead  was  added  to  gasoline,  but  was  phased  out  in  most  parts  of  the  world  when  it  was  found  to  be 
accumulating  in  the  atmosphere,  soils,  and  in  the  population.  As  of  2017,  Tetraethyllead  was  still  being  added  to 
automobile  fuels  in  Yemen,  Iraq,  and  Algeria  while  also  still  being  widely  used  in  avgas  aviation  fuels  for  more 
than  300,000  piston  powered  aircraft  around  the  world. 


More  than  5,000  rockets  have  been  launched  from  Earth  consuming  millions  of  gallons  of  rocket  fuel.  When 
burned,  these  vast  amounts  of  rocket  fuel  pollute  and  can  even  destroy  the  atmosphere  and  rain  down  large 
quantities  of  microscopic  soot  onto  the  Earth.  There  are  little  to  no  emission  controls  or  other  environmental 
impact  standards  set  by  governments  in  regard  to  rocket  launches,  which  are  done  by  the  government  itself  and 
now  by  private  companies  joining  the  new  space  race.  Between  1967  and  1973,  NASA  launched  13  Saturn  V 
rocket's,  the  tallest,  heaviest,  and  most  powerful  rockefs  ever  launched  into  space.  In  total  all  1 3  rockets 
consumed  2,644,200  gallons  of  kerosene  fuel  and  4,134,000  gallons  of  liquid  oxygen.  Modern-day  rocket  fuels 
consist  of  chemicals  like  liquid  oxygen,  nitrogen  tetroxide,  liquid  hydrogen,  hydrogen  peroxide,  hydrazine, 
nitrous  oxide,  and  a  range  of  other  chemicals.  Some  rocket  fuels  also  deplete  the  ozone,  solid  rocket  fuels 
contain  aluminum,  ammonium  perchlorate,  and  a  polymer  matrix,  which  when  combusted  gives  rise  to  chlorine. 
The  SpaceX  Falcon  9  rocket  launched  in  2017,  was  so  powerful  that  it  generated  the  first  known  circular 
acoustic  shock  wave  which  created  an  enormous  900-kilonreter-wide  hole  in  the  ionosphere  of  Earth’s  upper 
atmosphere,  and  possibly  caused  a  temporary  disruption  to  Global  Positioning  System  (GPS)  navigation.  (4) 

Natural  Gas  and  Hydraulic  Fracturing 

For  nearly  200  years,  natural  gas  has  been  extracted  from  the  Earth  and  it  is  now  widely  used  to  manufacture 
fabrics,  glass,  steel,  plastics,  paint,  and  other  products,  as  a  transportation  fuel  source,  for  domestic  heating  and 
cooking,  power  generation,  and  as  a  major  feedstock  for  the  production  of  ammonia  used  in  fertilizer  production. 
In  2014,  the  world  consumed  an  estimated  3,560,000,000,000  cubic  meters  of  natural  gas.  (643)  Natural  gas  is 
often  promoted  as  a  clean  renewable  energy,  but  in  reality,  atmospheric  methane  is  a  more  potent  greenhouse  gas 
in  that  it  is  more  efficient  at  trapping  heat  in  the  atmosphere.  In  addition  to  emitting  carbon  dioxide,  natural  gas 
also  contains  carbon  monoxide,  sulfur  dioxide,  nitrogen  oxides,  particulates,  and  mercury.  It  also  takes  vast 
resources  to  extract  natural  gas,  and  like  oil  it  is  a  very  dangerous  and  potentially  deadly  fuel  source.  Gas  is 
highly  explosive  and  toxic  to  organic  lifeforms  if  inhaled  directly  or  when  burned  because  of  carbon  monoxide 
poisoning.  How  much  natural  gas  leaks  out  of  old  pipes  before  it  even  reaches  the  building  for  consumption? 
Why  invest  billions  of  dollars  into  a  deadly  and  finite  energy  source  which  is  not  clean,  but  only  pollutes  the 
Earth? 

Hydraulic  fracturing  is  the  process  of  releasing  stored  natural  gas  by  injecting  water,  sand,  and  a  plethora  of 
chemicals  into  the  shale  layer  at  an  extremely  high  pressure.  A  variety  of  proppants  and  other  substances  are 
used  during  the  fracking  process,  some  of  which  may  also  be  toxic,  these  fracturing  fluid  chemicals  and 
wastewater  have  the  potential  to  contaminate  the  nearby  soil,  air,  and  water  with  leakage  and  spillage  sometimes 
occurring  during  truck  transport,  the  injection  of  the  wells,  and  when  the  tainted  water  is  in  storage  tanks  and 
holding  pits.  Between  1,200,000  and  5,000,000  gallons  of  water  may  be  consumed  during  the  process  of 
hydraulically  fracturing  a  gas  well.  The  USGS  estimates  that  60%  to  80%  of  injected  water  returns  to  the  surface 
as  ‘flowback’,  with  an  estimated  15,000  gallons  of  chemicals  in  the  waste  water  per  3,000,000  gallons  of  injected 
water.  In  2015,  the  U.S.  Environmental  Protection  Agency  identified  692  unique  ingredients  in  the  hydraulic 
fracturing  fluids  used  between  January  2011  and  February  2013,  with  some  of  the  most  frequently  used 
chemicals  being  methanol,  isopropanol,  glutaraldehyde,  potassiumhydroxide,  sodium  hydroxide,  ethylene 
glycol,  and  peroxydisulfuric  acid.  (527)  When  present,  this  wastewater  also  brings  naturally  occurring  radioactive 
materials  (NORM),  like  radium,  radon,  and  uranium  to  the  surface  potentially  allowing  exposure  to  deadly 
elements  which  were  once  safely  buried  within  the  Earth.  (524)  The  Energy  Policy  Act  of  2005  exempted  fluids 
used  in  hydraulic  fracturing  from  the  Clean  Air  Act,  Clean  Water  Act,  Safe  Drinking  Water  Act,  and  CERCLA. 
What  is  the  point  of  having  environmental  regulations  meant  to  safeguard  the  Earth  like  the  Clean  Air  Act,  Clean 
Water  Act,  Safe  Drinking  Water  Act,  and  CERCLA  if  exemptions  are  given? 

Since  the  early  1950's,  it  is  estimated  that  more  than  2,500,000  frack  jobs  have  been  pumped  worldwide,  with 
more  than  1,000,000  having  been  done  in  the  United  States.  (525)  If  each  of  these  frack  jobs  used  an  average  of 
10,000  gallons  of  added  chemicals,  the  total  would  equal  25,000,000,000  gallons  of  toxic  chemicals  used. 
Fracking  has  also  been  linked  to  a  dramatic  increase  in  the  number  of  earthquakes.  Between  1973  and  2008, 
there  was  an  average  of  21  M3+  earthquakes  in  the  central  and  eastern  United  States,  this  rate  increased  to  more 
than  600  M3+  earthquakes  in  2014,  more  than  1,000  M3+  earthquakes  in  2015,  and  more  than  500  M3+ 


earthquakes  between  January  and  August  2016.  (526)  The  documentary  films,  ‘Gasland’  and  ‘Gasland  Part  II’ 
by:  Josh  Fox  2010  and  2013,  show  the  negative  impacts  that  fracking  it  is  having  on  nearby  communities. 


SOURCE:  USGS  -  Cumulative  number  of  earthquakes  with  a  magnitude  of  3.0  or  larger  in  the  central  and  eastern  United  States,  1973- 
2016.  The  long-tenn  rate  of  approximately  29  earthquakes  per  year  increased  sharply  starting  around  2009. 


Coal 


For  thousands  of  years  Homo  sapiens  have  extracted  coal  from  the  Earth  to  use  mainly  as  an  energy  source. 
Global  coal  production  has  been  around  9,000,000,000  short  tons  each  year  since  around  2012.  (644)  At  this 
consumption  rate  and  with  estimated  world  coal  reserves  around  948,000,000,000  short  tons,  it  would  take 
around  100  more  years  before  coal  resources  would  be  fully  depleted.  Not  only  is  coal  a  finite  resource,  it  is  also 
an  extremely  dirty  energy  source  producing  a  toxic  concoction  of  carbon  dioxide,  sulfur  dioxide  (which  causes 
acid  rain),  nickel,  arsenic,  mercury,  vanadium,  cadmium,  barium,  chromium,  uranium,  thorium,  copper, 
molybdenum,  zinc,  lead,  selenium  and  radium,  beryllium,  and  black  carbon.  The  burning  of  coal  leads  to  vast 
amounts  of  a  toxic  radioactive  by-product  known  as  fly  ash,  with  about  125,000,000  tons  being  produced  in  the 
United  States  alone  in  2006,  of  which  about  43%  was  recycled  for  commercial  purposes,  and  the  remainder  went 
into  landfills.  (645)  Worldwide  there  are  thousands  of  coal  seam  fires  beneath  the  Earth’s  surface  burning  an 
estimated  20,000,000  to  200,000,000  tons  of  coal  each  year.  Some  of  these  abandoned  coal  mines  have  been 
burning  for  more  than  100  years,  and  towns  like  Centralia,  Pennsylvania  are  no  longer  habitable  as  a  result  of 
coal  seam  fires.  In  addition,  thousands  of  other  coal  seam  fires  were  started  in  places  like  Indonesia  when  coal 
lying  near  the  surface  was  exposed  during  deforestation.  (220) 


Streets 


Aerial 


<(U)  >  Seattle 

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SOURCE:  National  Library  of  Medicine  /  TOXMAP  -  Commercial  nuclear  plants  (yellow  icon)  and  EPA  coal  plants  2016  (black  icon)  - 
https://toxmap.nlm.nih.gov/toxmap/ 


Nuclear  Weapons  and  Power 


In  2017,  the  Treaty  on  the  Prohibition  of  Nuclear  Weapons  was  finalized  by  some  United  Nations  members,  if 
successful,  it  would  destroy  all  existing  nuclear  weapons  and  prohibit  any  future  development.  Of  the  193- 
member  states,  70  did  not  participate,  this  included  all  the  nuclear  superpowers,  122  voted  in  favor  and  one 
against  which  was  the  Netherlands,  the  only  NATO  member  that  participated.  In  2017,  there  were  14,900  nuclear 
weapons  in  the  world,  this  is  down  from  the  peak  of  70,300  nuclear  weapons  in  1986.  Although  this  would 
appear  to  be  a  vast  reduction  and  a  step  towards  total  nuclear  disarmament,  it  is  far  from  the  reality  in  that  the 
nuclear  weapons  themselves  are  now  far  more  powerful  than  those  created  in  the  past.  The  United  States,  Russia, 
France,  Pakistan,  China,  United  Kingdom,  India,  and  Israel  all  possess  active  nuclear  weapons,  93%  of  these 
nuclear  weapons  are  owned  by  Russia  and  the  United  States.  (261)  Since  1945,  over  2,000  nuclear  weapon  tests 
have  been  conducted,  with  the  United  States  conducted  more  than  half  of  these  tests.  Have  Homo  sapiens  not 
tested  enough  nuclear  weapons?  Is  it  not  wise  to  stop  testing  and  completely  disassemble  all  of  these  weapons  of 
mass  destruction?  What  is  the  point  of  possessing  so  many  weapons  of  mass  destruction  that  can  so  easily 
destroy  the  Earth  1 00  times  over  and  leave  it  uninhabitable  for  anyone?  What  was  the  untold  environmental 
impact  and  human  health  implications  of  all  these  tests  and  accidents  listed  below?  How  many  millions  of  flora 
and  fauna  species  died  during  these  thousands  of  atomic  bomb  tests? 


Photographs  of  the  mushroom  clouds  above  Hiroshima  and  Nagasaki  in  August  1945,  taken  shortly  after  killing  thousands  oiHomo 
sapiens  simultaneously  within  1  second.  These  were  the  only  two  Nuclear  weapons  to  have  ever  been  used  on  a  civilian  population  or 
during  wartime  resulting  in  the  deaths  of  an  estimated  129,000  -  226,000  Homo  sapiens,  mostly  civilians.  Source:  United  States 
Department  of  Defense,  photos  taken  by:  Enola  Gay  Tail  Gunner  S/Sgt.  George  Caron  and  Charles  Levy  aboard  a  B-29  Superfortresses. 


Some  Major  Nuclear  Incidents 

Date 

Incident 

August  1945 

On  the  orders  of  President  Harry  S.  Truman,  a  uranium-gun  design  bomb,  Little  Boy,  was  used  against  the  city  of 
Hiroshima,  Japan.  Fat  Man,  a  plutonium  implosion-design  bomb  was  used  against  the  city  of  Nagasaki.  The  two 
weapons  killed  between  129,000  to  226,000  civilians  and  military  personnel,  some  instantly,  and  thousands  more 
dying  over  the  years  after  the  initial  blast  from  radiation  sickness  and  related  cancers. 

Kyshtym  Disaster 
1945-1957 

The  Mayak  plant  was  one  of  the  largest  producers  of  weapons-grade  plutonium  for  the  Soviet  Union  during  much 
of  the  Cold  War,  particularly  during  the  Soviet  atomic  bomb  program.  Built  and  operated  with  great  haste  and 
disregard  for  safety,  between  1945  and  1957  the  plant  dumped  and  released  large  amounts  of  solid,  liquid  and 
gaseous  radioactive  material  into  the  area  immediately  around  the  plant.  Over  time,  the  sum  of  radionuclide 
contamination  is  estimated  to  2-3  times  the  release  from  the  explosions  from  the  Chernobyl  accident.  In  1957,  the 
Mayak  plant  was  the  site  of  a  major  disaster, among  all  the  other  such  accidents,  releasing  more  radioactive 
contamination  than  Chernobyl,  again.  An  improperly  stored  underground  tank  of  high-level  liquid  nuclear  waste 
exploded,  contaminating  thousands  of  square  kilometres  of  territory,  now  known  as  the  Eastern  Ural  Radioactive 
Trace  (EURT).  The  matter  was  quietly  and  secretly  covered  up,  and  few  either  inside  or  outside  Russia  were  aware 
of  the  full  scope  of  the  disaster  until  1980.  The  Chelyabinsk  region  has  been  reported  as  being  one  of  the  most 
polluted  places  on  Earth,  having  previously  been  a  center  of  production  of  weapons-grade  plutonium. 

1950's 

During  the  1950s,  the  mushroom  clouds  from  atmospheric  tests  could  be  seen  for  almost  100  mi  (160  km).  The  city 
of  Las  Vegas  experienced  noticeable  seismic  effects,  and  the  distant  mushroom  clouds,  which  could  be  seen  from 
the  downtown  hotels,  became  tourist  attractions.  St.  George,  Utah,  received  the  brunt  of  the  fallout  of  above¬ 
ground  nuclear  testing  in  the  Yucca  Flats/Nevada  Test  Site.  Winds  routinely  carried  the  fallout  of  these  tests 
directly  through  St.  George  and  southern  Utah.  Marked  increases  in  cancers,  such  as  leukemia,  lymphoma,  thyroid 
cancer,  breast  cancer,  melanoma,  bone  cancer,  brain  tumors,  and  gastrointestinal  tract  cancers,  were  reported  from 
the  mid-1950s  through  1980. 

December  1952  NRX  AECL  Chalk  River  Laboratories,  Chalk  River,  Ontario,  Canada.  Partial  meltdown,  about  10,000  Curies 

released.  Approximately  1202  people  were  involved  in  the  two  year  cleanup.  President  Jimmy  Carter  was  one  of 
the  many  people  that  helped  clean  up  the  accident. 


March  1954 

The  Castle  Bravo  nuclear  test  far  exceeded  expectations,  causing  widespread  radioactive  contamination.  It  spread 
considerable  nuclear  fallout  on  many  of  the  islands,  including  several  which  were  inhabited,  and  some  that  had  not 
been  evacuated.  The  fallout  also  spread  traces  of  radioactive  material  as  far  as  Australia,  India  and  Japan,  and  even 
the  United  States  and  parts  of  Europe. 

September  1957 

A  plutonium  fire  occurred  at  the  Rocky  Flats  Plant,  which  resulted  in  the  contamination  of  Building  71  and  the 
release  of  plutonium  into  the  atmosphere. 

September  1957 

Kyshtym  disaster:  Nuclear  waste  storage  tank  explosion  at  Chelyabinsk,  Russia.200+  fatalities,  believed  to  be  a 
conservative  estimate;  270,000  people  were  exposed  to  dangerous  radiation  levels.  Over  thirty  small  communities 
were  removed  from  Soviet  maps  between  1958  and  1991. 

October  1957 

Windscale  fire,  UK.  Fire  ignites  plutonium  piles  and  contaminates  surrounding  dairy  farms. 

1959 

In  1959  the  US  Navy  removed  a  nuclear  reactor  from  the  submarine  USS  Seawolf  (SSN  575)  and  replaced  it  with  a 
new  type.  The  removed  reactor  was  scuttled  in  the  Atlantic  Ocean,  200  km  east  of  Delaware,  at  a  depth  of  2,700  m. 
In  1972,  the  London  Dumping  Convention  restricted  ocean  disposal  of  radioactive  waste  and  in  1993,  ocean 
disposal  of  radioactive  waste  was  completely  banned.  The  US  Navy  began  a  study  on  scrapping  nuclear 
submarines;  two  years  later  shallow  land  burial  of  reactor  compartments  was  selected  as  the  most  suitable  option. 

1957-1964 

Rocketdyne  located  at  the  Santa  Susanna  Field  Lab,  30  miles  north  of  Los  Angeles,  California  operated  ten 
experimental  nuclear  reactors.  Numerous  accidents  occurred  including  a  core  meltdown.  Experimental  reactors  of 
that  era  were  not  required  to  have  the  same  type  of  containment  structures  that  shield  modem  nuclear  reactors. 
During  the  Cold  War  time  in  which  the  accidents  that  occurred  at  Rockedyne,  these  events  were  not  publicly 
reported  by  the  Department  of  Energy. 

1963 

The  second  USS  Thresher  (SSN-593)  was  the  lead  boat  of  her  class  of  nuclear-powered  attack  submarines  in  the 
United  States  Navy.  She  was  the  U.S.  Navy's  second  submarine  to  be  named  after  the  thresher  shark.  On  10  April 
1963,  Thresher  sank  during  deep-diving  tests  about  220  miles  (350  km)  east  of  Boston,  Massachusetts,  killing  all 

129  crew  and  shipyard  personnel  aboard.  Her  loss  was  a  watershed  for  the  U.S.  Navy,  leading  to  the 
implementation  of  a  rigorous  submarine  safety  program  known  as  SUBSAFE.  The  first  nuclear  submarine  lost  at 
sea,  Thresher  was  also  the  first  of  only  two  submarines  that  killed  more  than  100  people  aboard;  the  other  was  the 
Russian  Kursk,  which  sank  with  118  aboard  in  2000.  The  U.S.  Navy  has  periodically  monitored  the  environmental 
conditions  of  the  site  since  the  sinking  and  has  reported  the  results  in  an  annual  public  report  on  environmental 
monitoring  for  U.S.  Naval  nuclear-powered  craft.  These  reports  provide  specifics  on  the  environmental  sampling  of 
sediment,  water,  and  marine  life  which  was  done  to  ascertain  whether  Thresher's  nuclear  reactor  has  had  a 
significant  effect  on  the  deep  ocean  environment.  The  reports  also  explain  the  methodology  for  conducting  deep- 
sea  monitoring  from  both  surface  vessels  and  submersibles.  The  monitoring  data  confirm  that  there  has  been  no 
significant  effect  on  the  environment.  Nuclear  fuel  in  the  submarine  remains  intact. 

1965 

Philippine  Sea  A-4  crash,  where  a  Skyhawk  attack  aircraft  with  a  nuclear  weapon  fell  into  the  sea.  The  pilot,  the 
aircraft,  and  the  B43  nuclear 

bomb  were  never  recovered.  It  was  not  until  the  1980s  that  the  Pentagon  revealed  the  loss  of  the  onemegaton 
bomb. 

January  1966 

The  1966  Palomares  B-52  crash  occurred  when  a  B-52G  bomber  of  the  USAF  collided  with  a  KC-135  tanker 
during  mid-air  refueling  off  the  coast  of  Spain.  The  KC-135  was  completely  destroyed  when  its  fuel  load  ignited, 
killing  all  four  crew  members.  The  B-52G  broke  apart,  killing  three  of  the  seven  crew  members  aboard.  Of  the  four 
Mk28  type  hydrogen  bombs  the  B-52G  carried,  three  were  found  on  land  near  Almeria,  Spain.  The  non-nuclear 
explosive  in  two  of  the  weapons  detonated  upon  impact  with  the  ground,  resulting  in  the  contamination  of  a  2- 
square-kilometer  (490-acre)  (0.78  square  mile)  area  by  radioactive  plutonium.  The  fourth,  which  fell  into  the 
Mediterranean  Sea,  was  recovered  intact  after  a  2 Vi-month-long  search. 

January  1968 

The  1968  Thule  Air  Base  B-52  crash  involved  a  United  States  Air  Force  (USAF)  B-52  bomber.  The  aircraft  was 
carrying  four  hydrogen  bombs  when  a  cabin  fire  forced  the  crew  to  abandon  the  aircraft.  Six  crew  members  ejected 
safely,  but  one  who  did  not  have  an  ejection  seat  was  killed  while  trying  to  bail  out.  The  bomber  crashed  onto  sea 
ice  in  Greenland,  causing  the  nuclear  payload  to  rupture  and  disperse,  which  resulted  in  widespread  radioactive 
contamination. 

January  1969 

Lucens  reactor  in  Switzerland  undergoes  partial  core  meltdown  leading  to  massive  radioactive  contamination  of  a 
cavern. 

May  1968 

USS  Scorpion  (SSN-589)  was  a  Skipjack-class  nuclear  submarine  of  the  United  States  Navy  and  the  sixth  vessel  of 
the  U.S.  Navy  to  carry  that  name.  Scorpion  was  lost  on  22  May  1968,  with  99  crewmen  dying  in  the  incident.  USS 
Scorpion  is  one  of  two  nuclear  submarines  the  U.S.  Navy  has  lost,  the  other  being  USS  Thresher.  It  was  one  of  four 
mysterious  submarine  disappearances  in  1968,  the  others  being  the  Israeli  submarine  INS  Dakar,  the  French 
submarine  Minerve  and  the  Soviet  submarine  K-129. 

Today,  the  wreck  of  Scorpion  is  reported  to  be  resting  on  a  sandy  seabed  at  the  bottom  of  the  Atlantic  Ocean  in 

approximately  3,000  m  (9,800  ft)  of  water.  The  site  is  reported  to  be  approximately  400  nmi  (740  km)  southwest  of 
the  Azores,  on  the  eastern  edge  of  the  Sargasso  Sea.  The  actual  position  is  32°54.9rN  33°08.89'W.[21]  The  U.S. 
Navy  has  acknowledged  that  it  periodically  visits  the  site  to  conduct  testing  for  the  release  of  nuclear  materials 
from  the  nuclear  reactor  or  the  two  nuclear  weapons  aboard  her,  and  to  detennine  whether  the  wreckage  has  been 
disturbed.  The  Navy  has  not  released  any  information  about  the  status  of  the  wreckage,  except  for  a  few 
photographs  taken  of  the  wreckage  in  1968,  and  again  in  1985  by  deep  water  submersibles. 

The  Navy  has  also  released  infonnation  about  the  nuclear  testing  performed  in  and  around  the  Scorpion  site.  The 
Navy  reports  no  significant  release  of  nuclear  material  from  the  sub.  The  U.S.  Navy  has  periodically  monitored  the 
environmental  conditions  of  the  site  since  the  sinking  and  has  reported  the  results  in  an  annual  public  report  on 
environmental  monitoring  for  U.S.  nuclear-powered  ships  and  boats.  The  reports  provide  specifics  on  the 
environmental  sampling  of  sediment,  water,  and  marine  life  that  is  done  to  ascertain  whether  the  submarine  has 
significantly  affected  the  deep-ocean  environment.  The  reports  also  explain  the  methodology  for  conducting  this 
deep  sea  monitoring  from  both  surface  vessels  and  submersibles.  The  monitoring  data  confirm  that  there  has  been 
no  significant  effect  on  the  environment.  The  nuclear  fuel  aboard  the  submarine  remains  intact  and  no  uranium  in 
excess  of  levels  expected  from  the  fallout  from  past  atmospheric  testing  of  nuclear  weapons  has  been  detected  by 
the  Navy's  inspections.  In  addition,  Scorpion  carried  two  nuclear-tipped  Mark  45  anti-submarine  torpedoes 
(ASTOR)  when  she  was  lost.  The  warheads  of  these  torpedoes  are  part  of  the  environmental  concern.  The  most 
likely  scenario  is  that  the  plutonium  and  uranium  cores  of  these  weapons  corroded  to  a  heavy,  insoluble  material 
soon  after  the  sinking,  and  they  remain  at  or  close  to  their  original  location  inside  the  torpedo  room  of  the  boat.  If 
the  corroded  materials  were  released  outside  the  submarine,  their  density  and  insolubility  would  cause  them  to 
settle  into  the  sediment. 

April  1970 

During  the  large-scale  "Ocean-70"  naval  exercise,  K-8  suffered  fires  in  two  compartments  simultaneously  on  8 

April  1970.  Due  to  short  circuits  that  took  place  in  III  and  VII  compartments  simultaneously  at  a  depth  of  120 
metres  (390  ft),  a  fire  spread  through  the  air-conditioning  system.  Both  nuclear  reactors  were  shut  down.  The 
captain  ordered  his  entire  crew  to  abandon  ship  but  was  countermanded  once  a  towing  vessel  arrived.  Fifty-two 
crewmen,  including  the  commander,  Captain  2nd  Rank  Vsevolod  Borisovich  Bessonov,  re-boarded  the  surfaced 
submarine  that  was  to  be  towed.  This  was  the  first  loss  of  a  Soviet  nuclear-powered  submarine,  which  sank  in 
rough  seas  as  it  was  being  towed  in  the  Bay  of  Biscay  of  the  North  Atlantic  Ocean.  Eight  mariners  had  already  died 
due  to  certain  compartments  being  locked  to  prevent  further  flooding  as  well  as  the  spread  of  the  fire  as  soon  as  it 
was  detected.  All  hands  on  board  died  due  to  CO2  poisoning  and  the  flooding  of  the  surfaced  submarine  during  80 
hours  of  damage  control  in  stonny  conditions.  73  crewmen  survived.  K-8  sank  with  four  nuclear  torpedoes  out  of 
total  24  on  board  to  a  depth  of  4,680  metres  (15,350  ft)  approximately  490  kilometres  (260  nmi)  northwest  of 

Spain. 

July  1979 

Church  Rock  Uranium  Mill  Spill  in  New  Mexico,  USA,  when  United  Nuclear  Corporation’s  uranium  mill  tailings 
disposal  pond  breached  its  dam.  Over  1,000  tons  of  radioactive  mill  waste  and  millions  of  gallons  of  mine  effluent 
flowed  into  the  Puerco  River,  and  contaminants  traveled  downstream. 

March  1979 

Three  Mile  Island  accident  in  Pennsylvania,  United  States  exposed  2  million  people  near  the  plant  to  low  doses  of 
radiation,  it  was  also  discovered  later  that  not  only  those  who  lived  close  by  were  affected,  but  Three  Mile  Island 
operators  ordered  the  dumping  of  radioactive  water  into  the  Susquehanna  River,  thus  impacting  those  downstream. 
Disease  rates  in  areas  further  than  10  miles  from  the  plant  were  never  examined  by  the  government,  but 
epidemiologist  Joseph  Mangano  reported  a  spike  in  infant  mortality  in  the  downwind  communities  two  years  after 
the  accident.  Anecdotal  evidence  also  records  effects  on  the  region’s  wildlife.  For  example,  according  to  one  anti¬ 
nuclear  activist,  Haivey  Wasserman,  the  fallout  caused  “a  plague  of  death  and  disease  among  the  area’s  wild 
animals  and  farm  livestock”,  including  a  sharp  fall  in  the  reproductive  rate  of  the  region’s  horses  and  cows, 
reflected  in  statistics  from  Pennsylvania’s  Department  of  Agriculture,  though  the  Department  denies  a  link  with 

TMI.  Cleanup  started  in  August  1979,  and  officially  ended  in  December  1993.  Starting  in  1985,  almost  100  short 
tons  of  radioactive  fuel  were  removed  from  the  site.  The  first  major  phase  of  the  cleanup  was  completed  in  1990, 
when  workers  finished  shipping  150  short  tons  of  radioactive  wreckage  to  Idaho  for  storage  at  the  Department  of 
Energy’s  National  Engineering  Laboratory.  However,  the  contaminated  cooling  water  that  leaked  into  the 
containment  building  had  seeped  into  the  building’s  concrete,  leaving  the  radioactive  residue  impractical  to 
remove.  In  1988,  the  Nuclear  Regulatory  Commission  announced  that,  although  it  was  possible  to  further 
decontaminate  the  Unit  2  site,  the  remaining  radioactivity  had  been  sufficiently  contained  as  to  pose  no  threat  to 
public  health  and  safety.  Accordingly,  further  cleanup  efforts  were  deferred  to  allow  for  decay  of  the  radiation 
levels  and  to  take  advantage  of  the  potential  economic  benefits  of  retiring  both  Unit  1  and  Unit  2  together. 

Although  the  citizens  of  the  three  counties  surrounding  the  site  voted  by  a  margin  of  3: 1  to  retire  Unit  1  and  close 
the  plant  permanently,  it  was  pennitted  to  resume  operations  in  1985.  In  2009,  the  NRC  granted  a  license  extension 
which  allows  the  TMI-1  reactor  to  operate  until  April  19,  2034.  Ironically  the  accident  at  the  plant  occurred  twelve 
days  after  the  release  of  the  movie  The  China  Syndrome  staring  Jane  Fonda,  Michael  Douglas,  and  Jack  Lemmon. 

1981 

K-27  was  officially  decommissioned  on  1  February  1979  and  its  reactor  compartment  was  filled  with  a  special 
solidifying  mixture  of  furfuryl  alcohol  and  bitumen  during  the  summer  of  1981  to  seal  the  compartment  to  avoid 
pollution  of  the  ocean  with  radioactive  products.  This  work  was  performed  by  the  Severodvinsk  shipyard  No.  893 

"Zvezdochka". 

Then  K-27  was  towed  to  a  special  training  area  in  the  eastern  Kara  Sea,  and  it  was  scuttled  there  on  6  September 
1982  near  the  location  72031'28"N.,  55°30'09"E.  off  the  northeastern  coast  ofNovaya  Zemlya  (at  Stepovoy  Bay), 
in  a  fjord  at  a  depth  of  just  33  meters  (108  feet).  It  was  necessary  for  a  naval  salvage  tug  to  ram  the  stem  of  K-27  to 
pierce  its  aft  ballast  tanks  and  sink  it,  because  K-27's  bow  had  impacted  the  seafloor  while  its  stem  was  still  afloat. 
This  scuttling  was  performed  contrary  to  the  International  Atomic  Energy  Agency's  requirement  that  nuclear- 
powered  submarines  and  surface  ships  must  be  scuttled  at  depths  not  less  than  3,000  meters. 

The  last  scientific  expedition  of  the  "Russian  Ministry  of  Emergencies"  to  the  Kara  Sea  examined  the  site  of  the 
scuttling  in  September  2006.  Numerous  samples  of  the  seawater,  the  seafloor,  and  the  sealife  were  gathered  and 
then  analyzed.  The  final  report  stated  that  the  radiation  levels  of  the  area  were  stable.  Lessons  in  nuclear  submarine 
construction  and  safety  learned  from  Projekt  645  were  applied  in  Projects  705  and  705K  -  that  produced  the  Soviet 
Alfa  class  submarines.  These  were  equipped  with  similar  liquid-metal-cooled  reactors. 

In  September  2012  it  was  reported  that  the  submarine  needed  to  be  lifted  from  its  shallow  bed  in  the  Kara  Sea.  The 
vessel  was  said  to  be  a  "nuclear  time  bomb",  and  that  the  rusting  and  decaying  vessel  may  be  reaching  a  critical 
level  leading  to  an  "uncontrolled  chain  reaction".  Although  a  joint  Russian  and  Norwegian  mission  in  2012  did  not 
find  alarming  levels  of  radioactivity  in  the  water  and  soil  surrounding  the  submarine,  an  urgent  consideration 
pertains  to  the  dismantling  of  the  nuclear  reactors  should  the  submarine  be  raised.  Because  the  reactors  were  cooled 
by  liquid  metals,  the  nuclear  rods  became  fused  with  the  coolant  when  the  reactors  were  stopped  and  conventional 
methods  cannot  be  used  for  disassembling  the  reactors.  However,  France's  Commissariat  a  l'energie  atomique  et 
aux  energies  alternatives  designed  and  donated  special  equipment  for  a  dedicated  dry-dock  (SD-10)  in  Gremikha, 
which  was  used  to  dismantle  the  Alfa-class  submarines  that  shared  this  design  feature.  However,  since  the  last  Alfa 
reactor  was  dismantled  in  20 1 1 ,  this  equipment  is  at  risk.  In  2017,  plans  were  again  mooted  to  raise  the  submarine, 
by  2022.  The  Krylov  State  Research  Center  of  St  Petersburg  announced  that  it  was  working  on  plans  for  a 
catamaran  floating  dock,  capable  of  such  heavy  lifts  from  the  seabed. 

1984 

Fernald  Feed  Materials  Production  Center  gained  notoriety  when  it  was  learned  that  the  plant  was  releasing 
millions  of  pounds  of  uranium  dust  into  the  atmosphere,  causing  major  radioactive  contamination  of  the 
surrounding  areas. 

1986 

On  Friday  3  October  1986,  while  on  an  otherwise  routine  Cold  War  nuclear  deterrence  patrol  in  the  North  Atlantic 
680  miles  (1,090  km)  northeast  of  Bermuda,  the  15-year-old  K-219  Russian  submarine  suffered  an  explosion  and 
fire  in  a  missile  tube.  The  seal  in  a  missile  hatch  cover  failed,  allowing  saltwater  to  leak  into  the  missile  tube  and 
react  with  residue  from  the  missile's  liquid  fuel.  Though  there  was  no  official  announcement,  a  published  source 
(citing  no  sources)  said  the  Soviet  Union  claimed  that  the  leak  was  caused  by  a  collision  with  the  submarine  USS 
Augusta.  Augusta  was  certainly  operating  in  proximity,  but  both  the  United  States  Navy  and  the  commander  of  K- 
219,  Captain  Second  Rank  Igor  Britanov,  deny  that  a  collision  took  place.  K-219  had  previously  experienced  a 
similar  casualty;  one  of  her  missile  tubes  was  already  disabled  and  welded  shut,  having  been  permanently  sealed 
after  an  explosion  caused  by  reaction  between  seawater  leaking  into  the  silo  and  missile  fuel  residue. 

Shortly  after  0530  Moscow  time,  seawater  leaking  into  silo  six  of  K-219  reacted  with  missile  fuel,  producing 
chlorine  and  nitrogen  dioxide  gases  and  sufficient  heat  to  explosively  decompose  additional  fuming  nitric  acid  to 
produce  more  nitrogen  dioxide  gas.  K-219  weapons  officer  Alexander  Petrachkov  attempted  to  cope  with  this  by 
disengaging  the  hatch  cover  and  venting  the  missile  tube  to  the  sea.  Shortly  after  0532,  an  explosion  occurred  in 
silo  six.  The  remains  of  the  RSM-25  rocket  and  its  two  warheads  were  ejected  from  silo  six  into  the  sea. 

An  article  in  Undersea  warfare  by  Captain  First  Rank  (Ret.)  Igor  Kurdin,  Russian  Navy  -  K-219's  XO  (executive 
officer)  at  the  time  of  the  incident  -  and  Lieutenant  Commander  Wayne  Grasdock,  USN  described  the  explosion 
occurrence  as  follows: 

At  0514,  the  BCh-2  officer  and  the  hold  machinist/engineer  in  compartment  IV  (the  forward  missile  compartment) 
discovered  water  dripping  from  under  the  plug  of  missile  tube  No.  6  (the  third  tube  from  the  bow  on  the  port  side). 
During  precompression  of  the  plug,  the  drips  turned  into  a  stream.  The  BCh-2  officer  reported  water  in  missile  tube 
No.  6,  and  at  0525,  the  captain  ordered  an  ascent  to  a  safe  depth  (46  meters)  while  a  pump  was  started  in  an  attempt 
to  dry  out  missile  tube  No.  6.  At  0532,  brown  clouds  of  oxidant  began  issuing  from  under  the  missile-tube  plug, 
and  the  BCh-2  officer  declared  an  accident  alert  in  the  compartment  and  reported  the  situation  to  the  GKP  (main 
control  post).  Although  personnel  assigned  to  other  compartments  left  the  space,  nine  people  remained  in 
compartment  IV.  The  captain  declared  an  accident  alert.  It  took  the  crew  no  more  than  one  minute  to  carry  out 
initial  damage  control  measures,  which  included  hermetically  sealing  all  compartments.  Five  minutes  later,  at 

0538,  an  explosion  occurred  in  missile  tube  No.  6.  Lieutenant  Commander  Wayne  Grasdock,  USN 

Two  sailors  were  killed  outright  in  the  explosion,  and  a  third  died  soon  afterward  from  toxic  gas  poisoning. 

Through  a  breach  in  the  hull,  the  vessel  immediately  started  taking  on  sea  water,  quickly  sinking  from  its  original 

depth  of  40  metres  (130  ft)  to  eventually  reach  a  depth  in  excess  of  300  metres  (980  ft).  Sealing  of  all  of  the 
compartments  and  full  engagement  of  the  sea  water  pumps  in  the  stricken  compartments  enabled  the  depth  to  be 
stabilised. 

25  sailors  were  trapped  in  a  sealed  section,  and  it  was  only  after  a  conference  with  his  incident  specialists  that  the 
Captain  allowed  the  Chief  Engineer  to  open  the  hatch  and  save  the  25  lives.  It  could  be  seen  from  instruments  that 
although  the  nuclear  reactor  should  have  automatically  shut  down,  it  was  not.  Twenty-year-old  enlisted  seaman 
Sergei  Preminin  volunteered  to  shut  down  the  reactor,  to  be  enabled  by  operating  under  instruction  from  the  Chief 
Engineer.  Working  with  a  full-face  gas  mask,  he  successfully  shut  down  the  reactor.  A  large  fire  had  developed 
within  the  compartment,  raising  the  pressure.  When  Preminin  tried  to  reach  his  comrades  on  the  other  side  of  a 
door,  the  pressure  difference  prevented  him  from  opening  it,  and  he  subsequently  died  of  asphyxiation  in  the 
reactor  compartment. 

In  a  nuclear  safe  condition,  and  with  sufficient  stability  to  allow  it  to  surface,  Captain  Britanov  surfaced  K-219  on 
battery  power  alone.  He  was  then  ordered  to  have  the  ship  towed  by  a  Soviet  freighter  back  to  her  home  port  of 
Gadzhievo,  7,000  kilometres  (4,300  mi)  away.  Although  a  towline  was  attached,  towing  attempts  were 
unsuccessful,  and  after  subsequent  poison  gas  leaks  into  the  final  aft  compartments  and  against  orders,  Britanov 
ordered  the  crew  to  evacuate  onto  the  towing  ship,  but  remained  aboard  K-219  himself. 

Displeased  with  Britanov's  inability  to  repair  his  submarine  and  continue  his  patrol,  Moscow  ordered  Valery 
Pshenichny,  K-219’s  security  officer,  to  assume  command,  transfer  the  surviving  crew  back  to  the  submarine,  and 
return  to  duty.  Before  those  orders  could  be  carried  out  the  flooding  reached  a  point  beyond  recovery  and  on  6 
October  1986  the  K-219  sank  to  the  bottom  of  the  Hatteras  Abyssal  Plain[10][ll]  at  a  depth  of  about  6,000  m 
(18,000  ft).  Britanov  abandoned  ship  shortly  before  the  sinking.  K-219's  full  complement  of  nuclear  weapons  was 
lost  along  with  the  vessel. 

April  1986 

Chernobyl  disaster  which  occurred  in  1986  in  Ukraine.  The  accident  killed  3 1  people  directly  and  damaged 
approximately  $7  billion  of  property.  A  study  published  in  2005  estimates  that  there  will  eventually  be  up  to  4,000 
additional  cancer  deaths  related  to  the  accident  among  those  exposed  to  significant  radiation  levels.  Radioactive 
fallout  from  the  accident  was  concentrated  in  areas  of  Belarus,  Ukraine  and  Russia.